Shanghai, China
Shanghai, China

Tongji University , colloquially known as Tongji , located in Shanghai, has more than 50,000 students and 8,000 staff members . It offers degree programs at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Established in 1907 by the German government together with German physicians in Shanghai, Tongji is one of the oldest and most prestigious universities in China. Among its various departments it is especially highly ranked in engineering, among which its architecture, urban planning and civil engineering departments have consistently ranked first in China for decades, and its automotive engineering, oceanography, environmental science, software engineering, German language departments are also ones of the best domestically. Wikipedia.


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Patent
Tongji University | Date: 2016-11-29

To provide a modified forward osmosis (FO) membrane module for flow regime improvement, the FO membrane module includes but not limited to: a water inlet; a water outlet; a forward osmosis (FO) membrane; a frame; and folded plates for improving flow regime in which draw solution is introduced into the water inlet of membrane module, then flowed through flow channels composed by three opposite folded plates vertically arranged on upper and bottom portions of the frame alternatively along horizontal direction with equal space; and drawn out from the water outlet. The flow regime improvement is achieved by increasing number of flow-guide folded plate, which results in the decrease of internal concentration polarization and membrane fouling. Structure of frame is modified to improve flow regime and to satisfy requirement of convenient and reliable connections between numbers of membrane modules in the FO membrane system.


This present disclosure relates to a highly effective sewage treatment based on regulation and control of directed electron flow and apparatus thereof The apparatus includes an anaerobic fermentation electron generation chamber, a heterotrophic-autotrophic denitrification chamber and an aerobic membrane separation chamber. Low concentrated organic sewage is introduced into anaerobic fermentation electron generation chamber; then, particulate and partly dissolved organic substances are intercepted and absorbed by carrier materials; and extracellular currents generated by microorganism reaction are used in following autotrophic denitrification processing. Micro-/ultra-membrane separation processing is used to improve operation load and solid-liquid separation effect of sewage treatment and thereby effluent could meet the high recycling standards. The directed electron flow is regulated and controlled to enhance nutrients removal and to reduce sludge yield and fouling rate of membrane. The sewage treatment could efficiently treat low concentrated organic sewage at normal temperature (>15 C.) and dramatically decrease energy consumption.


The present invention relates to pharmaceutical and medical technologies, and more particularly to novel nanobodies against pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) and their preparation methods. The nanobodies of the present invention comprises an amino acid sequence having certain formula. The present invention also relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding the nanobodies, their preparation method and their applications. Immunohistochemistry and in vivo imaging show that the nanobodies of the present inventions have high lung-targeting specificity.


Patent
Tongji University and ZTE Corporation | Date: 2015-02-16

Provided are methods and devices for coding or decoding an image. The coding method includes that: one coding manner is selected for predictive or matching coding of a current CU, according to characteristics of pixel samples of the current CU and an adjacent CU of the current CU, from A predetermined predictive coding manners and matching coding manners including at least one predictive coding manner with different prediction characteristics and matching coding manners with mutually different matching characteristics, and the selected coding manner is determined as an optimal coding manner, wherein the A predictive coding manners and matching coding manners include: a predictive coding manner, matching coding manner 1, matching coding manner 2, . . . and matching coding manner A-1, and A is an integer more than or equal to 2; and predictive coding or matching coding is performed on the current CU by adopting the optimal coding manner.


Mei X.,National University of Singapore | Zheng H.,National University of Singapore | Zheng H.,Tongji University | Ouyang J.,National University of Singapore
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2012

Graphene has been attracting strong attention due to its interesting structure and properties and important applications in many areas. The process of the oxidation of graphite into graphene oxide (GO) and the subsequent reduction of GO into graphene is regarded as an effective process to produce graphene on a large scale. The quality of the reduced GO is strongly dependent on the reduction method. This paper reports the reduction of GO with Zn powder in neutral and alkaline aqueous solutions at room temperature. The reducing capability of Zn powder can be significantly improved through the complex formation of Zn 2+ with other species in solution, which greatly lowers the Zn 2+ concentration. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) can form an Zn-EDTA 2- complex with Zn 2+ and it is used for the reduction of GO by Zn in a neutral solution. The complex formation gives rise to quite low Zn 2+ concentrations in solution. This effectively lowers the reduction potential of Zn/Zn 2+ and enables the reduction of GO in neutral solutions. GO can be effectively reduced by Zn powder in alkaline solutions without EDTA as well. This is attributed to the complex formation of Zn 2+ with OH -, where Zn 2+ + 4OH -→ Zn(OH) 4 2-. The reduced GO produced by these methods has high quality. Their C/O ratios for products obtained through GO reductions in neutral and alkaline solutions are 33.0 and 31.2 and their conductivities are 142 and 135 S cm -1, respectively. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Chen J.,National University of Singapore | Zhang G.,Peking University | Li B.,National University of Singapore | Li B.,Tongji University
Nanoscale | Year: 2013

Thermal conductivity κ of both suspended and supported graphene has been studied by using molecular dynamics simulations. An obvious length dependence is observed in κ of suspended single-layer graphene (SLG), while κ of supported SLG is insensitive to the length. The simulation result of room temperature κ of supported SLG is in good agreement with the experimental value. In contrast to the decrease in κ induced by inter-layer interaction in suspended few-layer graphene (FLG), κ of supported FLG is found to increase rapidly with the layer thickness, reaching about 90% of that of bulk graphite at six layers, and eventually saturates at the thickness of 13.4 nm. More interestingly, unlike the remarkable substrate dependent κ in SLG, the effect of substrate on thermal transport is much weaker in FLG. The underlying physics is investigated and presented. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Zheng H.,National University of Singapore | Zheng H.,Tongji University | Neo C.Y.,National University of Singapore | Ouyang J.,National University of Singapore
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2013

To increase the open-circuit voltage (Voc) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), it is crucial to enhance the photovoltaic efficiency of DSCs. Here, we report an effective method to significantly improve the V oc and photovoltaic efficiency of DSCs by using gel-coated composites of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as the counter electrode. Gel-coated rGO-SWCNT composites outperform Pt, rGO and SWCNTs in catalyzing the reduction of I3 - and functioning as the counter electrode of DSCs. The Voc and power conversion efficiency (PCE) are 0.86 V and 8.37% for fresh DSCs with the composite of 80 wt % rGO and 20 wt % SWCNTs, significantly higher than those (Voc = 0.77 V, PCE = 7.79%) of control DSCs with Pt fabricated by pyrolysis as the counter electrode. The Voc value of DSCs with rGO-SWCNT composites as the counter electrode further increases to 0.90 V after one week. The high Voc and PCE are ascribed to the synergetic effects of rGO and SWCNTs in reducing the overpotential of the I3 - reduction. RGO with high specific surface area can have high electrocatalytic activity, whereas SWCNTs give rise to high conductivity for the composites and facilitate the penetration of the redox species into rGO sheets by preventing the agglomeration of the rGO sheets. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report iodide/triiodide DSCs with both high Voc and PCE. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Han T.,National University of Singapore | Bai X.,National University of Singapore | Thong J.T.L.,National University of Singapore | Li B.,National University of Singapore | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2014

Thermal camouflage and cloaking can transform an actual heat signature into a pre-controlled one. A viable recipe for controlling and manipulating heat signatures using thermal metamaterials to empower cloaking and camouflage in heat conduction is demonstrated. The thermal signature of the object is thus metamorphosed and perceived as multiple targets with different geometries and compositions, with the original object cloaked. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


He L.,University of California at Riverside | Wang M.,University of California at Riverside | Ge J.,University of California at Riverside | Ge J.,Tongji University | Yin Y.,University of California at Riverside
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2012

Responsive photonic structures can respond to external stimuli by transmitting optical signals. Because of their important technological applications such as color signage and displays, biological and chemical sensors, security devices, ink and paints, military camouflage, and various optoelectronic devices, researchers have focused on developing these functional materials. Conventionally, self-assembled colloidal crystals containing periodically arranged dielectric materials have served as the predominant starting frameworks. Stimulus-responsive materials are incorporated into the periodic structures either as the initial building blocks or as the surrounding matrix so that the photonic properties can be tuned. Although researchers have proposed various versions of responsive photonic structures, the low efficiency of fabrication through self-assembly, narrow tunability, slow responses to the external stimuli, incomplete reversibility, and the challenge of integrating them into existing photonic devices have limited their practical application.In this Account, we describe how magnetic fields can guide the assembly of superparamagnetic colloidal building blocks into periodically arranged particle arrays and how the photonic properties of the resulting structures can be reversibly tuned by manipulating the external magnetic fields. The application of the external magnetic field instantly induces a strong magnetic dipole-dipole interparticle attraction within the dispersion of superparamagnetic particles, which creates one-dimensional chains that each contains a string of particles. The balance between the magnetic attraction and the interparticle repulsions, such as the electrostatic force, defines the interparticle separation. By employing uniform superparamagnetic particles of appropriate sizes and surface charges, we can create one-dimensional periodicity, which leads to strong optical diffraction. Acting remotely over a large distance, magnetic forces drove the rapid formation of colloidal photonic arrays with a wide range of interparticle spacing. They also allowed instant tuning of the photonic properties because they manipulated the interparticle force balance, which changed the orientation of the colloidal assemblies or their periodicity.This magnetically responsive photonic system provides a new platform for chromatic applications: these colloidal particles assemble instantly into ordered arrays with widely, rapidly, and reversibly tunable structural colors, which can be easily and rapidly fixed in a curable polymer matrix. Based on these unique features, we demonstrated many applications of this system, such as structural color printing, the fabrication of anticounterfeiting devices, switchable signage, and field-responsive color displays. We also extended this idea to rapidly organize uniform nonmagnetic building blocks into photonic structures. Using a stable ferrofluid of highly charged magnetic nanoparticles, we created virtual magnetic moments inside the nonmagnetic particles. This "magnetic hole" strategy greatly broadens the scope of the magnetic assembly approach to the fabrication of tunable photonic structures from various dielectric materials. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Wang S.,Tongji University | Yu J.,Shanghai University
Computers and Industrial Engineering | Year: 2010

Most production scheduling problems, including the standard flexible job-shop scheduling problem (FJSP), assume that machines are continuously available. However, in most realistic situations, machines may become unavailable during certain periods due to preventive maintenance (PM). In this paper, a flexible job-shop scheduling problem with machine availability constraints is considered. Each machine is subject to preventive maintenance during the planning period and the starting times of maintenance activities are either flexible in a time window or fixed beforehand. Moreover, two cases of maintenance resource constraint are considered: sufficient maintenance resource available or only one maintenance resource available. To deal with this variant FJSP problem with maintenance activities, a filtered beam search (FBS) based heuristic algorithm is proposed. With a modified branching scheme, the machine availability constraint and maintenance resource constraint can be easily incorporated into the proposed algorithm. Simulation experiments are conducted on some representative problems. The results demonstrate that the proposed filtered beam search based heuristic algorithm is a viable and effective approach for the FJSP with maintenance activities. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zou Y.,University of Western Ontario | Zou Y.,Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications | Wang X.,University of Western Ontario | Shen W.,Tongji University | Shen W.,National Research Council Canada
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications | Year: 2013

In this paper, we explore the physical-layer security in cooperative wireless networks with multiple relays where both amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode-and-forward (DF) protocols are considered. We propose the AF and DF based optimal relay selection (i.e., AFbORS and DFbORS) schemes to improve the wireless security against eavesdropping attack. For the purpose of comparison, we examine the traditional AFbORS and DFbORS schemes, denoted by T-AFbORS and T-DFbORS, respectively. We also investigate a so-called multiple relay combining (MRC) framework and present the traditional AF and DF based MRC schemes, called T-AFbMRC and T-DFbMRC, where multiple relays participate in forwarding the source signal to destination which then combines its received signals from the multiple relays. We derive closed-form intercept probability expressions of the proposed AFbORS and DFbORS (i.e., P-AFbORS and P-DFbORS) as well as the T-AFbORS, T-DFbORS, T-AFbMRC and T-DFbMRC schemes in the presence of eavesdropping attack. We further conduct an asymptotic intercept probability analysis to evaluate the diversity order performance of relay selection schemes and show that no matter which relaying protocol is considered (i.e., AF and DF), the traditional and proposed optimal relay selection approaches both achieve the diversity order M where M represents the number of relays. In addition, numerical results show that for both AF and DF protocols, the intercept probability performance of proposed optimal relay selection is strictly better than that of the traditional relay selection and multiple relay combining methods. © 2013 IEEE.


Li X.,Tongji University | Baki M.F.,University of Windsor | Aneja Y.P.,University of Windsor
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2010

In this paper we propose an ant colony optimization metaheuristic (ACO-CF) to solve the machinepart cell formation problem. ACO-CF is a MAXMIN ant system, which is implemented in the hyper-cube framework to automatically scale the objective functions of machinepart cell formation problems. As an intensification strategy, we integrate an iteratively local search into ACO-CF. Based on the assignment of the machines or parts, the local search can optimally reassign parts or machines to cells. We carry out a series of experiments to investigate the performance of ACO-CF on some standard benchmark problems. The comparison study between ACO-CF and other methods proposed in the literature indicates that ACO-CF is one of the best approaches for solving the machinepart cell formation problem. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Xie Q.,Tongji University | Xie Q.,State Key Laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering | Zhu R.,Tongji University
IEEE Power and Energy Magazine | Year: 2011

An Overview is Provided of the Damage to Electric Power grid infrastructure caused by three types of natural disasters that have taken place in the past few years in China: severe windstorms, ice and freezing rain, and earthquakes. Interruptions of electric service caused by these natural disasters have led to devastating economic losses in China and reduced the restoration and reconstruction speed of other related lifeline infrastructures, such as water supply systems and communication systems. The lessons learned from these disasters and their consequences for the Chinese power systems are described, as are actions taken to reduce the impact of such events in the future. © 2006 IEEE.


Zhu L.-L.,Tongji University | Zhao X.-Q.,University of Houston | Jiang C.,University of Houston | You Y.,University of Houston | And 4 more authors.
Immunity | Year: 2013

C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) play critical roles as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) for sensing Candida albicans infection, which can be life-threatening for immunocompromised individuals. Here wehave shown that Dectin-3 (also called CLECSF8, MCL, or Clec4d), a previously uncharacterized CLR,recognized α-mannans on the surfaces of C.albicans hyphae and induced NF-κB activation. Mice with either blockade or genetically deleted Dectin-3 were highly susceptible to C.albicans infection. Dectin-3 constantly formed heterodimers with Dectin-2, a well-characterized CLR, for recognizing C.albicans hyphae. Compared to their respective homodimers, Dectin-3 and Dectin-2 heterodimers bound α-mannans more effectively, leading to potent inflammatory responses against fungal infections. Together, our study demonstrates that Dectin-3 forms a heterodimeric PRR with Dectin-2 for sensing fungal infection and suggests that different CLRs may form different hetero- and homodimers, which provide different sensitivity and diversity for host cells to detect various microbial infections. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Ge J.,University of California at Riverside | Ge J.,Tongji University | Yin Y.,University of California at Riverside
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

This Review summarizes recent developments in the field of responsive photonic crystal structures, including principles for design and fabrication and many strategies for applications, for example as optical switches or chemical and biological sensors. A number of fabrication methods are now available to realize responsive photonic structures, the majority of which rely on self-assembly processes to achieve ordering. Compared with microfabrication techniques, self-assembly approaches have lower processing costs and higher production efficiency, however, major efforts are still needed to further develop such approaches. In fact, some emerging techniques such as spin coating, magnetic assembly, and flow-induced self-assembly have already shown great promise in overcoming current challenges. When designing new systems with improved performance, it is always helpful to bear in mind the lessons learnt from natural photonic structures. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Wu J.,National University of Singapore | Schmidt H.,National University of Singapore | Amara K.K.,National University of Singapore | Xu X.,Tongji University | And 2 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2014

Ultrathin layers of semiconducting molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) offer significant prospects in future electronic and optoelectronic applications. Although an increasing number of experiments bring light into the electronic transport properties of these crystals, their thermoelectric properties are much less known. In particular, thermoelectricity in chemical vapor deposition grown MoS2, which is more practical for wafer-scale applications, still remains unexplored. Here, for the first time, we investigate these properties in grown single layer MoS2. Microfabricated heaters and thermometers are used to measure both electrical conductivity and thermopower. Large values of up to ∼30 mV/K at room temperature are observed, which are much larger than those observed in other two-dimensional crystals and bulk MoS2. The thermopower is strongly dependent on temperature and applied gate voltage with a large enhancement at the vicinity of the conduction band edge. We also show that the Seebeck coefficient follows S ∼ T1/3, suggesting a two-dimensional variable range hopping mechanism in the system, which is consistent with electrical transport measurements. Our results help to understand the physics behind the electrical and thermal transports in MoS2 and the high thermopower value is of interest to future thermoelectronic research and application. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Yang L.,National University of Singapore | Yang N.,Tongji University | Li B.,National University of Singapore | Li B.,Tongji University
Nano Letters | Year: 2014

In this work, we propose a nanoscale three-dimensional (3D) Si phononic crystal (PnC) with spherical pores, which can reduce the thermal conductivity of bulk Si by a factor up to 10,000 times at room temperature. Thermal conductivity of Si PnCs depends on the porosity, for example, the thermal conductivity of Si PnCs with porosity 50% is 300 times smaller than that of bulk Si. The phonon participation ratio spectra demonstrate that more phonons are localized as the porosity increases. The thermal conductivity is insensitive to the temperature changes from room temperature to 1100 K. The extreme-low thermal conductivity could lead to a larger value of ZT than unity as the periodic structure affects very little the electric conductivity. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Zhang Z.,Tongji University | Xia S.,Tongji University
Water Research | Year: 2010

Microbial flocculant (MBF) TJ-F1 with high flocculating activity was investigated to be used as a novel conditioner for the enhanced dewaterability of the waste sludge from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The experimental results showed that TJ-F1 was better than poly(acrylamide [2-(Methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) (P(AM-DMC)), the most commonly used conditioner in China, in improving the dewaterability of the waste sludge in terms of both the specific resistance in filtration (SRF) and the time to filter (TTF). The key parameters influencing the dewaterability of the waste sludge conditioned by TJ-F1, including the system pH, CaCl2 concentration and TJ-F1 concentration, were systematically investigated. The favorite pH for the conditioning process was around the neutral. CaCl2 was found to be a good conditioning aid to TJ-F1. A right dosage of TJ-F1 was decisive for the conditioning process. The optimized conditioning process is that about 0.17% (w/w) TJ-F1 and 1.3% (w/w) CaCl2 are added into the sludge, and then the system pH was adjusted to 7.5. The compound use of TJ-F1 and P(AM-DMC) was also testified to be feasible in improving the dewaterability of the waste sludge. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Shi H.,Tongji University | Shi H.,China National Offshore Oil Corporation | Li C.-F.,Tongji University
International Geology Review | Year: 2012

We have investigated Mesozoic geological problems around the South China Sea (SCS) based on gravimetric, magnetic, seismic, and lithofacies data. Three-dimensional analytical signal amplitudes (ASA) of magnetic anomalies clearly define the inland tectonic boundaries and the residual Mesozoic basins offshore. The ASA suggest that the degree of magmatism and/or the average magnetic susceptibility of igneous rocks increase southeastwards and that late-stage A-type igneous rocks present along the coast of southeast China possess the highest effective susceptibility. The geophysical data define Mesozoic sedimentary and tectonic structures and reveal four major unconformities [Pz/T-J, T-J/J, J/K, and Mesozoic/Cenozoic (Pz, Palaeozic; T, Triassic; J, Jurassic; K, Cretaceous)], corresponding to regional tectonic events revealed by nine palaeogeographic time slices based on prior geological surveys and our new fieldwork. Showing both sedimentary and volcanic facies and regional faults, our palaeogeographic maps confirm an early Mesozoic northwestward-migrating orogeny that gradually obliterated the Tethyan regime, and a middle-to-late Mesozoic southeastward migration and younging in synchronized extension, faulting, and magmatism. Three major phases of marine deposition developed but were subsequently terminated by tectonic compression, uplift, erosion, faulting, rifting, and/or magmatism. The tectonic transition from the Tethyan to Pacific regimes was completed by the end of the Middle Triassic (ca. 220 Ma), reflecting widespread Mesozoic orogeny. The transition from an active to a passive continental margin occurred at the end of the Early Cretaceous (ca. 100 Ma); this was accompanied by significant changes in sedimentary environments, due likely to an eastward retreat of the palaeo-Pacific subduction zone and/or to the collision of the West Philippine block with Eurasia. The overall Mesozoic evolution of southeast China comprised almost an entire cycle of orogenic build-up, peneplanation, and later extension, all under the influence of the subducting palaeo-Pacific plate. Continental margin extension and rifting continued into the early Cenozoic, eventually triggering the Oligocene opening of the SCS. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Yan G.,National University of Singapore | Ren J.,National University of Singapore | Ren J.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Lai Y.-C.,Arizona State University | And 3 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

The outstanding problem of controlling complex networks is relevant to many areas of science and engineering, and has the potential to generate technological breakthroughs as well. We address the physically important issue of the energy required for achieving control by deriving and validating scaling laws for the lower and upper energy bounds. These bounds represent a reasonable estimate of the energy cost associated with control, and provide a step forward from the current research on controllability toward ultimate control of complex networked dynamical systems. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Chen J.,National University of Singapore | Zhang G.,Peking University | Li B.,National University of Singapore | Li B.,Tongji University
Nano Letters | Year: 2012

By using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrated that thermal conductivity of germanium nanowires can be reduced more than 25% at room temperature by atomistic coating. There is a critical coating thickness beyond which thermal conductivity of the coated nanowire is larger than that of the host nanowire. The diameter-dependent critical coating thickness and minimum thermal conductivity are explored. Moreover, we found that interface roughness can induce further reduction of thermal conductivity in coated nanowires. From the vibrational eigenmode analysis, it is found that coating induces localization for low-frequency phonons, while interface roughness localizes the high-frequency phonons. Our results provide an available approach to tune thermal conductivity of nanowires by atomic layer coating. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Han T.,National University of Singapore | Bai X.,National University of Singapore | Gao D.,National University of Singapore | Thong J.T.L.,National University of Singapore | And 3 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

Invisibility has attracted intensive research in various communities, e.g., optics, electromagnetics, acoustics, thermodynamics, dc, etc. However, many experimental demonstrations have only been achieved by virtue of simplified approaches due to the inhomogeneous and extreme parameters imposed by the transformation-optic method, and usually require a challenging realization with metamaterials. In this Letter, we demonstrate a bilayer thermal cloak made of bulk isotropic materials, and it has been validated as an exact cloak. We experimentally verified its ability to maintain the heat front and its heat protection capabilities in a 2D proof-of-concept experiment. The robustness of this scheme is validated in both 2D (including oblique heat front incidence) and 3D configurations. The proposed scheme may open a new avenue to control the diffusive heat flow in ways inconceivable with phonons, and also inspire new alternatives to the functionalities promised by transformation optics. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Bei Y.,Shanghai University | Wang F.,Tongji University | Yang C.,Tongji University | Xiao J.,Shanghai University
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2015

Telocytes (TCs) are a distinct type of interstitial cells characterized by a small cell body and extremely long and thin telopodes (Tps). The presence of TCs has been documented in many tissues and organs (go to http://www.telocytes.com). Functionally, TCs form a three-dimensional (3D) interstitial network by homocellular and heterocellular communication and are involved in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. As important interstitial cells to guide or nurse putative stem and progenitor cells in stem cell niches in a spectrum of tissues and organs, TCs contribute to tissue repair and regeneration. This review focuses on the latest progresses regarding TCs in the repair and regeneration of different tissues and organs, including heart, lung, skeletal muscle, skin, meninges and choroid plexus, eye, liver, uterus and urinary system. By targeting TCs alone or in tandem with stem cells, we might promote regeneration and prevent the evolution to irreversible tissue damage. Exploring pharmacological or non-pharmacological methods to enhance the growth of TCs would be a novel therapeutic strategy besides exogenous transplantation for many diseased disorders. © 2015 The Authors.


Kong L.B.,National University of Singapore | Li S.,University of New South Wales | Zhang T.S.,University of New South Wales | Zhai J.W.,Tongji University | And 2 more authors.
Progress in Materials Science | Year: 2010

Electrically tunable dielectric materials have potential applications as various microwave devices, such as tunable oscillators, phase shifters and varactors. High dielectric tunability, low dielectric loss tangent and appropriate level of dielectric constant, are basic requirements for such applications. Ferroelectric materials are the most promising candidates. In general, strontium titanate (SrTiO3 or ST) is used for devices operating at low temperatures, while the devices based on barium strontium titanate (Ba1-xSrxTiO3 or BST) are operated at room temperatures. The modifications of parent ferroelectrics, such as Sr1-xPbxTiO3, BaZr xTi1-xO3 and BaTi1- xSnxO3 etc., have also been widely investigated. In addition, there have been reports on electrically tunable dielectric materials, based on non-ferroelectric compounds, such as microwave dielectrics and carbon nanotube (CNT) composites. Specifically for ferroelectric materials, a critical issue is the reduction of the dielectric losses, because their dielectric loss tangents are relatively high for practical device applications. Recently, many efforts have been made in order to reduce the dielectric losses of BST based ferroelectrics. An efficient way is to dope oxides that have low dielectric losses, such as MgO, ZrO2 and Al 2O3, TiO2, LaAlO3, and Bi 1.5ZnNb1.5O7 etc., into the ferroelectric materials. In addition to the reduction in dielectric loss tangents, the introduction of oxides would also be able to modify the dielectric constant to be suitable for practical design of various devices. Meanwhile, dielectric and electrical properties of thin films can be improved by chemical doping, substrate adaptation, orientation and anisotropy optimization. This review provides an overall summary on the recent progress in developing electrically tunable dielectric materials, based on ferroelectrics and non-ferroelectrics, with a specific attention to the strategies employed to improve the performances of ferroelectric materials for microwave device applications. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zhou Y.,Tongji University | Yan B.,Tongji University | Lei F.,Shanghai University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2014

A straightforward postsynthetic lanthanide functionalization strategy is developed for fabricating highly sensitive ratiometric luminescent nanothermometers based on nanosized MOFs, which highlights the ability of a broad range of nanosized MOFs to construct nanothermometers. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Zhang Y.,Tongji University | Li Y.K.,Shanghai University
Science China Life Sciences | Year: 2013

The innate immune response provides the initial defense against infection. This is accomplished by families of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that bind to conserved molecules in bacteria, fungi and viruses. PRRs are finely regulated by elaborate mechanisms to ensure a beneficial outcome in response to foreign invaders. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding regulatory RNAs that are emerging as important regulators in immune responses at the post-transcriptional level, through the inhibition of translation, or by inducing mRNA degradation. It has been shown that miRNAs have unique expression profiles in cells of the innate immune systems and play pivotal roles in regulating the signal pathways of innate receptors, including Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors and Nod-like receptors. We have summarized the recent literature providing new insights into the regulation of innate receptor pathways by miRNAs. © 2012 The Author(s).


Wu N.Q.,Guangdong University of Technology | Zhou M.,Tongji University | Zhou M.,New Jersey Institute of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering | Year: 2012

Because of residency time constraints and activity time variation of cluster tools, it is very difficult to operate such integrated semiconductor manufacturing equipment. This paper addresses their real-time operational issues. To characterize their schedulability and achieve the minimum cycle time at their steady-state operation, Petri net (PN) models are developed to describe them, which are very compact, and independent of wafer flow pattern. It is due to the proposed models that scheduling cluster tools is converted into determining robot wait times. A two-level operational architecture is proposed to include an offline periodic schedule and real-time controller. The former determines when a wafer should be placed into a process module for processing, while the latter regulates robot wait times online in order to reduce the effect of activity time variation on wafer sojourn times in process modules. Therefore, the system can adapt to activity time variation. A cluster tool derived as a not-always-schedulable system by the existing methods is shown to be always-schedulable by using the proposed novel method. © 2012 IEEE.


Wu N.Q.,Guangdong University of Technology | Zhou M.C.,Tongji University
IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering | Year: 2012

With wafer residency time constraint of cluster tools in semiconductor manufacturing, activity time variation can make an originally feasible schedule infeasible. Thus, it is difficult to schedule them and schedulability is a vitally important issue. With bounded activity time variation considered, this paper addresses their real-time scheduling issues and conducts their schedulability analysis. A Petri net (PN) model and a control policy are presented. Based on them, this paper derives closed-form schedulability conditions. If schedulable, an algorithm is developed to obtain an offline periodic schedule. This schedule together with the control policy forms a real-time schedule. It is optimal in terms of cycle time and can be analytically computed, which represents significant advance in this area. © 2006 IEEE.


Zhang J.,Tongji University | Huang H.W.,Tongji University | Phoon K.K.,National University of Singapore
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering | Year: 2013

Response surface methods (RSMs) are attractive approaches for slope reliability analysis because such methods can integrate deterministic numerical slope stability evaluation and reliability analysis. For a slope in layered soils, its performance function is generally nonlinear and the system failure probability could be larger than the failure probability of the most critical slip surface. In this study, the applicability of the kriging-based RSM for system reliability of soil slopes is assessed through its application to two slopes with obvious system effects. It is found that the kriging method combined with Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) can deliver accurate system failure probability estimation. For comparison, the classical RSM based on the iterative local approximation of the performance function may fail to detect the most critical slip surface. The classical RSM can only calculate the failure probability of one slip surface even if the first-order reliability method or MCSis used. Even when the same calibration samples are used, the second-order polynomial-basedRSMis not as accurate as the kriging-based RSM. The results in this study show that the kriging-based RSM is an advantageous and promising approach for calculating the system reliability of soil slopes. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Li N.,Tongji University | Li N.,National University of Singapore | Li N.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems | Ren J.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems | And 9 more authors.
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2012

The form of energy termed heat that typically derives from lattice vibrations, i.e., phonons, is usually considered as waste energy and, moreover, deleterious to information processing. However, in this Colloquium, an attempt is made to rebut this common view: By use of tailored models it is demonstrated that phonons can be manipulated similarly to electrons and photons, thus enabling controlled heat transport. Moreover, it is explained that phonons can be put to beneficial use to carry and process information. In the first part ways are presented to control heat transport and to process information for physical systems which are driven by a temperature bias. In particular, a toolkit of familiar electronic analogs for use of phononics is put forward, i.e., phononic devices are described which act as thermal diodes, thermal transistors, thermal logic gates, and thermal memories. These concepts are then put to work to transport, control, and rectify heat in physically realistic nanosystems by devising practical designs of hybrid nanostructures that permit the operation of functional phononic devices; the first experimental realizations are also reported. Next, richer possibilities to manipulate heat flow by use of time-varying thermal bath temperatures or various other external fields are discussed. These give rise to many intriguing phononic nonequilibrium phenomena such as, for example, the directed shuttling of heat, geometrical phase-induced heat pumping, or the phonon Hall effect, which may all find their way into operation with electronic analogs. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Zhang Y.,Tongji University | Li Y.-K.,Shanghai University
Journal of Zhejiang University: Science B | Year: 2013

Innate immunity is considered to provide the initial defense against infections by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. Detection of the signature molecules of invading pathogens by front-line defense cells via various germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is needed to activate intracellular signaling cascades that lead to transcriptional expression of inflammatory mediators to coordinate the elimination of pathogens and infected cells. To maintain a fine balance between protective immunity and inflammatory pathology upon infection, the innate signaling pathways in the host need to be tightly regulated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a new class of small non-coding RNAs, have been recently shown to be potent modulators that function at post-transcriptional levels. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that the involvement of microorganism-encoded and host miRNAs might play instructive roles in the immune response upon infection. Here, we discuss the current knowledge of miRNAs in the regulation of immune response against infections. © 2013 Zhejiang University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. CLC number: R392.11.


Qian J.,Jiangsu University | Miao D.,Tongji University | Zhang Z.,Tongji University | Yue X.,Tongji University | Yue X.,Shanghai University
Information Sciences | Year: 2014

Attribute reduction is the key technique for knowledge acquisition in rough set theory. However, it is still a challenging task to perform attribute reduction on massive data. During the process of attribute reduction on massive data, the key to improving the reduction efficiency is the effective computation of equivalence classes and attribute significance. Aiming at this problem, we propose several parallel attribute reduction algorithms in this paper. Specifically, we design a novel structure of 〈key,value〉 pair to speed up the computation of equivalence classes and attribute significance and parallelize the traditional attribute reduction process based on MapReduce mechanism. The different parallelization strategies of attribute reduction are also compared and analyzed from the theoretic view. Abundant experimental results demonstrate the proposed parallel attribute reduction algorithms can perform efficiently and scale well on massive data. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Wang Y.,Shanghai University | Xu Z.,Shanghai University | Jiang J.,Shanghai University | Xu C.,Shanghai University | And 6 more authors.
Developmental Cell | Year: 2013

The embryonic stem cell (ESC) transcriptional and epigenetic networks are controlled by a multilayer regulatory circuitry, including core transcription factors (TFs), posttranscriptional modifier microRNAs (miRNAs), and some other regulators. However, the role of large intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) in this regulatory circuitry and their underlying mechanism remains undefined. Here, we demonstrate that a lincRNA, linc-RoR, may function as a key competing endogenous RNA to link the network of miRNAs and core TFs, e.g., Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog. We show that linc-RoR shares miRNA-response elements with these core TFs and that linc-RoR prevents these core TFs from miRNA-mediated suppression in self-renewing human ESC. We suggest that linc-RoR forms a feedback loop with core TFs and miRNAs to regulate ESC maintenance and differentiation. These results may provide insights into the functional interactions of the components of genetic networks during development and may lead to new therapies for many diseases. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Zhu X.-Y.,Tongji University | Zhu X.-Y.,Shanghai University
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

The interfacial zone between asphalt mastic and aggregate has a significant influence on the macro-mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of asphalt concrete (AC). To investigate the effect of interfacial zone, a 3D two layer built-in micromechanical model is established first, and the interface spring layer is considered to simulate the interfacial zone. Then, the effective elastic modulus and shear modulus of single-phase composite materials with the specific aggregate size are derived. A stepping-scheme is adopted to further obtain the effective elastic properties of multi-phase composite materials. The developed closed-form equations are used to predict the elastic behavior of asphalt concrete, and are able to take into account material characteristic of asphalt mastic and aggregate, the aggregate size and its volume fraction, the interface property, and air voids. Tests on four types of AC are conducted to verify the proposed approach. Finally, the influence of interfacial zone on the elastic behavior of AC is discussed. The developed method can also be used to research other multi-phase particle reinforced composites. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Berger R.M.F.,University of Groningen | Beghetti M.,University of Geneva | Humpl T.,University of Toronto | Raskob G.E.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | And 5 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Background: Paediatric pulmonary hypertension, is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, and is insufficiently characterised in children. The Tracking Outcomes and Practice in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension (TOPP) registry is a global, prospective study designed to provide information about demographics, treatment, and outcomes in paediatric pulmonary hypertension. Methods: Consecutive patients aged 18 years or younger at diagnosis with pulmonary hypertension and increased pulmonary vascular resistance were enrolled in TOPP at 31 centres in 19 countries from Jan 31, 2008, to Feb 15, 2010. Patient and disease characteristics, including age at diagnosis and at enrolment, sex, ethnicity, presenting symptoms, pulmonary hypertension classification, comorbid disorders, medical and family history, haemodynamic indices, and functional class were recorded. Follow-up was decided by the patients' physicians according to the individual's health-care needs. Findings: 362 of 456 consecutive patients had confirmed pulmonary hypertension (defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mm Hg, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤12 mm Hg, and pulmonary vascular resistance index ≥3 WU/m -2). 317 (88) patients had pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which was idiopathic [IPAH] or familial [FPAH] in 182 (57), and associated with other disorders in 135 (43), of which 115 (85) cases were associated with congenital heart disease. 42 patients (12) had pulmonary hypertension associated with respiratory disease or hypoxaemia, with bronchopulmonary dysplasia most frequent. Finally, only three patients had either chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension or miscellaneous causes of pulmonary hypertension. Chromosomal anomalies, mainly trisomy 21, were reported in 47 (13) of patients with confirmed disease. Median age at diagnosis was 7 years (IQR 3-12); 59 (268 of 456) were female. Although dyspnoea and fatigue were the most frequent symptoms, syncope occurred in 31 (57 of 182) of patients with IPAH or FPAH and in 18 (eight of 45) of those with repaired congenital heart disease; no children with unrepaired congenital systemic-to-pulmonary shunts had syncope. Despite severe pulmonary hypertension, functional class was I or II in 230 of 362 (64) patients, which is consistent with preserved right-heart function. Interpretation: TOPP identifies important clinical features specific to the care of paediatric pulmonary hypertension, which draw attention to the need for paediatric data rather than extrapolation from adult studies. Funding: Actelion Pharmaceuticals. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Xiao J.,Shanghai University | Wang F.,Tongji University | Liu Z.,Shanghai University | Yang C.,Tongji University
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2013

Hepatic interstitial cells play a vital role in regulating essential biological processes of the liver. Telocytes (TCs), a novel type of interstitial cells firstly identified by Popescu and his coworkers, have been reported in many tissues and organs, but not yet in liver (go to http://www.telocytes.com). We used transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence (double labelling for CD34 and c-kit/CD117, or vimentin, or PDGF Receptor-α, or β) to provide evidence for the existence of TCs in mice liver. The distribution of TCs in liver was found to be of similar density in the four hepatic lobes. In conclusion, here we show the presence of TCs in mice liver. It remains to be determined the possible roles of TCs in the control of liver homeostasis and regeneration, the more so as a close special relationship was found between TCs and hepatic putative stem (progenitor) cells. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SST-2007-6.0-01;SST-2007-6.0-02 | Award Amount: 506.34K | Year: 2008

Contributing to the European Research Area in surface transport to strengthen the competitiveness of the European surface transport sector. This will be achieved by using the excellent EURNEX competence to provide research excellence capabilities to European Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs). Furthermore the cooperation with research excellencies from non EU countries will stimulate research that is of mutual interest and strengthen the European as well as non European research excellencies. EURNEX, the European Rail Research Network of Excellence, started on 01 January 2004 and has been granted for 4 years with 6 Mio within the 6th Framework Programme of EC. It involves 66 research institutes from 20 European countries and the associations of industry and operators UNIFE, UIC and UITP. More than 80 % of the members cover not only the rail research domain but surface transport. EURNEX supports the aims of the EC to see an interoperable and harmonised European rail system contributing to co-modality and a strong internationally competitive European railway industry by integrating the fragmented research, sharing knowledge and coordinating current research. The main benefits for the integration of non EU researchers in EURNEX are the scientific exchange on an international level, the training of junior scientists and researchers using the EURNEX assets, the identification of research areas that are of mutual interest, and the solving of problems in the international railway sector with European know how. The main benefits, that SMEs contributing as associated partners in EURNEX can gain, are an overview of the state of the art of the surface transport sector as a whole as well as specific topics, an insight in current research trends, an evaluation of their individual know how (respecting sensitive information), and an access to excellent research capabilities and test facilities.


Patent
Tongji University and Shanghai Tongji Clearon Environmental Protection Equipment Engineering Co. | Date: 2016-06-08

The present invention relates to a field of control of nitrogen oxide pollution, and involves a high-efficient catalyst for denitration at low temperature and preparation method thereof, which comprises the steps: (1) preparing aqueous solution of cerium nitrate; (2) soaking mesoporous silica materials SBA-15 with aqueous solution from step (1), after stirring, filtrating, washing and drying; (3) calcining materials from step (2) to obtain evenly dispersed CeO_(2)-SBA-15 materials; (4) preparing ethanol solution of manganese nitrate; (5) soaking CeO_(2)-SBA-15 materials from step (3) with ethanol solution of manganese nitrate from step (4) and volatilizing ethanol, washing and drying; (6) calcining materials from step (5) to obtain evenly distributed Mn_(x)O_(y)/CeO_(2)-SBA-15 catalyst for denitration; The preparation method has simple process with lower cost, and the obtained Mn_(x)O_(y)/CeO_(2)-SBA-15 catalyst has uniform and ordered pores, large specific area, narrow pore size distribution, well dispersity of catalytic components, high catalytic activity, better effect of denitration at low temperature range and wider temperature range available for denitration.


Patent
Tongji University and Shanghai Tongji Clearon Environmental Protection Equipment Engineering Co. | Date: 2016-09-26

A honeycomb denitration catalyst used for flue gas at 400 C.-600 C. and preparation method thereof. The honeycomb denitration catalyst includes a catalyst coating and a honeycomb ceramic, where a slurry of the catalyst coating is made from components having the following mass percentages: 15%-25% of a zeolite, 5%-10% of a -alumina, 5%-10% of a catalyst auxiliary agent, 5% of a binder, and 50%-70% of deionized water. The honeycomb ceramic is soaked repeatedly into the slurry of the catalyst coating. After the soaking is completed, the obtained product is dried and calcined to obtain the honeycomb denitration catalyst. The honeycomb denitration catalyst contains a catalyst auxiliary agent and has excellent denitration activity at high temperatures, sulphur-resistance and water-tolerance ability, stability and NO_(x )removing ability.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: SST.2012.2.5-2. | Award Amount: 962.83K | Year: 2012

The rapid development of Asian economies, particularly China, India and Russia has dramatically increased the trade volumes between Europe and Asia, with the largest trading partners of Europe actually being located in Asia. Nowadays, the most important trade loads are being transported between the two continents by sea. Railway transport, using the existing and new land routes for the Trans-Eurasian land bridge presents a viable alternative to the maritime routes, which is gaining significant momentum. Due to the origins and current nature of this rail land bridge, numerous issues need to be resolved to bring the system to a modern state of infrastructure, services and operations. Furthermore, to build the capacity to fully exploit the systems potential adaptation of new technologies, interoperability solutions and optimized operations should be considered. To support this objective, NEAR2 proposed the development of a Rail Research Network, drawing knowledge and expertise form leading institutions and researchers from both continents. The project capitalizes upon the existing structure and leverages the achievements of the existing European Rail Research Network and builds upon the reservoir of expertise of the proposed project partners gleaned from the most relevant past and on going research projects and other activities. The Network aims to become the resource arm of the relevant industry. NEAR2 will establish a unique, international, interdisciplinary research capacity with the goal of contributing in advancing a major sector of the regions economy, as well as broaden the knowledge basis of the railway research and practice.


« Ensyn granted EPA Part 79 approval for renewable gasoline | Main | Federal-Mogul marine piston ring technology reduces oil consumption and pollution from two-stroke diesels » NXP Semiconductors N.V. and Tongji University announced the continuation of their successful collaboration through the new Shanghai Intelligent and Connected Vehicle Demonstration Program. Launched in October, the Shanghai Intelligent and Connected Vehicle Demonstration Program is one of 46 pilot programs under the Made in China 2025 plan, created with the goal of building up to 20,000 smart, connected vehicles by 2019. Tongji University is leading the Vehicle Communication and Network Group for this program, with NXP acting as a key partner providing V2X (vehicle-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-people, vehicle-to-infrastructure) communications solutions. This collaboration is the next major milestone following the foundation of the NXP-Tongji University Joint Lab last year. Dedicated to developing customized connected car solutions for the Chinese market based, the joint lab utilizes NXP’s technology competencies and market experience solutions. With urban populations constantly increasing, issues such as traffic jams, pollution and road fatalities will continue to rise concurrently. The most viable solution to these global problems is better connected vehicles and intelligent traffic infrastructure. NXP has long realized the potential of the connected car and has been behind many of the earliest field trials of V2X technology, introducing the first automotive-qualified product back in 2013, and going on to lead the V2X ecosystem with its RoadLINK technology. NXP V2X products for series cars will hit the road next year in General Motors cars as part of Delphi’s V2X platform. Today, NXP offers a V2X chipset including software and a secure element to protect the car against attacks or data fraud and manipulation. Secure V2X will be critical to enable widespread adoption of fully autonomous driving and to improve road safety and traffic flow by giving drivers advanced warning of upcoming hazards such as dangerous road conditions, unexpected traffic jams, approaching emergency vehicles or road works long before they enter their field of vision or become detectable by other Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) sensors (several hundred meters of range). According to a study conducted by the US Department of Transportation, secure V2X safety functions can reduce multi-vehicle accident figures by more than 80%. V2X-capable vehicles will also be capable of receiving information from intelligent road signs and automatically recognizing the operating cycle of traffic lights.


News Article | October 28, 2016
Site: www.marketwired.com

SANTA CLARA, CA--(Marketwired - October 25, 2016) - Savari Inc. announced that the company has signed an agreement with SAIC USA Inc. (Fully owned subsidiary of Chinese automaker SAIC Motors) to manufacture and distribute the company's industry-leading V2X communications solutions in the Greater China and selected ASEAN Coutries. With this partnership, the world's largest and most advanced V2X communications provider and the largest automotive manufacturer in China are working together to connect cars with roadway infrastructure to pave the way for the proliferation of self-driving vehicles. Under the terms of the agreement, SAIC will be the distributor and value-added reseller of Savari technology in the Greater China and selected ASEAN markets. The companies are already working to fulfil a substantial order from two prestigeous customers (Shanghai International Automobile City and Tongji University), both of whom are the pioneerers in autonomous driving, intelligent transporations and smart city. Additionally, Shanghai International Automobile City and Tongji University plan to implement a live open road smartcity testbed featuring both LTE-V and DSRC based V2X solutions in the National Intelligent CV Pilot in Shanghai's International Auto City. The smartcity will feature more than 10,000 vehicles equipped with Savari's V2X solutions. "SAIC is absolutely the best partner Savari can have to bring our V2X sensors for connected and self-driving cars to China, the world's largest and fastest growing car market. When we looked for a partner to bring our next-generation V2X sensor technology to the China connected and self-driving car market, SAIC was our top choice. We look forward to using their massive distribution, marketing, engineering and manufacturing ability to capture the Chinese and ASEAN connected and automated vehicle markets," said Ravi Puvvala, CEO, Savari. "As China pushes to make motorists safer through connected vehicles, automated vehicles and smart cities, there is a strong demand for reliable V2X sensor solutions. Savari has a proven track record for developing innovative solutions that connect vehicles to the surrounding infrastructure, and the distance covered in Savari's testing on real roads is unparalleled. We look forward to working with Savari to deploy their technology in China," said Wenhua Huang, President of SAIC USA Inc. SAIC Capital, the Menlo Park, CA based corporate venture of SAIC Motor, invested in Savari in 2015. SAIC Innovation Center, the San Jose based SAIC Motor's advanced technology center, focusing on integrating emerging technologies into vehicles. "SAIC USA, SAIC Capital and SAIC Innovation Center are combining SAIC's strengths in technology, capital and supply chain together, creating a business model which connects the Silicon valley, Detroit and China, to fastern technology commercialization in a global scale," said Wenhua Huang. Savari delivers a complete suite of V2X safety communications technologies that enable connected vehicles to interact with other vehicles, road side infrastructure, smartphones and pedestrians. Savari is agnostic to DSRC and LTE-V radio technologies, and interoperates with multiple wireless chip vendors. With approximately four hundred thousand hours of public testing of its on-board units (OBU), covering more than 15 million miles traveled, Savari is a proven V2X communications technology provider. Savari is also an active participant in major public U.S. smart city testbeds, with over 90 percent of currently installed road-side-units, covering 130 square miles of public area. V2X communication technology is widely recognized throughout the industry as a ready-to-deploy option to bring advanced situational awareness to the driver through V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle), V2I (vehicle-to-infrastructure) and V2P (vehicle-to-pedestrian) safety applications. V2X systems can operate independently or complement other connected vehicle technologies, such as camera, radar and LIDAR. V2X, compared to these other sensors, offers the unique benefit of working in a non-line-of-sight environment with a 0.6 mi./1 km range. Savari's life-saving V2X solutions are roadway proven, amassing over 15 million miles and four hundred thousand hours of public safety pilot testing with the USDOT. For more information about Savari's V2X portfolio, please visit http://www.savari.net/technology/. About Savari Savari seeks to make the world's roadways smarter and safer by deploying advanced wireless sensor technologies and software for V2X environments to support a growing portfolio of intelligent transportation services. With more than 150 man-years of V2X learning and development and 15 million-plus miles per year of public testing, Savari is a leader in V2X technology. Savari is headquartered in Santa Clara, Calif., and has offices in Detroit, Mich., Munich, Germany, Seoul, Korea and Bangalore, India. The company is comprised of a core team of industry veterans from the automotive, semiconductor, software and telecommunications industries. Savari is partnering with automotive OEMs, system integrators, chipset vendors and industry groups like the U.S. Department of Transportation. For more information, visit http://www.savari.net.


News Article | December 1, 2016
Site: en.prnasia.com

BEIJING, Dec. 1, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- An assessment tool for Chinese cities has been developed to measure Chinese cities' performance on sustainable development, based on a set of measurable indicators ranging from income, education, health to pollution, resource consumption, with an aim to help drive urban development towards a more inclusive and resilient future, says a new urbanization report by The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in China. "The New Urban Agenda, launched during the UN Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat III), calls for cities to be safer, resilient and more sustainable, to lower carbon emissions and become cleaner and greener, and more inclusive, providing equal opportunities for all," noted Nicholas Rosellini, UN Resident Coordinator and UNDP Resident Representative in China. Launched during the 2016 International Forum on City Happiness and Sustainability in China, the UNDP's 2016 flagship report on sustainable urban development has established models and methods for the evaluation of urban sustainable development based on the China Sustainable Cities Index, a quantitative and objective evaluation system to assist cities in assessing their sustainability performance based on UNDP's Human Development Index (HDI), which has been applied to countries world-wide since 1990. Here it has been deployed at city level alongside the Urban Ecological Input Index (UEII), which measures resource consumption and pollution discharge. The Report evaluates 35 cities and categorizes them into 4 quadrants: high human development, low ecological input (sustainable); high human development, high ecological input (less sustainable); low human development, low ecological input (less sustainable); low human development, high ecological input (unsustainable). Additionally, the report gives recommendations for development paths for cities depending on their current development stage, whether they need to improve human development, decrease ecological input, or both. All of China's major cities score highly on UNDP's HDI in the report, due to continual investment in health, education and economic growth, meaning all major Chinese cities have reached the same level of development as developed countries globally. However, this has come at the expense of environmental well-being with the overall trend of the 35 cities included in the report consuming more resources and producing more pollution than in past years. Of the 35 cities evaluated in the report, Beijing, Hangzhou, Tianjin, Qingdao, Dalian, Shenyang, Changsha, and Jinan have taken crucial steps to shift to cleaner energy, investing in cleaner transportation, developing policies to limit sprawl, and improving waste management. The report recommends these efforts now need to be scaled up to include smaller cities that will see the most significant growth over the next few years. "To tackle the challenges in the process of urbanization, we must pursue sustainable development and ensure that China's cities are inclusive, safe and resilient. It is essential to balance social development and environmental protection to meet people's desire for a better and sustainable future" said Zhang Sutang, Vice President of Xinhua News Agency. In addition, China's sustainability efforts are examined in three case studies from Foshan and Guangzhou that demonstrate good sustainability practices linked to the indicators included in the Index.  The case from Wulong County, Chongqing, shows how the environmental protection policies instituted originally to support the tourism industry have become a driving force behind a wide range of economic development activities. Sustainable urbanization is a key focal area for UNDP globally and in China. UNDP just released its global Sustainable Urbanization Strategy which sets out UNDP's vision for sustainable, inclusive and resilient cities. In the future UNDP will continue to work with the Chinese Government and partners to promote the 2030 Agenda and New Urban Agenda, and ensure that Chinese cities are at the forefront of the global transition to a more sustainable future. Commissioned by UNDP and in association with Xinhua Oriental Outlook Weekly, the 2016 Report, entitled the '2016 China Sustainable Cities Report: Measuring Ecological and Human Development', was completed by an expert team comprised by Tongji University and UNDP China, and is the first report to offer recommendations on sustainable urban development in China since the recent Habitat III. UNDP partners with people at all levels of society to help build nations that can withstand crisis, and drive and sustain the kind of growth that improves the quality of life for everyone. On the ground in around 170 countries and territories, we offer global perspective and local insight to help empower lives and build resilient nations. www.undp.org Get in touch:                UNDP on Weibo| Media Contacts| WeChat ID: undpchina, QR code:


News Article | October 25, 2016
Site: www.greencarcongress.com

« NHTSA issues Federal guidance to the automotive industry for improving motor vehicle cybersecurity | Main | Federal judge grants final approval to Volkswagen 2.0L TDI settlement in US » V2X company Savari Inc. signed an agreement with SAIC USA, a fully owned subsidiary of Chinese automaker SAIC Motors, to manufacture and distribute the Savari V2X communications solutions in the Greater China and selected ASEAN countries. The companies are already working to fulfil a substantial order from two customers (Shanghai International Automobile City and Tongji University). Additionally, Shanghai International Automobile City and Tongji University plan to implement a live open-road smartcity testbed featuring both LTE-V and DSRC-based V2X solutions in the National Intelligent CV Pilot in Shanghai’s International Auto City. The smartcity will feature more than 10,000 vehicles equipped with Savari’s V2X solutions. Savari delivers a complete suite of V2X safety communications technologies—V2X middleware, on-board units, road-side units, and applications—that enable connected vehicles to interact with other vehicles, road side infrastructure, smartphones and pedestrians. Savari is agnostic to DSRC and LTE-V radio technologies, and interoperates with multiple wireless chip vendors. Savari has accumulated approximately four hundred thousand hours of public testing of its on-board units (OBU), covering more than 15 million miles traveled. Savari is also an active participant in major public US smart city testbeds, with more than 90% of currently installed road-side-units, covering 130 square miles of public area. V2X communication technology is a ready-to-deploy option to bring advanced situational awareness to the driver through V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle), V2I (vehicle-to-infrastructure) and V2P (vehicle-to-pedestrian) safety applications. V2X systems can operate independently or complement other connected vehicle technologies, such as camera, radar and LiDAR. V2X, compared to these sensors, offers the benefit of working in a non-line-of-sight environment with a 0.6 mi./1 km range. As China pushes to make motorists safer through connected vehicles, automated vehicles and smart cities, there is a strong demand for reliable V2X sensor solutions. Savari has a proven track record for developing innovative solutions that connect vehicles to the surrounding infrastructure, and the distance covered in Savari's testing on real roads is unparalleled. We look forward to working with Savari to deploy their technology in China. SAIC Capital, California-based corporate venture of SAIC Motor, invested in Savari in 2015. SAIC Innovation Center, the San Jose based SAIC Motor’s advanced technology center, is focusing on integrating emerging technologies into vehicles.


No statistical methods were used to predetermine sample size. The experiments were not randomized and the investigators were not blinded to allocation during experiments and outcome assessment. The box plots shown in Figs 2c, d, 3c, 4d and Extended Data Figs 2d, 3c–e, 4e, f, 5b, c, 6h, 7a, c, 9d, e consist of boxes, with the middle line of the box indicating the median, outer edges representing the first and the third quartiles, and the whiskers stand for 1.5 × interquartile range below the lower quartile and above the upper quartile. Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) mice were housed in the animal facility at Tongji University, Shanghai, China. All animal maintenance and experimental procedures were performed according to Tongji University Guide for the use of laboratory animals. B6D2F1 female mice (8–10 weeks old) were super-ovulated by injection with 7 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG), followed by injection of 5 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (San-Sheng Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd,) 48 h later. The super-ovulated female mice were mated with male mice. Then, the zygotes or 2-cell stage embryos were collected from the oviducts of female B6D2F1 mice. To obtain 4-cell, 8-cell, morula and blastocyst stage embryos, 2-cell stage embryos were cultured in Q2 medium to reach the corresponding stage. Samples of MII oocytes; 2-cell, 4-cell, and 8-cell stages; morula; inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) of day 3.5 blastocysts; an ES cell line (R1, male) and a TSC line (RO-7, female) were harvested for ChIP sequencing. For the MII oocytes and cleavage-stage embryos, the zona pellucidae of the embryos were removed with 0.5% pronase E (Sigma), and the embryos were then incubated in Ca2+-free Chatot-Ziomek-Bavister medium (CZB) for 5 min. Polar bodies were removed by gentle pipetting using a fire-polished glass needle with an inner diameter of 120 μm. For ICM and TE isolation, the zona pellucidae of blastocysts were removed with 0.5% pronase E (Sigma). The embryos were then incubated in Ca2+-free CZB for 20 min, and the tight junctions of TE cells and ICM cells were separated by gently pipetting using a pipette with a diameter of 40–60 μm. The R1 ES cells were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and not further authenticated. The RO-7 TSCs were derived in our laboratory, verified by immunofluorescent staining and real-time PCR. All cell lines regularly tested negative for mycoplasm contamination. The R1 ES cells were cultured on mitomycin-C-treated MEFs in ES medium containing DMEM (Merk Millipore) supplemented with 15% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (Hyclone), 1 mM l-glutamine (Merk Millipore), 0.1 mM mercaptoethanol (Merk Millipore), 1% nonessential amino acid stock (Merk Millipore), penicillin/streptomycin (100×, Merk Millipore), nucleosides (100×, Merk Millipore) and 1,000 U/ml LIF (Merk Millipore). The RO-7 TSCs were cultured in in 70% FCM (feeder condition medium) + F4H (25 ng/ml fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4); Invitrogen and 1.0 μg/ml heparin; Sigma) medium composed of 30% TS medium (RPMI1640 supplemented with 20% FBS, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, 100 μM β-mercaptoethanol, 2 mM l-glutamine (Merk Millipore)), 70% FCM and F4H. For ULI-NChIP-seq, 500 cells were used per reaction, and two or three replicates were performed for each stage. All isolated cells were washed three times in 0.5% bovine serum albumin in phosphate-buffered saline (BSA-PBS, Sigma) solution to avoid potential contamination. The ULI-NChIP procedure was performed as previously described3. One microgram of either histone H3K4me3 antibody (Cell signaling Technology, #9727) or histone H3K27me3 antibody (Diagnode, pAb-069-050) was used for each immunoprecipitation reaction. The sequence libraries were generated using the KAPA Hyper Prep Kit for the Illumina platform (kk8504), following the manufacturer’s instructions. Paired-end 125- or 100-bp sequencing was performed on a HiSeq 2500 or 2000 (Illumina) at the Berry Genomics Co. Ltd, National Institute of Biological Sciences (NIBS), and Peking University, and paired-end 150-bp sequencing was performed on a HiSeq X Ten (Illumina) at the Cloudhealth Medical Group Ltd. The siRNAs against mouse demethylases Kdm2b, Kdm5a, Kdm5b, Kdm5c and Kdm5b were diluted in nuclease-free water to 20 μM. The siRNAs for a given gene were mixed for knock-down, with a working concentration of 5 μM. Oocytes were injected with approximately 10 pl of siRNAs using a Piezo-driven micromanipulator. The injected oocytes were then incubated for at least 3 h for ICSI. To inject fresh spermatozoa, approximately 1 μl of the incubated sperm suspension was mixed with a drop of HEPES–CZB containing 10% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP; Irvine Scientific, Santa Ana, CA, USA). The sperm head was separated from the tail by application of several Piezo pulses, and the head was then injected into the oocyte according to the method described by Kimura and Yanagimachi31. The injected embryos were observed and summarized from the 2-cell stage to 3.5 and 4.5 days post-activation (dpa). The expanded blastocysts at 3.5 dpa and the hatched blastocysts at 4.5 dpa were also calculated. HEPES-buffered CZB (HCZB)31 medium was used for gamete handling and ICSI in air. CZB32 medium was used for embryo culture in an atmosphere of 5% CO . For embryo incubation, CZB was overlaid with sterile mineral oil (Sigma). siRNA sequences (Supplementary Table 4) were designed using GE Dharmacon siDESIGN Center (http://dharmacon.gelifesciences.com/design-center/) and were synthesized by the Biological Resource Center at NIBS. ChIP–seq reads were aligned to the mouse genome build mm9 using the bwa (v0.7.12)33 mem command. Signal tracks for each sample were generated using the MACS2 (v2.0.10.20131216)34 pileup function and were normalized to 1 million reads for visualization. To examine the reproducibility of the ChIP–seq experiments, we calculated the correlation of the normalized signal intensity between biological replicates on all RefSeq gene promoters, defined as ±2 kb around the TSS. We pooled the biological replicates together for each stage and performed the downstream analysis. The quality information of ChIP data used in this study and the correlation of replicates in each stage are summarized in Supplementary Table 5. The RNA-seq reads were mapped to the mm9 reference genome using Tophat (v1.3.3)35. Expression levels for each sample were quantified to FPKM using Cufflinks (v1.2.0)36, and FPKM values of replicates were averaged. We took advantage of the published mouse WGBS data at the 2- and 4-cell stages20 and also generated RRBS data (which was published in another project42) from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage. All of the BS-seq reads were first processed using TrimGalore (v0.3.3) to trim adaptor and low-quality reads. Adaptor-trimmed reads were then mapped to a combined genome with mm9 and 48052 lambda sequence using bsmap (v2.89)37. The methylation level of each CpG site was estimated using mcall (v1.3.0)38. Chromatin states were identified and characterized using ChromHMM (v1.11)12. The alignment files of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 modifications across 7 developmental stages and in ES cells and TSCs were binned into 200-bp bins using the BinarizeBam command, with the input alignment file as the control. We then applied a stringent threshold (fold enrichment greater than four using -f 4 option) for H3K4me3 samples to remove the low-enrichment domains. Next, we trained the model with 4 emission states using 200-bp resolution and default parameters using the LearnModel command. Finally, at each stage, the whole genome was classified into four states: H3K4me3 only (without H3K27me3) region, H3K27me3 only (without H3K4me3) region, bivalent region and non-marked region. The segmentation file of each stage was further binned to 200-bp intervals to calculate the number of transitions between chromatin states during development or differentiation. Alluvial diagrams of developmental and differentiation lineages were plotted using the alluvial function in R to show the transitions. The total regions of each chromatin state were counted once the 200-bp intervals had been marked by the specific states during that lineage, and the percentages of the specified intervals in each stage were plotted to show the global trend of that specific chromatin state. The alluvial diagrams showed the percentage changes of chromatin states during each transition; the lines from the present stage to next stage cannot be traced, as they represent different genomic locations. We classified the RefSeq transcripts based on their promoters overlapping with ChromHMM segments in each stage. Promoters were defined as ±2 kb around the TSS. Transcripts were defined as follows: H3K4me3-marked transcripts once they had >200-bp overlaps with the H3K4me3-only regions or bivalent regions;H3K27me3-marked transcripts once they had >200-bp overlaps with H3K27me3-only regions or bivalent regions; bivalent-marked transcripts once they had >200-bp overlaps with bivalent regions, or they overlapped with both H3K4me3-only and H3K27me3-only regions. To visualize transcripts based on their chromatin states, we first transformed the transcript matrices of the developmental stages into 0,1 matrices based on their chromatin status, with 1 representing H3K4me3-marked transcripts and 0 representing non-marked transcripts, with the same criteria for the H3K27me3 matrix. For each transcript, we arranged the column based on the order of developmental stages and transformed the binary 0,1 value into a decimal score. All of the transcripts were then ranked based on their score to generate heat maps. A similar quaternary transition method was used for bivalent and H3K4me3 breadth visualization. We defined a distance scaled signal, p , to present the ChIP–seq signal intensity of a certain promoter. p is the weighted sum of ChIP–seq reads s at genomic positions k, where their weights decrease with distance from the TSS of transcription i. And t is the genomic position of the TSS for transcript i. The parameter μ determines the decay rate, which is a function of the distance from the TSS. For H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 markers, we set μ to be 2 kb from the TSS and the contribution of the corresponding signal decayed to 1/2 of that at the TSS. Local CpG ratio was calculated for 500-bp bins with 50-bp steps, as previously defined. The CpG ratio for each transcript was calculated as the max local CpG ratio around ±2 kb of the TSS. The transcripts were then separated into high-CpG-density promoters (HCPs), intermediate-CpG-density promoters (ICPs) and low-CpG-density promoters (LCPs) based on the CpG ratio and the GC content cut-off previously defined39. We classified the H3K4me3-marked transcripts into four groups based on the segment lengths at their promoter regions. Transcripts overlapping with segments >5,000 bp were defined as broad H3K4me3 domain transcripts; those overlapping with segments ≤5,000 bp and >1,000 bp were defined as median H3K4me3 domain transcripts; those overlapping ≤1,000 bp and >200 bp were defined as narrow H3K4me3 domains; those overlapping ≤200 bp were defined as control H3K4me3 domains. We defined stage-specific broad domain transcripts as the broad domains that only occurred at that specific stage. The global mutually exclusive index was calculated as the random coincidence of an H3K4me3 transcript and an H3K27me3 transcript versus real coincidence, m  = B /B . Where in which n stands for the number of H3K4me3-marked transcripts in that stage, n stands for the number of H3K27me3-marked transcripts, and n stands for the bivalent transcripts in that stage. For mutually exclusive indexes in each H3K4me3 transcript sub class, the real coincidence is the number of bivalent genes belonging to that specific sub-class. Functional annotation was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) Bioinformatics Resource40. Gene ontology terms for each functional cluster were summarized to a representative term, and P values were plotted to show the significance. We collected expression data from 19 mouse tissues to calculate tissue specificity scores41. We computed the Jensen–Shannon divergence between the relative expression levels across the tissue types. An extreme condition is defined as a transcript expressed in only one tissue type. The maximum tissue specificity score across all tissue types was defined as the specificity score for the transcript42. ChIP–seq data of Ezh2 and Suz12 in mouse embryonic stem cells were collected from the GEO database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/)43. Ezh2 data were collected from GSE23943, GSE43231, GSE41314, GSE49178 and GSE55967; Suz12 data were collected from GSE11724, GSE13084, GSE19365, GSE39513 and GSE55967. All of the ChIP–seq data were processed as previously described. Peaks were called using MACS2 (v2.0.10.20131216) with the call peak function using the following parameters: macs2 callpeak –n Sample -g mm -B -q 0.05–nomodel–broad–shiftsize = 73–SPMR. For each data set, we removed the peaks with less than fivefold enrichment over control and merged the peaks from different data sets using bedtools to generate the final peak lists for Ezh2 and Suz12. Transcripts were defined as double-binding if both the Ezh2 and the Suz12 peaks overlapped with their promoter regions; as single-binding if only one of the two factors overlapped; and as having no PRC-related factor binding if none of the factor peaks overlapped with their promoter regions.


News Article | March 23, 2016
Site: www.nature.com

From a slowing economy to geopolitical tensions in the South China Sea, it is a testing time for China’s ruling Communist party. But its science aspirations seem unbridled. On 16 March, China approved its 13th Five-Year Plan. A draft version, as well as statements by key politicians, make it clear that innovation through science and technology is a priority. China also intends for its research expenditure to rise to 2.5% of gross domestic product by 2020, from less than 2.2% over the past five years. Reductions in energy use and the development of low-carbon energy sources feature in the latest five-year plan. For some of the other themes that are set to shape Chinese research over the next five years, Nature spoke to a range of scientists. In 2012, ‘oceanauts’ aboard the research submersible Jiaolong descended more than 7,000 metres beneath the waves, marking China’s entry into an elite club of nations capable of reaching the hadal zone — the deepest part of the ocean, which begins at 6,000 metres below sea level. Over the next five years, Chinese scientists will build one crewed and one uncrewed submersible, according to a plan released by the science ministry in February, each of which can reach depths of 11,000 metres — the very bottom of the hadal zone. "For deep-sea technology, this five years will be a golden period,” says Cui Weicheng of the Hadal Science and Technology Research Center at Shanghai Ocean University. The uncrewed vessel will be similar to Nereus, the advanced US submersible that imploded in 2014 and will not be replaced. The crewed vessel will hold at least two people, more than the Deepsea Challenger, which took film director James Cameron on a solo dive to the deepest point of the Mariana Trench in 2012. The hadal zone is one of the most poorly studied habitats on Earth, and is home to mysterious tube worms, sea cucumbers and jellyfish. Researchers are also interested in its role in the carbon cycle, because the microbes there digest a surprising amount of organic matter. Chinese scientists hope to use both submersibles to explore the zone in more detail than ever before. Independently of the latest five-year plan, Cui has also developed a 'movable laboratory' (W. Cui et al. Meth. Oceanogr. 10, 178–193; 2014) composed of three landers, a robotic submersible and a crewed vehicle.The robotic submersible and first lander were tested down to 4,000 metres last October. A mother ship that controls the robot and landers is due to be launched on 24 March, and the first scientific expedition is planned for August, in the New Britain Trench off Papua New Guinea. Together these projects “could help shorten the gap" between Chinese ocean science and technology and the most advanced capabilities elsewhere, says Cui. The United States, Europe and Japan have each announced their own massive projects to map the brain, and China has had one in the works for several years. The latest five-year plan calls for brain science to be a priority — and most of the resources are expected to be channelled through the China project, which is due to be officially announced shortly, say Chinese researchers. The brain project is expected to focus on brain disease, in particular through studying animal models, as well as artificial intelligence. Scientists in China acknowledge that they are far behind the rest of the world in terms of top-level talent in brain science, but several factors could enable them to catch up. China’s neuroscience community is growing — the Chinese Neuroscience Society now has 6,000 members, compared to just 1,500 ten years ago; the country has tens of millions of patients with psychiatric or degenerative brain disease that will facilitate clinical studies; and it has hundreds of thousands of research monkeys. This last factor has already allowed Chinese researchers to take the lead in using gene-editing technologies to produce models of autism and other conditions. The bounty of research animals is also starting to draw interest from abroad — a new primate research centre in Shenzhen is being jointly established with the Cambridge-based Massachusetts Institute of Technology. With actor Jackie Chan and basketball star Yao Ming involved in campaigns attacking the trade in protected animals such as bears, which are milked for their bile, and elephants, targeted for their ivory, conservation has become a high profile issue in China. The latest five-year plan will launch efforts to protect the giant panda, tiger and Asian elephant in the wild, says Zhang Li, a conservation biologist at Beijing Normal University. "There will be a big budget to restore habitat for these species,” says Zhang. The projects will focus on corridors between protected areas that greatly increase the habitats by letting the animals move from one reserve to another. A biodiversity hotspot between Laos, Myanmar and the southwestern Chinese province of Yunnan requires protection in particular, says Stuart Pimm, a biodiversity specialist at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. Forest there has been converted into rubber plantations, he says,  “and the level of hunting is worse than any place I’ve ever been”. But a focus on protecting pandas, elephants and tigers could leave other animals at risk, he pointed out in November (B. V. Li and S. L. Pimm Conserv. Biol. 30, 329–339; 2016). In the wake of the five-year plan, China will gain a new funding initiative called 'Stem Cell and Translational Research', according to stem cell researchers Pei Gang, president of Tongji University, and Pei Duanqing, director of the Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health. The grants will be awarded under a new competitive review and evaluation process, replacing a system that critics said rewarded scientific and political connections rather than merit. Following the last five year plan, China invested roughly 3 billion yuan (about US$460 million) in stem-cell research. The pair say that there will be a big increase over the next five years but did not give exact figures. “Given the size of its population and the wide spectrum of unmet medical needs, China recognizes the promise of stem-cell and regenerative medicine as one of the key thrusts for modernizing its medical service system,” says Pei Gang. In a country that places great value on social harmony, air and water pollution are the trigger for an increasing number of protests. Under a plan that began in 2012, the government is already trying to reduce the levels of airborne parti­culate matter measuring less than 2.5 micrometres across (PM ), which are small enough to penetrate deep into the respiratory system. By 2017, it wants to achieve reductions of 25% in the Beijing area, 20% in the Yangtze River Delta and greater Shanghai area, and 15% in the Pearl River Delta. Major nationwide environmental initiatives outlined in the latest five-year plan will tackle transportation, clean energy and environmental protection, says Wei-xian Zhang, director of the State Key Lab for Pollution Control at Tongji University in Shanghai. The government will also target pollution black spots, such as smog in Beijing and fertilizer pollution in Lake Tai near Shanghai. Funding to control air pollution alone will increase by at least four times, says Zhang, and several new national laboratories focusing on clean energy and environmental research have also been funded for the next five years. “China is and will continue to be the largest market in air-, soil- and water-pollution control technologies,” says Zhang. “To some degree, the whole country will be a huge laboratory for environmental research, such as smog mitigation.”


Zhuang X.,Tongji University | Zhuang X.,University of Western Australia | Zhu H.,Tongji University | Augarde C.,Durham University
Computational Mechanics | Year: 2014

The meshless Shepard and least squares (MSLS) method and the meshless Shepard method are partition of unity based meshless interpolations which eliminate the problems by other meshless methods such as the difficulty in direct imposition of the essential boundary conditions. However, singular weight functions have to be used in both methods to enforce the approximation interpolatory, which leads to the loss of smoothness in approximation and locally oscillatory results. In this paper, an improved MSLS interpolation is developed by using dually defined nodal supports such that no singular weight function is required. The proposed interpolation satisfies the delta property at boundary nodes and the compatibility condition throughout the domain, and is capable of exactly reproducing the basis function. The computational cost of the present interpolation is much lower than the moving least-squares approximation which is probably the most widely used meshless interpolation at present. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Yu F.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Ma J.,Tongji University | Wu Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

The purified and oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with different oxygen contents are employed as adsorbents to study their physicochemical properties and adsorption behaviors of toluene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene (TEX) in aqueous solutions. The results demonstrate that adsorption capacity is significantly enhanced for 3.2% surface oxygen, but is dramatically reduced for 5.9% oxygen concentration. The adsorption kinetics is investigated and fitted with pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherms are found to be fitted with Langmuir model. More interestingly, with the increasing of surface oxygen content, maximum adsorption capacities firstly increased, and then, began to decrease. In the first stage, dispersion is the most important factor. A better dispersive interaction increases the available adsorption sites, which consequently can be favorable for the aqueous phase adsorption. Therefore, maximum adsorption capacity is remarkably enhanced with the increasing of oxygen content, which is according with our results. However, in the second stage, when oxygen content increases to a certain extent, hydroxyl groups cause water clusters formation on the surface or tube end of MWCNTs, which hinder the interaction between TEX and MWCNTs. Consequently, more oxygen content leads to the decrease in maximum adsorption capacity. The decrease indicates that the formation of water clusters plays a more important role than the better dispersion of MWCNTs for TEX adsorption. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Luo M.,Tongji University | Li Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zeng Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Letters | Year: 2013

lncRNA H19 is essential for human tumor growth. However, little is known about whether H19 regulates bladder cancer metastasis. Here we found that H19 levels are remarkably increased in bladder cancer tissues, and upregulated H19 promotes bladder cancer cell migration in vitro and in vivo. H19 is associated with enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), and that this association results in Wnt/β-catenin activation and subsequent downregulation of E-cadherin. A significant negative correlation is also observed between H19 levels and E-cad levels in vivo. These data suggest that upregulated H19 enhances bladder cancer metastasis by associating with EZH2 and inhibiting E-cad expression. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Lee S.H.,Yonsei University | Park C.M.,Anyang University, South Korea | Seo Y.M.,Myongji University | Wang Z.G.,Tongji University | Kim C.K.,Yonsei University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We fabricated an acoustic composite structure consisting of a periodic array of interspaced membranes and side holes. Experimental data on the transmission, effective density, and phase velocity are presented. The system exhibits two critical frequencies, ωSH and ωc. Our metamaterial is double negative and transparent for frequencies lower than ωSH. For the frequencies ωSH<ω<ωc, the medium is opaque and only the density is negative. For the frequencies above ωc, the system is double positive and transparent. The present medium exhibits a very wide double negative spectral range that opens the possibility of the application of metamaterials for "white lights." © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Kleemann W.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Miga S.,University of Silesia | Dec J.,University of Silesia | Zhai J.,Tongji University
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2013

The electric susceptibilities χ1, χ2, and χ3 of BaTi1-xZrxO3 ceramics with 0.25 ≤ x ≤ 0.35 are measured at 90 ≤ T ≤ 350 K and 37 ≤ f ≤ 106 Hz. Crossover from ferroelectric (x = 0.25) to relaxor behavior (x = 0.35) via coexistence of both (x = 0.30) is indicated by increasing polydispersivity and suppression of χ2 intensity and negative χ3 tails. The relaxor properties are due to weak random fields acting on dipolar Ti4+ clusters in non-polar Zr4+ environment. Frustrated interaction between blocked polar nanoregions yields a cluster glass ground state for x = 0.35. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.


Cui W.-W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lu Z.,Tongji University | Pan E.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2014

This paper addresses the problem of finding robust production and maintenance schedules for a single machine with failure uncertainty. Both production and maintenance activities occupy the machine×.


Qiao J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Li A.,Tongji University | Jin X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Immunology and Cell Biology | Year: 2011

The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a primary cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children, the elderly and in people who are immune suppressed, and is also the cause for the development of asthma primarily in infants. However, the immunological mechanisms by which RSV enhances allergic sensitization and asthma remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of RSV-infected airway epithelial cells on the activation and functions of rat myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs).We found that the exposure of primary rat airway epithelial cells (PRAECs) to RSV induced a rapid (6 h), high (12 h) and persistent (18 h) increase in thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) mRNA compared with untreated PRAECs. TSLP protein expression was also enhanced by RSV infection. Functional maturation of mDCs was induced by RSV-treated PRAECs, as shown by their enhanced levels of OX40L and thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) mRNAs, which increased the expressions of major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) and CD86 costimulatory molecules and promoted enhanced T-cell proliferation in mixed lymphocyte reactions. These activities were inhibited in cocultures with RSV-infected RTECs (rat tracheal epithelial cells, an immortalized cell strain) that had been pretreated with TSLP-targeted small interfering RNA. These results suggest that RSV can induce epithelial cells to produce TSLP, which in turn promotes the maturation of mDCs that might support Th2 cell polarization. © 2011 Australasian Society for Immunology Inc. All rights reserved.


Zhao C.Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wu Z.G.,Tongji University | Wu Z.G.,University of Warwick
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells | Year: 2011

Molten salts have better thermal properties than synthetic mineral oil, and hence they can be directly used as heat transfer fluids in solar power plants, but in practice their direct applications as heat transfer fluids are constrained due to their high freezing temperature points. In this paper, a class of ternary nitrate salt mixtures consisting of 5080 wt% KNO3, 025 wt% LiNO3 and 1045 wt% Ca(NO3)2 were processed and tested. Experimental results indicated that some mixtures within this range exhibited excellent thermal properties, such as a low melting point (<100 °C), robust reliability, high-temperature stability (upto 500 °C) and a low viscosity (e.g.,<5 cP at 190 °C). Apart from these desirable thermo-physical properties, the manufacturing cost of these novel inorganic salts HTFs (Heat Transfer Fluids) is considerably lower than those of the existing commercial heat transfer fluids (HTFs). © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Liu W.W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang J.N.,East China University of Science and Technology | Wang X.X.,Tongji University
Nanoscale | Year: 2012

Unfunctionalized graphene is positively or negatively charged when it is dispersed in organic solvents. The charging is negative in solvents with high electron donor numbers and positive in those with low donor numbers. We suggest that the charging originates from electron transfer between graphene surfaces and solvent molecules, and the stable dispersion of unfunctionalized graphene in organic solvents is mainly controlled by electrostatic repulsion between the charged graphene surfaces. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Li L.,Tongji University | Li L.,University of California at Berkeley | Gao N.,Tongji University | Deng Y.,Montclair State University | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2012

Algae organic matters (AOM), including intracellular organic matters (IOM) and extracellular organic matters (EOM), are causing numerous water quality issues, among which formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and odor & taste (O&T) compounds are of particular concern. In this study, physiochemical properties of IOM and EOM of Microcystic aeruginosa under an exponential growth phase (2.01×10 11/L) were comprehensively characterized. Moreover, the yields of DBPs during AOM disinfection and O&T-causing compounds were quantified. Hydrophilic organic matters accounted for 86% and 63% of DOC in IOM and EOM, respectively. Molecular weight (MW) fractions of IOM in <1kDa, 40-800kDa, and >800kDa were 27%, 42%, and 31% of DOC, respectively, while EOM primarily contained 1-100kDa molecules. Besides, a low SUVA (0.84L/mgm) and the specific fluorescence spectra suggested that AOM (especially IOM) was principally comprised of protein-like substances, instead of humic-like matters. The formation potentials of chloroform, chloroacetic acid, and nitrosodimethylamine were 21.46, 68.29 and 0.0096μg/mgC for IOM, and 32.44, 54.58 and 0.0189μg/mgC for EOM, respectively. Furthermore, the dominant O&T compound produced from EOM and IOM were 2-MIB (68.75ng/mgC) and β-cyclocitral (367.59ng/mgC), respectively. Of note, dimethyltrisulfide became the prevailing O & T compound following anaerobic cultivation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhang W.-J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhang C.-L.,Tongji University
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2011

Rapid cycling the compressor is an alternative of the variable speed compressor to modulate the capacity of refrigeration systems for the purpose of energy saving at part-load conditions. The multi-evaporator air conditioner combined with the rapid cycling compressor brings difficulties in control design because of the sophisticated system physics and dynamics. In this paper the transient model of a multi-split air conditioner with a digital scroll compressor is developed for predicting the system transients under performance modulations. The predicted cycling dynamics are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validated model, the impact of compressor idle power and cycle period to the part load performance is discussed. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Chu W.-H.,Tongji University | Gao N.-Y.,Montclair State University | Deng Y.,Montclair State University | Krasner S.W.,Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Haloacetamides (HAcAms) are an emerging class of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs). However, there is a limited understanding about the precursors of HAcAms. In this study, we screened the precursors of dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm), the most commonly identified HAcAm in chlorinated or chloraminated drinking water. DCAcAm formation potential (FP) of raw water samples collected in different months from a reservoir in China was determined during chlorination, and the highest DCAcAm FP typically occurred in the summer samples. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a representative summer raw water sample was separated into six fractions by a series of resin elutions. Among them, hydrophilic acid (HiA) DOM showed the maximum DCAcAm FP, followed by hydrophilic bases (HiB) and, to a much lower extent, hydrophobic acids (HoA). Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra revealed that a mass of protein-like substances in the HiA fraction, made up of amino acids (AAs), were the likely DCAcAm precursors. Finally, we investigated the DCAcAm yields of 20 AAs during chlorination. Among them, seven AAs (aspartic acid, histidine, tyrosine, tryptophan, glutamine, asparagine, phenylalanine) could form DCAcAm during chlorination, with the corresponding DCAcAm yields of 0.231, 0.189, 0.153, 0.104, 0.078, 0.058, and 0.050 mmol/mol AA. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Jiang M.,Tongji University | Yin Z.-Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology | Year: 2012

This paper analyzes the stress redistribution in the surrounding soil and the earth pressure acting on the shield tunnel lining due to tunneling. The construction of a 6. m diameter tunnel buried at a 12. m depth with a gap of 4. cm with the surrounding soil is modeled using DEM, utilizing the equivalent mass method. The principal stresses and their inclination angle in the surrounding soil are examined together with the earth pressure acting on the tunnel lining. Soil arching and unloading effects due to tunneling are also investigated. Furthermore, the construction of the tunnel at different buried depths and with different tail gaps is modeled. All the comparisons show that increasing the buried depth up to 12. m and the tail gaps up to 8. cm result in a significant soil arching effect. The soil arching effect ceases to increase for buried depths of more than 12 m and for tail gaps of more than 8 cm. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhuang X.,Tongji University | Zhuang X.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Augarde C.E.,Durham University | Mathisen K.M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering | Year: 2012

In 3D fracture modeling, the complexity of the evolving crack geometry during propagation raises challenges in stress analysis because the accuracy of results mainly relies on the accurate description of the crack geometry. In this paper, a numerical framework is developed for 3D fracture modeling where a meshless method, the element-free Galerkin method, is used for stress analysis and level sets are used accurately to describe and capture crack evolution. In this framework, a simple and general formulation for associating the displacement jump in the field approximation with an arbitrary 3D curved crack surface is proposed. For accurate closure of the crack front, a tying procedure is extended to 3D from its original use in 2D in the previous paper by the authors. The benefits of level sets in improving the results accuracy and reducing the computational cost are explored, particularly in the model refinement and the confinement of the displacement jump. Issues arising in level sets updating are discussed and solutions proposed accordingly. The developed framework is validated with a number of 3D crack examples with reference solutions and shows strong potential for general 3D fracture modeling. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Teng S.J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang J.N.,East China University of Science and Technology | Wang X.X.,Tongji University
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2011

Carbon nanocages (CNCs) with a hollow core and a thin wall of a few graphitic layers have a wide range of applications. However, the preparation of such a material remains a great challenge. In this study, we report the preparation of thin-walled CNCs through the pyrolysis of a mixture composed of pyridine and liquid iron pentacarbonyl, subsequent heat treatment in the presence of NH4Cl at a low temperature, and finally washing and filtering in water. The finding that pyridine is completely mutually soluble with liquid iron pentacarbonyl in any proportion stands out to be a crucial advantage for reducing the thickness of the graphitic wall formed on a metal core. To obtain hollow CNCs, heat-treatment proves to be simple and effective in removing the metal core and, more importantly, maintaining the thin graphitic wall when compared with conventional boiling in a strong oxidant, such as HNO3. The thin-walled hollow CNCs are demonstrated to be suitable nanocontainers for encapsulating iodine, as iodine can easily get into and out of the CNCs when it is heated at a relatively low temperature. Considering the large internal space and thin graphitic wall, the hollow CNCs could be widely used in many fields, such as biology, medicine and chemistry. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Zhuang X.,Tongji University | Heaney C.,Durham University | Augarde C.,Durham University
Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements | Year: 2012

The paper investigates discretisation error control in the element-free Galerkin method (EFGM) highlighting the differences from the finite element method (FEM). We demonstrate that the (now) conventional procedures for error analysis used in the finite element method require careful application in the EFGM, otherwise competing sources of error work against each other. Examples are provided of previous works in which adopting an FEM-based approach leads to dubious refinements. The discretisation error is here split into contributions arising from an inadequate number of degrees of freedom e h, and from an inadequate basis e p. Numerical studies given in this paper show that for the EFGM the error cannot be easily split into these component parts. Furthermore, we note that arbitrarily setting the size of nodal supports (as is commonly proposed in many papers) causes severe difficulties in terms of error control and solution accuracy. While no solutions to this problem are presented in this paper it is important to highlight these difficulties in applying an approach to errors from the FEM in the EFGM. While numerical tests are performed only for the EFGM, the conclusions are applicable to other meshless methods based on the concept of nodal support. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Tan Y.,Tongji University | Li M.,Rail Transit Design and Research Institute
Canadian Geotechnical Journal | Year: 2011

Via a long-term comprehensive instrumentation program, the performance of a 26 m deep metro station excavation constructed by the top-down method in downtown Shanghai was extensively examined. The measured excavation responses included diaphragm wall deflections, wall settlements, ground settlements, uplifts of interior steel columns, axial forces of propping struts, groundwater table levels, and settlements of adjacent buildings and utility pipelines. Based on the analyses of field data, the following major findings were obtained: (i) the concrete struts along with the floor slabs effectively suppressed later wall movements and consequently reduced the chance that the maximum wall deflections would occur above the excavation surfaces, (ii) with the progress of excavation to a lower depth, the diaphragm walls underwent a serrated settlement pattern over time, (iii) no significant post-excavation wall deflection occurred, (iv) the relationship between the interior column uplifts and the maximum wall deflections can be described by a linear equation, and (v) most system loads due to soil removal were carried by the concrete struts along with the floor slabs. The struts sustained mainly the released earth pressures due to the exposure of the adjacent portions of diaphragm walls, and the soil removal distant from the struts imposed limited effects on the strut axial forces.


Du J.,Tongji University | O'Reilly R.K.,University of Warwick
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

Anisotropic particles, such as patchy, multicompartment and Janus particles, have attracted significant attention in recent years due to their novel morphologies and diverse potential applications. The non-centrosymmetric features of these particles make them a unique class of nano- or micro-colloidal materials. Patchy particles usually have different compositional patches in the corona, whereas multicompartment particles have a multi-phasic anisotropic architecture in the core domain. In contrast, Janus particles, named after the double-faced Roman god, have a strictly biphasic geometry of distinct compositions and properties in the core and/or corona. The term Janus particles, multicompartment particles and patchy particles frequently appears in the literature, however, they are sometimes misused due to their structural similarity. Therefore, in this critical review we classify the key features of these different anisotropic colloidal particles and compare structural properties as well as discuss their preparation and application. This review brings together and highlights the significant advances in the last 2 to 3 years in the fabrication and application of these novel patchy, multicompartment and Janus particles (98 references). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Takabatake T.,Hiroshima University | Suekuni K.,Hiroshima University | Nakayama T.,Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems | Nakayama T.,Tongji University | And 2 more authors.
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2014

Type-I clathrate compounds have attracted a great deal of interest in connection with the search for efficient thermoelectric materials. These compounds constitute networked cages consisting of nanoscale tetrakaidecahedrons (14-hedrons) and dodecahedrons (12-hedrons), in which the group-1 or -2 elements in the periodic table are encaged as so-called rattling guest atoms. It is remarkable that, although these compounds have a crystalline cubic structure, they exhibit glasslike phonon thermal conductivity over the whole temperature range depending on the states of rattling guest atoms in the tetrakaidecahedron. In addition, these compounds show unusual glasslike specific heats and terahertz-frequency phonon dynamics, providing a remarkable broad peak almost identical to those observed in amorphous materials or structural glasses, the so-called boson peak. An efficient thermoelectric effect is realized in compounds showing these glasslike characteristics. In this decade, a number of experimental works dealing with type-I clathrate compounds have been published. These are diffraction, thermal, and spectroscopic experiments in addition to those based on heat and electronic transport. These form the raw materials for this review based on advances from this decade. The subject of this review involves interesting phenomena from the viewpoint not only of physics but also of the practical problem of elaborating efficient thermoelectric materials. This review presents a survey of a wide range of experimental investigations of type-I clathrate compounds, together with a review of theoretical interpretations of the peculiar thermal and dynamic properties observed in these materials. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Wang J.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Wang J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang J.,Tongji University | Park J.-S.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2013

Dysregulation of Wnt signaling is closely associated with human liver tumorigenesis. However, liver cancer-specific Wnt transcriptional programs and downstream effectors remain poorly understood. Here, we identify tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) as a direct target of Wnt/TCF in liver cancer and demonstrate that transcription of Wnt target genes, including TRIB2, is coordinated by the TCF and FoxA transcription factors in liver cancer cells. We show that Wnt-TRIB2 activation is critical for cancer cell survival and transformation. Mechanistically, TRIB2 promotes protein stabilization of the YAP transcription coactivator through interaction with the βTrCP ubiquitin ligase. Furthermore, we find that TRIB2 relieves the liver tumor suppressor protein C/EBPα-mediated inhibition of YAP/TEAD transcriptional activation in liver cancer cells. Altogether, our study uncovers a regulatory mechanism underlying liver cancer-specific Wnt transcriptional output, and suggests that TRIB2 functions as a signaling nexus to integrate the Wnt/β-catenin, Hippo/YAP, and C/EBPα pathways in cancer cells. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Yao Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chen J.,Tongji University
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2010

The global optimization model for the overall control of air-conditioning system aiming at the minimum energy consumption is developed in this work. The method of decomposition-coordination, which is adept at solving the ultrahigh-dimensional optimization problems, is used for the model solution. Taking one real central air-conditioning system as the case study, the hourly optimal conditions of all equipments in this system on one operation day were simulated by the global optimization model. To examine the validity of decomposition-coordination algorithm, direct-search method (which is admitted to be the most reliable in optimization calculation) is used to make the comparison. It showed that the optimal results obtained by the two methods were essentially the same, but decomposition-coordination method would have much higher calculation efficiency than direct-search method. The energy analysis indicated that the energy saving brought by the global optimization was mainly thanks to the adjustment of pumps and fans rather than that of the chillers. It was believed as well that more energy saving would be achieved under the lower load condition of the system if the globally optimal control scheme were implemented. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zhang W.-J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhang C.-L.,Tongji University
International Journal of Refrigeration | Year: 2011

This paper proposes a novel correlation-free on-line optimal control method for CO2 transcritical refrigeration systems. It uses the on-line correction formula to track the optimal pressure set point. As a critical advantage against the existing empirical correlations of the heat rejection pressure, it is independent of the cycle, the system specifications, and the operating conditions. Dynamic numerical simulation demonstrates how to apply the new method to a basic CO2 transcritical refrigeration system. The results show that the proposed method can well track the optimal pressures and is robust to resist the sampling noise. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.


Yang L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhang C.-L.,Tongji University
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2011

The energy saving opportunity of supermarket refrigeration systems using subcooler between the medium-temperature (MT) refrigeration system and the low-temperature (LT) refrigeration system has been identified in the previous work. This paper presents a model-based comprehensive analysis on the subcooler design. The optimal subcooling control is discussed as well. With optimal subcooler size and subcooling control, the maximum energy savings of integrated two-temperature supermarket refrigeration system using R404A or R134a as working fluid can achieve 27% or 20%, respectively. The load ratio of MT to LT system and the operating conditions have considerable impact on the energy savings. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


News Article | March 23, 2016
Site: www.nature.com

Circularity is at the core of eco-design, the production methodology in which waste is repurposed and environmental impacts such as raw-material use are reduced through reuse and recycling. But if that loop is a lasso for reining in excess, the reality — as US philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote in the industrializing 1840s — remains that “Things are in the saddle,/And ride mankind”. The scale of global waste and its proportionate economic and environmental costs is gargantuan. Some 269,000 tonnes of plastic litter the world's oceans, and vast industrial cast-offs such as manure lagoons and slag heaps blight landscapes. What lurks beneath is daunting. Landfill swallows much domestic and construction waste, where residual energy is lost and decomposition under anaerobic conditions creates a stream of problematic subwaste, from the powerful greenhouse gas methane to leachable contaminants such as benzene. The United States sends 40% of its food to landfill and discards 70–80% of the 145 million tonnes of construction and demolition debris that it generates each year — even though much of the wood, metal and minerals is recyclable. In 2012, Europe sent almost half of its 2.3 billion tonnes of waste to landfill. And that is just stuff: up to 50% of industrial energy input becomes waste heat. Faced with this entrenched dynamic, how can closed-loop systems become the norm? One answer is to integrate them into circular economies — wheels within wheels. This model looks to extend the life of products at the 'use' stage, retaining value and designing out harmful by-products such as toxic substances, to create the perfect habitat for ecologically innovative companies. For a model that slots so neatly into eco-thinking, the circular economy is a surprisingly venerable concept. In 1966, economist Kenneth Boulding hatched the idea of “a stable, closed-cycle, high-level technology” in his seminal paper 'The economics of the coming spaceship Earth' (see Nature 527, 443–444; 2015). Five years later, in a Life magazine interview, systems theorist R. Buckminster Fuller — an advocate of 'more with less' design from the 1920s — declared that pollution “is nothing but resources we're not harvesting. We allow them to disperse because we've been ignorant of their value.” That year also saw the publication of Design for the Real World (Pantheon), an influential manifesto by Viennese educator (and ally of Fuller) Victor Papanek, who inveighed against designers creating “whole species of permanent garbage to clutter up the landscape” and called for a socially inclusive, environmentally responsible design ethic. The 1970s saw significant practical developments. US landscape architect John T. Lyle pioneered 'regenerative design' focused on local, renewable resource use. Swiss architect Walter Stahel (see page 435) codified existing ideas and developed key new ones as principles for his Product-Life Institute in Geneva in the 1980s. More recently, German chemist Michael Braungart and US architect William McDonough (who had collaborated with Lyle) established the product and system certification Cradle to Cradle (a coinage of Stahel's), which treats industrial flows as metabolic and waste as nutrients ( et al. Nature 494, 172–175; 2013). Their book Cradle to Cradle (North Point) was published in 2002. Such design revolutions are essentially longitudinal collaborations between generations, as historian of technology Walter Isaacson has revealed ( Nature 514, 32–33; 2014). Meanwhile, eco-design has moved on from the isolated gizmos and warranties of the 1970s, such as Germany's 'life cycle' eco-label, Blue Angel. New ventures are designing circularity in from the off, as the case studies here demonstrate. Enterra in Vancouver, Canada, recycles unsold organic food to feed fly larvae, which it then harvests as livestock feed (see 'Transform waste into protein'). AeroFarms in Newark, New Jersey, grows up to 4 million kilograms of baby leafy greens a year in vertical indoor 'fields', without pesticides and using 95% less water than in field farming. A number of grand old companies are retrofitting circularity. BAM Construct UK (of the Dutch Royal BAM Group, founded in 1869) focuses on disassembly — ensuring that the raw materials it uses are either interchangeable or easily separated, and that components can be dismantled (see 'Design for deconstruction'). UK aerospace-engine powerhouse Rolls-Royce plc has cut raw-material use, cost and emissions through its recycling programme, Revert (see 'Create consistent supply systems'), which emphasizes 'power by the hour' and remanufacturing. Academia and governments are also waking up to circular thinking, from China (see page 440) to Europe. British sailor and circumnavigator Ellen MacArthur aims to speed the transition through her eponymous foundation in Cowes, UK, which has synthesized existing knowledge to educate on, and catalyse innovation towards, the circular economy, collaborating energetically with businesses as well as design and engineering universities. On board are Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands; the University of Bradford, UK, which established the first circular-economy master's degree in 2013; and, under a fellowship with the philanthropic US Schmidt Family Foundation in Boca Raton, Florida, a consortium of 12 universities including the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Tongji University in Shanghai, China, the Indian National Institute of Design in Ahmedabad and Imperial College London. Collectively, all this constitutes a great deal more than a gleam in Buckminster Fuller's eye. Yet if the circular economy is an ecosystem for green innovation, it is primarily an island one: wildlife corridors are few. No city, region or country has embraced the vision fully. And the urbanizing, consuming and wasting world does not stand still: the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development estimates that the global middle class (with all its material hankerings and 'disposable' income) will swell to 4.9 billion by 2030 (from 1.8 billion in 2009). Meanwhile, the evolving industrial worldscape — a welter of start-ups, monocultures and multinationals, most clinging to business-as-usual — contributes a dynamic unpredictability. There are problems, too, with the circular model itself. Martin Charter, director of the Centre for Sustainable Design at the University for the Creative Arts in Farnham, UK, notes a “lack of overall clarity over the concept. Perhaps just 100 companies worldwide have adopted a true circularity mindset as a core strategy.” As for the circular mantra of switching to the digital, data centres waste an average of 90% of the energy that they consume (30 billion watts, equivalent to the output of 30 nuclear power plants) and account for 17% of technology's carbon footprint. Although the circular 'business case' looks remarkable (global management consultants McKinsey and Company estimate that it could add US$2.6 trillion to the European economy by 2030), the fact that business remains central to the vision is a vulnerability. The growth economy impedes sustainability. In 2014, for instance, Chevron and a number of other big oil companies retreated from investments in renewables because of poor returns. Business competitiveness and 'disruption' can hinder the collaboration that is central to eco-design. UK design engineer Chris Wise has noted that the practice of using 'least materials' is at odds with the construction industry's prime aim of selling more materials ( et al. Nature 494, 172–175; 2013). The 'rebound effect', in which designed efficiency leads to greater use or consumption, is a related conundrum. The thirteenth-century artist Giotto reportedly proved his genius by drawing a perfect circle. The cycles of the biosphere, from water to soil, are wonders of economy. So the idea of a circle strikes a deep chord in us. But one look at any large city reveals disconnection, pollution and social inequality. Can we square the circular economy?


Feng Y.,Tongji University | Feng Y.,Beijing Jiaotong University | Chen X.,Beijing Jiaotong University | Xu X.F.,Beijing Jiaotong University | Xu X.F.,Stevens Institute of Technology
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

This research focuses on the enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) potential in China and related technology, especially induced microseismicity and carbon storage combination. Hydraulic fracturing mechanisms applied in EGS were compared with similar fracturing mechanisms for shale gas. Besides, geothermal gradient in China was mapped based on the most recent heat flow values with interpolation method. The development history of geothermal plants in China was comprehensively reviewed through case studies. This paper revealed that the geothermal measuring wells in China were too shallow and too few to offer an accurate estimation. A coming work should aim at heat flow survey in deep layer, induced microseismicity mechanisms, and economically feasible scope in China. These problems will strengthen practical understanding and facilitate extensive application of EGS in China. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Fedele R.,Polytechnic of Milan | Scaioni M.,Tongji University | Barazzetti L.,Polytechnic of Milan | Rosati G.,Polytechnic of Milan | Biolzi L.,Polytechnic of Milan
Cement and Concrete Composites | Year: 2014

In this methodological study, delamination phenomena of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) strips from masonry pillars were investigated on the basis of single-lap shear tests. The masonry pillar considered in this case was constituted of three historical bricks, derived from a XVII century rural building. The bricks were bonded by a high strength mortar recently proposed for the restoration process. To follow the specimen response up to collapse, the test was controlled by a clip gauge located at the anchorage of the reinforcement strip. The conventional experimental information, concerning the overall reaction force and relative displacements provided by point sensors (LVDTs and clip gauge), were herein enriched with no-contact, kinematic full-field measurements provided by 2D Digital Image Correlation (2D DIC). Special care was devoted to improve the precision of the optical measurement, which included correction of the effects owing to the lens distortion and to lack of coplanarity between the camera sensor and the monitored flat surface. The overall accuracy was assessed through laboratory benchmarking tests. Moreover, an advanced three-dimensional mechanical model based on nonlinear finite elements was developed under the simplifying assumption of perfect adhesion. This model was adopted to describe bulk damage inside the heterogeneous specimen and to correlate it to the macroscopic response and surface measurements. Coherence between the above mentioned sources of information and the predictions provided by the advanced finite element model were critically discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Tang O.,Linköping University | Tang O.,Tongji University | Nurmaya Musa S.,Linköping University | Nurmaya Musa S.,University of Malaya
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2011

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the research development in supply chain risk management (SCRM), which has shown an increasing global attention in recent years. Literature survey and citation/co-citation analysis are used to fulfil the research task. Literature survey has undertaken a thorough search of articles on selected journals relevant to supply chain operations management. Meanwhile, citation/co-citation analysis uses Web of Sciences database to disclose SCRM development between 1995 and 2009. Both the approaches show similar trends of rising publications over the past 15 years. This review has piloted us to identify and classify the potential risk associated with different flows, namely material, cash and information flows. Consequently, we identify some research gaps. Even though there is a pressing need and awareness of SCRM from industrial aspect, quantitative models in the field are relatively lacking and information flow risk has received less attention. It is also interesting to observe the evolutions and advancements of SCRM discipline. One finding is that the intellectual structure of the field made statistically significant increase during 20002005 and evolved from passively reacting to vague general issues of disruptions towards more proactively managing supply chain risk from system perspectives. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zhu H.,Nipissing University | Zhou M.,Tongji University | Zhou M.,New Jersey Institute of Technology | Alkins R.,Stroma Service Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Part A:Systems and Humans | Year: 2012

Role assignment is a critical task in role-based collaboration. It has three steps, i.e., agent evaluation, group role assignment, and role transfer, where group role assignment is a time-consuming process. This paper clarifies the group role assignment problem (GRAP), describes a general assignment problem (GAP), converts a GRAP to a GAP, proposes an efficient algorithm based on the Kuhn-Munkres (K-M) algorithm, conducts numerical experiments, and analyzes the solutions' performances. The results show that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the algorithm based on exhaustive search. The major contributions of this paper include formally defining the GRAPs, giving a general efficient solution for them, and expanding the application scope of the K-M algorithm. This paper offers an efficient enough solution based on the K-M algorithm that outperforms significantly the exhaustive search approach. © 2012 IEEE.


Ke S.-H.,Tongji University | Ke S.-H.,Beijing Computational Science Research Center
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

An efficient all-electron G0W0 method and a quasiparticle self-consistent GW (QSGW) method for molecules are proposed in the molecular-orbital space with the full random-phase approximation. The convergence with the basis set is examined. As an application, the ionization energy and electron affinity of a series of conjugated molecules (up to 32 atoms) are calculated and compared to the experiment. The QSGW result improves the G0W0 result and both of them are in significantly better agreement with experimental data than those from Hartree-Fock (HF) and hybrid density-functional calculations, especially for electron affinity. The nearly correct energy gap and suppressed self-interaction error by the HF exchange make our method a good candidate for investigating electronic and transport properties of molecular systems. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Huang Y.-S.,National Ilan University | Pan Y.-L.,Air force Institute of Technology Taiwan | Zhou M.,Tongji University | Zhou M.,New Jersey Institute of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Part A:Systems and Humans | Year: 2012

Deadlock prevention, deadlock detection, and deadlock avoidance strategies are used to solve the deadlock problems of flexible manufacturing systems. The theory of regions is recognized as the unique method for obtaining maximally permissive (i.e., optimal) controllers in the existing literature. All legal and live maximal behavior of a Petri net model can be preserved by using a marking/transition-separation instance (MTSI). However, obtaining them is an extremely time consuming problem. This work proposes crucial MTSIs that allow designers to employ much fewer MTSIs to deal with deadlocks. The advantage of the proposed policy is that an optimal deadlock controller can be obtained with drastically reduced computation. Experimental results, by varying the markings of given net structures, indicate that it is the most efficient policy to obtain such controllers. © 2011 IEEE.


Low B.K.,Nanyang Technological University | Zhang J.,Tongji University | Tang W.H.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Computers and Geotechnics | Year: 2011

Although first-order reliability method is a common procedure for estimating failure probability, the formulas derived for bimodal bounds of system failure probability have not been widely used as expected in present reliability analyses. The reluctance for applying these formulas in practice may be partly due to the impression that the procedures to implement the system reliability theory are tedious. Among the methods for system reliability analysis, the approach suggested in Ditlevsen 1979 is considered here because it is a natural extension of the first-order reliability method commonly used for failure probability estimation corresponding to a single failure mode, and it can often provide reasonably narrow failure probability bounds. To facilitate wider practical application, this paper provides a short program code in the ubiquitous Excel spreadsheet platform for efficiently calculating the bounds for system failure probability. The procedure is illustrated for a semi-gravity retaining wall with two failure modes, a soil slope with two and eight failure modes, and a loaded beam with three failure modes. In addition, simple equations are provided to relate the correlated but unrotated equivalent standard normals of the Low and Tang 2007 FORM procedure with the uncorrelated but rotated equivalent standard normals of the classical FORM procedure. Also demonstrated are the need for investigating different permutations of failure modes in order to get the narrowest bounds for system failure probability, and the use of SORM reliability index for system reliability bounds in a case where the curvature of the limit state surface cannot be neglected. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Dong H.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Guan X.,Tongji University | Lo I.M.C.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Water Research | Year: 2012

Nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) offers a promising approach for arsenic remediation, but the spent NZVI with elevated arsenic content could arouse safety concerns. This study investigated the fate of As(V)-treated NZVI (As-NZVI), by examining the desorption potential of As under varying conditions. The desorption kinetics of As from As-NZVI as induced by phosphate was well described by a biphasic rate model. The effects of As(V)/NZVI mass ratio, pH, and aging time on arsenic desorption from As-NZVI by phosphate were investigated. Less arsenic desorption was observed at lower pH or higher As(V)/NZVI mass ratio, where stronger complexes (bidentate) formed between As(V) and NZVI corrosion products as indicated by FTIR analysis. Compared with the fresh As-NZVI, the amount of phosphate-extractable As significantly decreased in As-NZVI aged for 30 or 60 days. The results of the sequential extraction experiments demonstrated that a larger fraction of As was sorbed in the crystalline phases after aging, making it less susceptible to phosphate displacement. However, at pH 9, a slightly higher proportion of phosphate-extractable As was observed in the 60-day sample than in the 30-day sample. XPS results revealed the transformation of As(V) to more easily desorbed As(III) during aging and a higher As(III)/As(V) ratio in the 60-day sample at pH 9, which might have resulted in the higher desorption. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Peng C.,Tongji University | Chen B.,Tongji University | Qin Y.,Tongji University | Yang S.,Clear Technology | And 4 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2012

In this paper, we report a facile ultrasonic method to synthesize well-dispersed CoO quantum dots (3-8 nm) on graphene nanosheets at room temperature by employing Co 4(CO) 12 as cobalt precursor. The prepared CoO/graphene composites displayed high performance as an anode material for lithium-ion battery, such as high reversible lithium storage capacity (1592 mAh g -1 after 50 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (over 95%), excellent cycling stability, and high rate capability (1008 mAh g -1 with a total retention of 77.6% after 50 cycles at a current density of 1000 mA g -1, dramatically increased from the initial 50 mA g -1). The extraordinary performance arises from the structure advantages of the composites: the nanosized CoO quantum dots with high dispersity on conductive graphene substrates supply not only large quantity of accessible active sites for lithium-ion insertion but also good conductivity and short diffusion length for lithium ions, which are beneficial for high capacity and rate capability. Meanwhile, the isolated CoO quantum dots anchored tightly on the graphene nanosheets can effectively circumvent the volume expansion/contraction associated with lithium insertion/extraction during discharge/charge processes, which is good for high capacity as well as cycling stability. Moreover, regarding the anomalous behavior of capacity increase with cycles (activation effect) observed, we proposed a tentative hypothesis stressing the competition between the conductivity increase and the amorphorization of the composite electrodes during cycling in determining the trends of the capacity, in the hope to gain a fuller understanding of the inner working of the novel nanostructured electrode-based lithium-ion batteries. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Ding M.-C.,Tongji University | Lin H.-Q.,Beijing Computational Science Research Center | Zhang Y.-Z.,Tongji University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2013

By calculating orbitally resolved Pauli susceptibilities within maximally localized Wannier orbital basis transformed from first principles band structures, we find that magnetism in Fe1+xTe still has its itinerant origin even without Fermi surface nesting, provided orbital modulation of particle-hole excitations are considered. This leads to strong magnetic instabilities at wave vector (0,π)/(π,0) in dxz/dyz orbitals that are responsible for the bicollinear antiferromagnetic state as extra electrons donated from excess Fe are considered. Magnetic exchange coupling between excess Fe and in-plane Fe further stabilizes the bicollinear antiferromagnetic order. Our results reveal that magnetism and superconductivity in iron chalcogenides may have different orbital origin, as Pauli susceptibilities of different orbitals evolve differently as a function of concentration of excess Fe and height of the chalcogen atom measured from the iron plane. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Kan L.-L.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Shi H.-S.,Tongji University
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2012

Crack characteristics of M45-ECC and HFA-ECC specimens pre-loaded to strain levels of 0.3%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% were investigated in this paper. This was done at different ages, resonant frequency and mechanical recovery behavior of re-healed ECC materials, new crack paths after reloading and the chemical analysis of healing products. Based on the experimental results, ECC with multiple micro-cracks benefits self-healing behavior. Longer aged samples and high fly ash contribute to create more cracks of smaller width. Wet/dry conditioning cycles aid self-healing, most of which occurs before 4-5 cycles. After 10 wet/dry cycles, RF recovery due to self-healing exceeds 75% for M45-ECC, 85% for HFA-ECC of different ages even at a 2.0% imposed pre-loaded damage. The tensile strain capacity of the major re-healed ECC is almost 2.0% for M45-ECC and 3.0% for HFA-ECC. Most of new cracks follow through the previous crack location after reloading. Self-healing products mainly include C-S-H and CaCO 3. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Liu Z.,Tongji University | Fan H.,Tongji University | Jiang S.,Immunis Clinic
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2013

The identification of T-helper 9 (Th9), Th17, Th22 cells as distinct subsets of CD4+ T cells has extended the Th1/Th2 paradigm in the adaptive immunity. In the past decade, many studies in animal models and clinical transplantation have demonstrated that interleukin-17 (IL-17) is involved in allograft rejection. It appears that Th17 cells together with Th1 and Th2 cells play an important role in mediating allograft rejection. Here, we summarize our current knowledge on the contribution of Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, and follicular T-helper (Tfh) cells in allograft rejection. We also discuss the regulation of CD4+ T-cell subsets by CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the context of transplantation tolerance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Zhang J.,Tongji University | Zhang L.M.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Tang W.H.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Canadian Geotechnical Journal | Year: 2011

A slope may have many possible slip surfaces. As sliding along any slip surface can cause slope failure, the system failure probability of a slope is different from the probability of failure along an individual slip surface. In this paper, we first suggest an efficient method for evaluating the system failure probability of a slope that considers a large number of possible slip surfaces. To obtain more insights into the system failure probability of a slope, we also propose a method to identify a few representative slip surfaces most important for system reliability analysis among a large number of potential slip surfaces and to calculate the system failure probability based on these representative slip surfaces. An equation for estimating the bounds of system failure probability based on the failure probability of the most critical slip surface is also suggested. The system failure probability is governed by only a few representative slip surfaces. For a homogenous slope, the failure probability of the most critical slip surface is a good approximation of the system failure probability. For a slope in layered soils, the system failure probability can be significantly larger than the failure probability of the most critical slip surface. © NRC Research Press 2011.


Keupp M.M.,University of St. Gallen | Friesike S.,University of St. Gallen | Von Zedtwitz M.,Tongji University
Research Policy | Year: 2012

Foreign firms patent in emerging economies with weak appropriability regimes at an increasing rate. This phenomenon constitutes a paradox since in such a setting foreign firms should have weak incentives to patent. In an attempt to resolve this paradox, we conducted an inductive analysis of 11 foreign firms that patent in such a setting, using the case of China as our empirical context. We identify four archetypes of foreign firms and three key antecedents the interaction of which determines which archetype a firm can be subsumed under. Our study complements the developed-economy focus of the extant appropriation literature by adding an international perspective. We extend previous econometric studies by identifying salient factors on the firm level that determine the extent to which a foreign firm patents in emerging economies with a weak appropriability regime, highlighting that the extent of a firm's motivation to maintain its freedom to operate can supersede imitability concerns. We also comment on the practical implications of these contributions for managers of foreign firms. Highlighting a structural conflict of interest between foreign firms from developed economies and the development goals of an emerging economy, we point to the generalizability of our results to a wide range of other emerging economies worldwide. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wang X.,Tongji University | Andrews L.,University of Virginia | Brosi F.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Riedel S.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2013

The reactions of laser-ablated Au, Ag, and Cu atoms with F2 in excess argon and neon gave new absorptions in the M-F stretching region of their IR spectra, which were assigned to metal-fluoride species. For gold, a Ng-AuF bond was identified in mixed neon/argon samples. However, this bonding was much weaker with AgF and CuF. Molecules MF2 and MF3 (M=Au, Ag, Cu) were identified from the isotopic distribution of the Cu and Ag atoms, comparison of the frequencies for three metal fluorides, and theoretical frequency calculations. The AuF5 molecule was characterized by its strongest stretching mode and theoretical frequency calculations. Additional evidence was observed for the formation of the Au2F6 molecule. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Yuan W.,Tongji University | Yuan W.,Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Materials | Guo W.,Tongji University
Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2014

Novel ultraviolet (UV) light-breakable and tunable thermoresponsive amphiphilic block copolymers were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). These amphiphilic copolymers can self-assemble into micelles in water. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and size of the micelles were adjusted by altering the ratio of 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate (MEO2MA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (OEGMA). Upon UV light irradiation, 2-nitrobenzyl moieties were detached from polymer chains and the micelles were dissociated. When the solutions were heated above LCST, the micelles can be re-self-assembled. Investigation revealed that the Nile red molecules which were encapsulated in micelles can be controllably released through changing temperature and undergoing UV light irradiation of micelle solutions. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.


Wu C.,Tongji University | Li H.,Tongji University | Yu X.,Tongji University | Li F.,Tongji University | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

This study demonstrates theoretically and experimentally that a metallic helix array can operate as a highly transparent broadband wave plate in propagation directions perpendicular to the axis of helices. The functionality arises from a special property of the helix array, namely, that two branches of elliptically right-handed and left-handed polarized states are nearly rigidly shifted in frequency and their dispersions are controlled by different mechanisms that can be independently tuned by structural parameters. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Du Z.,Tongji University | Fei T.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Fei T.,Harvard University | Verhaak R.G.W.,Anderson University, South Carolina | And 6 more authors.
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Despite growing appreciation of the importance of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in normal physiology and disease, our knowledge of cancer-related lncRNAs remains limited. By repurposing microarray probes, we constructed expression profiles of 10,207 lncRNA genes in approximately 1,300 tumors over four different cancer types. Through integrative analysis of the lncRNA expression profiles with clinical outcome and somatic copy-number alterations, we identified lncRNAs that are associated with cancer subtypes and clinical prognosis and predicted those that are potential drivers of cancer progression. We validated our predictions by experimentally confirming prostate cancer cell growth dependence on two newly identified lncRNAs. Our analysis provides a resource of clinically relevant lncRNAs for the development of lncRNA biomarkers and the identification of lncRNA therapeutic targets. It also demonstrates the power of integrating publically available genomic data sets and clinical information for discovering disease-associated lncRNAs.


Sun Y.,Tongji University | Tan W.,Tongji University | Tan W.,Beijing Computational Science Research Center | Li H.-Q.,Tongji University | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We report the realization of a coherent perfect absorber, using a pair of passive resonators coupled to a microwave transmission line in the background, which can completely absorb light in its parity-time (PT-)symmetric phase but not in its broken phase. Instead of balancing material gain and loss, we exploit the incident waves in the open system as an effective gain so that ideal PT symmetry can be established by using only passive materials. Such a route will be effective to construct PT-symmetric metamaterials and also tunable PT-symmetric optical elements in general. It also provides a flexible platform for studying exceptional-point physics with both electric and magnetic responses. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SST-2007-6.0-02 | Award Amount: 499.93K | Year: 2008

The SIMBA II project aims to increase RTD cooperation between the EU and the ICPC of Brazil, China, India, Russia and South Africa. SIMBA II will look at how the EU and ICPC can jointly increase road safety, mobility and transport efficiency, improve road and transport network management and research appropriate pavement design while at the same time improving levels of transport-related pollution. This will enable SIMBA II to support emerging markets in their efforts to improve transportation while at the same time enhancing European industrial competitiveness via transfer of technologies. Special attention will be paid to mobility and road management, urban traffic issues and public transport in order to better assess and evaluate the development of new infrastructure and of policy-led ITS solutions through sustainable urban transport planning. ICPC could benefit in this respect from the latest experiences in the EU and move forward integrated transport network management, focusing on policy solutions to tackle congestion and environmental challenges. During a 24-month period, the SIMBA II project will set up and run a series of expert groups to further work on the priorities defined in the first SIMBA project. It will bring together European and local ICPC organisations to engage in preparatory technical work, including feasibility studies for the development and/or implementation of new ITS and infrastructure technologies in the ICPC (looking at adapting European technologies to local needs in an effort to improve local transport conditions).


SHANGAI, 23 de diciembre de 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- En diciembre de 2016 se celebró con éxito la 8th International Advisory Committee Meeting, School of Economics and Management de la Tongji University. Responsables gubernamentales influyentes, empresarios, directores generales de universidades, decanos, prestigiosos expertos en los campos de la economía y gestión, nuevos facultativos y representantes de estudiantes estuvieron presentes para proporcionar consultoría de cara a la toma de decisiones vital para la planificación de desarrollo a largo y medio plazo de SEM, además de las proposiciones de ofrecimiento para la estrategia de desarrollo de SEM. El profesor GU Xianglin, vicepresidente de la Tongji University, otorgó un reconocimiento completo a los logros de SEM dentro de las acreditaciones y desarrollo internacionales: "SEM ha creado un conocimiento de gestión y desarrollado a destacados profesionales para la sociedad que son capaces de resolver los problemas prácticos con destacadas responsabilidades sociales, sobre todo dentro de los campos de desarrollo urbano y gestión de servicio". El profesor JIN Fu'an resumió el desarrollo de SEM durante el año anterior en relación al nuevo reclutamiento de facultados, investigación del rendimiento científico, contribuciones sociales, alumnos, cooperación internacional y clasificaciones. El profesor JIN respondió además acerca de los temas surgidos por medio de los miembros del comité de asesoramiento durante el año pasado dentro del marketing, en el que la escuela estableció su propio departamento de marketing. Cuando la escuela consiguió las acreditaciones EQUIS y AACSB, cientos de medios extranjeros y locales informaron sobre esta gran noticia. SEM ha recibido en 2016 el premio "Best Contribution for CSR Spread" otorgado por PR Newswire. El panel de debate estuvo centrado en la internacionalización de la formación SEM bajo la estrategia nacional "One Belt One Road". El profesor CHEN Song presentó primero el historial de su estrategia nacional denominada "One Belt One Road" y la voluntad de SEM de ayudar a enseñar y formar a los profesionales familiares para las compañías internacionales y de China. El profesor REZA compartió los programas de Babson en China, Rusia y la India, que proporcionaban a los estudiantes la visión global y capacidad de hacer frente a las comunicaciones entre culturas. El profesor WANG Guangbin sugirió que SEM debería trabajar junto a las grandes compañías de propiedad estatal, como China Railway, que necesitaban a profesionales administrativos al tiempo que establecía su negocio de ultramar. LI Ruicheng destacó que sería muy apreciado contar con un equipo académico de SEM para proporcionar consultoría a las compañías. El profesor HUO Jiazhen asesoró entorno al SEM IEDP Program para suministrar formación de gestión a los empleados con un historial de ingeniería en las compañías extranjeras. SHEN Xuejun compartió la experiencia de SIMENS para colaborar con las compañías de Malasia y Bangladesh en relación a que un historial cultural extranjero básico y de normativo local debería aprenderse antes de comenzar los negocios para asegurar una comunicación perfecta.


News Article | December 3, 2015
Site: www.greencarcongress.com

« Navigant forecasts annual fuel cell vehicles sales to exceed 228,000 units by 2024 | Main | Boeing, Canadian aviation industry launch sustainable aviation biofuel project using forestry waste » General Motors is applying third-generation advanced high-strength steel to the new Chevrolet LOVA RV from SAIC-GM, thereby reducing the weight of selected body components by approximately 20%. The recreational vehicle (RV) was launched on 19 November 2015. The new steel offers a superior balance of strength and ductility as compared to the first generation of high-strength steels. The fuel economy of a vehicle is generally considered to increase by 6 to 8% for every 10% reduction in body weight. In 2009, GM began encouraging steel manufacturers to produce third-generation advanced high-strength steel with superior formability and tensile strengths of 1,000 MPa and higher for vehicle bodies. Among all the state-of-art steel-making processes, the GM China Science Lab in Shanghai identified the Quench and Partition (Q&P) process as one of most promising solutions for producing third-generation advanced high-strength steel.cQ&P steel represents a new type of ultrahigh-strength steel with good ductility to improve fuel economy while promoting passenger safety. With a final microstructure of ferrite (in the case of partial austenitization), martensite, and retained austenite, Q&P steel exhibits an excellent combination of strength and ductility. Through a specially-designed quenching and partitioning treatment, retained austenite can be stabilized in the steel microstructure at room temperature, which significantly improves the formability of steel. In 2011, GM China Science Lab joined GM’s Pan Asia Technical Automotive Center (PATAC) joint venture, Baosteel and Tongji University to establish an expert team to develop solutions for introducing Q&P steels into GM vehicles. Research groups within the GM China Science Lab, GM China Advanced Technical Center (ATC), and the GM Warren Technical Center in the United States collaborated on research and development of third-generation advanced high-strength steel. This global development network was instrumental in the successful implementation of the advanced steel technology in GM vehicles. In the past, nearly 25 years of research and development were required to go from initial steel development concepts to production of the first-generation high-strength steels such as dual-phase steel. Through open innovation, GM and its partners have been able to shorten significantly the concept-to-production process of third generation steels. GM has also contributed significantly to the application of key technologies by studying materials, microstructures and assessing their performance. Findings from these investigations are now being applied to the development of third-generation 1,200 MPa Q&P steel. In addition, assessment methods that precisely measure the performance of third-generation advanced high-strength steel, especially in terms of crashworthiness, have been adopted by a number of steelmakers. Technical learnings such as these are being shared worldwide within GM and will be instrumental to future applications of third-generation steels in GM vehicles around the globe.


SHANGHAI, Dec. 23, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- In December, 2016, the 8th International Advisory Committee Meeting, School of Economics and Management, Tongji University was successfully held. Influential government officers, entrepreneurs, presidents of universities, deans, experts renowned in the fields of economics and management, new faculty & student representatives were present to provide consultations on crucial decision-making for SEM's medium-long term development planning, and offer propositions for SEM's developing strategy. Prof. GU Xianglin, Vice President of Tongji University gave full recognition to SEM's achievement in the international accreditations and development, "SEM has created management knowledge and develop leading professionals for the society who are capable of solving practical problems with strong social responsibilities, especially in the fields of urban development and service management." Prof. JIN Fu'an briefed the development of SEM over the past one year regarding new faculty recruitment, output of scientific research, social contributions, alumni, international cooperation and rankings. Prof. JIN also responded to the issues raised by advisory members last year on its marketing, in which the school has established its own marketing department. When the school got the EQUIS and AACSB accreditations, hundreds of foreign and local media reported this great news. SEM has received "Best Contribution for CSR Spread" award in 2016 from PR Newswire. The panel discussion focused on the internationalization of SEM's education under the national strategy of "One Belt One Road". Prof. CHEN Song first introduced the background of this national strategy of "One Belt One Road" and SEM's willingness to help train and educate relative professionals for Chinese and international companies. Prof. REZA shared Babson's programs in China, Russia and India which provided students with global insights and the abilities of coping with intercultural communications. Prof. WANG Guangbin suggested that SEM should work closely with big state-owned companies such as China Railway, who need management professionals while setting up oversea business. Mr. LI Ruicheng said that an academic team of SEM taking its advantages to give consultation for those companies will be much appreciated. Prof. HUO Jiazhen advised SEM IEDP Program to give management training for employees with engineering background in oversea companies. Mr. SHEN Xuejun shared SIMENS' experience to collaborate with Malaysia and Bangladesh companies that basic foreign culture background and local law regulations should be learned before starting business to ensure smooth communication. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/the-internationalization-of-tongji-sems-education-under-the-national-strategy-of-one-belt-one-road-300383543.html


SHANGHAI, Dec. 23, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- In December, 2016, the 8th International Advisory Committee Meeting, School of Economics and Management, Tongji University was successfully held. Influential government officers, entrepreneurs, presidents of universities, deans, experts renowned in the fields of economics and management, new faculty & student representatives were present to provide consultations on crucial decision-making for SEM's medium-long term development planning, and offer propositions for SEM's developing strategy. Prof. GU Xianglin, Vice President of Tongji University gave full recognition to SEM's achievement in the international accreditations and development, "SEM has created management knowledge and develop leading professionals for the society who are capable of solving practical problems with strong social responsibilities, especially in the fields of urban development and service management." Prof. JIN Fu'an briefed the development of SEM over the past one year regarding new faculty recruitment, output of scientific research, social contributions, alumni, international cooperation and rankings. Prof. JIN also responded to the issues raised by advisory members last year on its marketing, in which the school has established its own marketing department. When the school got the EQUIS and AACSB accreditations, hundreds of foreign and local media reported this great news. SEM has received "Best Contribution for CSR Spread" award in 2016 from PR Newswire. The panel discussion focused on the internationalization of SEM's education under the national strategy of "One Belt One Road". Prof. CHEN Song first introduced the background of this national strategy of "One Belt One Road" and SEM's willingness to help train and educate relative professionals for Chinese and international companies. Prof. REZA shared Babson's programs in China, Russia and India which provided students with global insights and the abilities of coping with intercultural communications. Prof. WANG Guangbin suggested that SEM should work closely with big state-owned companies such as China Railway, who need management professionals while setting up oversea business. Mr. LI Ruicheng said that an academic team of SEM taking its advantages to give consultation for those companies will be much appreciated. Prof. HUO Jiazhen advised SEM IEDP Program to give management training for employees with engineering background in oversea companies. Mr. SHEN Xuejun shared SIMENS' experience to collaborate with Malaysia and Bangladesh companies that basic foreign culture background and local law regulations should be learned before starting business to ensure smooth communication.


Yan Z.-G.,Tongji University | Zhu H.-H.,Tongji University | Ju J.W.,University of California at Los Angeles
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

This paper presents comprehensive experimental test results on the behavior of the reinforced concrete (RC) and the steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) shield TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) tunnel lining segments and the lining rings exposed to a HC (Hydrocarbon) curve. The experimental results indicate that the nonlinear nonuniform temperature distribution within the concrete linings causes significant nonuniform thermal expansion and material property degradation. The initial loads exert significant effects on the behavior of the lining segments, whose performance was remarkably deteriorated in the fire. The coupled thermal-mechanical effects, induced by the nonuniform thermal expansion, the deterioration of material properties and the interaction between adjacent member segments, lead to considerable deformations of the lining rings, dynamic internal force redistribution and reduction of load bearing capacity. The lining joints play a critical role upon the behavior and the failure pattern of the lining rings. Based on our test results, the RC linings perform better than the SFRC linings under intensive tunnel fire. Other notable, new observations and behavior are also presented in this work. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Shu S.,Tongji University | Lin F.,Wayne State University
IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering | Year: 2014

This paper considers fault-tolerant control that ensures the safety of a discrete-event system. We consider multiple faulty modes. Each faulty mode is modeled by an automaton. These automata, together with the automaton modeling normal mode, describe a discrete-event system with faults. Each faulty mode has some illegal states that must be avoided by control so that the fault can be tolerated. We assume that fault-tolerant control takes actions (disablements) only when the occurrence of a fault is certain. We consider cases of both full event observation and partial event observation. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of fault-tolerant control. We also provide formulas and algorithms to calculate control actions if the necessary and sufficient conditions are satisfied. Both offline control synthesis (for full event observation) and online control synthesis (for partial event observation) are investigated. We allow multiple faults as well as single faults. © 2013 IEEE.


Guo M.-T.,Tongji University | Guo M.-T.,Tsinghua University | Yuan Q.-B.,Tongji University | Yang J.,Tongji University
Water Research | Year: 2013

Little is known about the microbial selectivity of UV treatment for antibiotic resistant bacteria, and the results of limited studies are conflicting. To understand the effect of UV disinfection on antibiotic resistant bacteria, both total heterotrophic bacteria and antibiotic resistant bacteria (including cephalexin-, ciprofloxacin-, erythromycin-, gentamicin-, vancomycin-, sulfadiazine-, rifampicin-, tetracycline- and chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria) were examined in secondary effluent samples from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Bacteria resistant to both erythromycin and tetracycline were chosen as the representative of multiple-antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their characteristics after UV treatment were also investigated.UV disinfection results in effective inactivation for total heterotrophic bacteria, as well as all antibiotic resistant bacteria. After UV treatment at a fluence of 5mJ/cm2, the log reductions of nine types of antibiotic resistant bacteria varied from 1.0±0.1 to 2.4±0.1. Bacteria resistant to both erythromycin and tetracycline had a similar fluence response as did total heterotrophic bacteria. The findings suggest that UV disinfection could eliminate antibiotic resistance in wastewater treatment effluents and thus ensure public health security.Our experimental results indicated that UV disinfection led to enrichment of bacteria with resistance to sulfadiazine, vancomycin, rifampicin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, while the proportions of cephalexin-, erythromycin-, gentamicin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria in the wastewater decreased. This reveals the microbial selectivity of UV disinfection for antibiotic resistant bacteria. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhao L.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Xue M.,Tongji University
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems | Year: 2010

We investigate the mantle flow pattern and geodynamic cause of North China Craton (NCC) reactivation using shear wave splitting measurements from 140 broadband stations. Using a newly developed method for simulating wave propagation in a two-dimensional anisotropic medium, we first examined the influence of sedimentary structures on SKS splitting measurements. The simulations show that a sedimentary layer, whether isotropic or anisotropic, significantly influences the waveform; however, the shear wave splitting parameters can be retrieved with negligible errors. As a result, this study included new splitting measurements at stations which were deployed within basins and not used previously. Among 121 broadband stations that contribute valid splitting results, 55 stations are newly added which were deployed within basins. This significantly improved the sampling coverage on the NCC. The complicated spatial patterns of the splitting parameters indicate that complex upper mantle deformation has occurred in the NCC. To obtain both deep kinematic and geometric information, we interpret our splitting measurements in the context of new high-resolution tomographic results for the NCC. By comparing our observations with three end-member conceptual models (upwelling, wedge flow, and lithospheric delamination), we found that the observed anisotropy pattern beneath the NCC is not completely consistent with any of them. Thus, we prefer a hybrid mantle flow model, where the subduction of the Pacific Plate causes a mantle wedge flow beneath the eastern Archean block and a regional upwelling beneath the central block which has been imaged as a low velocity anomaly in seismic tomography. Thus we speculate that the subduction of the Pacific Plate, compared to the NCC-Yangtze Craton amalgamation and the India-Eurasian collision, is most likely the geodynamic cause of the reactivation of the NCC eastern block during the Late Mesozoic to Cenozoic. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.


Yu Z.,Tongji University | Yu Z.,Thomas Jefferson University | Pestell R.G.,Thomas Jefferson University
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia | Year: 2012

Small non-coding RNAs include siRNA, miRNA, piRNA and snoRNA. The involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of mammary gland tumorigenesis has been widely studied while the role for other small non-coding RNAs remains unclear. Here we summarize the involvement of miRNA in breast cancer onset and progression through regulating the cell cycle and cellular proliferation. The regulation of breast cancer stem cells and tumor regeneration by miRNA is reviewed. In addition, the emerging evidence demonstrating the involvement of piRNA and snoRNA in breast cancer is briefly described. © 2012 The Author(s).


Du C.,Tongji University | Xie X.,Tongji University | Xie X.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica
Cell Research | Year: 2012

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate most of our physiological responses to hormones, neurotransmitters and environmental stimulants. They are considered as the most successful therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease that is characterized by immune-mediated demyelination and degeneration of the central nervous system (CNS). It is the leading cause of non-traumatic disability in young adults. Great progress has been made over the past few decades in understanding the pathogenesis of MS. Numerous data from animal and clinical studies indicate that many GPCRs are critically involved in various aspects of MS pathogenesis, including antigen presentation, cytokine production, T-cell differentiation, T-cell proliferation, T-cell invasion, etc. In this review, we summarize the recent findings regarding the expression or functional changes of GPCRs in MS patients or animal models, and the influences of GPCRs on disease severity upon genetic or pharmacological manipulations. Hopefully some of these findings will lead to the development of novel therapies for MS in the near future. © 2012 IBCB, SIBS, CAS All rights reserved.


Shu S.,Tongji University | Lin F.,Tongji University | Lin F.,Wayne State University
Systems and Control Letters | Year: 2011

In our previous work, we investigated detectability of discrete event systems, which is defined as the ability to determine the current and subsequent states of a system based on observation. For different applications, we defined four types of detectabilities: (weak) detectability, strong detectability, (weak) periodic detectability, and strong periodic detectability. In this paper, we extend our results in three aspects. (1) We extend detectability from deterministic systems to nondeterministic systems. Such a generalization is necessary because there are many systems that need to be modeled as nondeterministic discrete event systems. (2) We develop polynomial algorithms to check strong detectability. The previous algorithms are based on an observer whose construction is of exponential complexity, while the new algorithms are based on a new automaton called a detector. (3) We extend detectability to D-detectability. While detectability requires determining the exact state of a system, D-detectability relaxes this requirement by asking only to distinguish certain pairs of states. With these extensions, the theory on detectability of discrete event systems becomes more applicable in solving many practical problems. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Jia S.,Shanghai Maritime University | Hu Z.-H.,Shanghai Maritime University | Hu Z.-H.,Tongji University
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2014

The multi-objective flexible job shop scheduling problem is solved using a novel path-relinking algorithm based on the state-of-the-art Tabu search algorithm with back-jump tracking. A routing solution is identified by problem-specific neighborhood search, and is then further refined by the Tabu search algorithm with back-jump tracking for a sequencing decision. The resultant solution is used to maintain the medium-term memory where the best solutions are stored. A path-relinking heuristics is designed to generate diverse solutions in the most promising areas. An improved version of the algorithm is then developed by incorporating an effective dimension-oriented intensification search to find solutions that are located near extreme solutions. The proposed algorithms are tested on benchmark instances and its experimental performance is compared with that of algorithms in the literature. Comparison results show that the proposed algorithms are competitive in terms of its computation performance and solution quality. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Lei Y.,Xiamen University | Lei Y.,Tongji University | Jiang Y.,Xiamen University | Xu Z.,Xiamen University
Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing | Year: 2012

It is important but still challenging to detect structural damage with limited input and output measurement signals. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for detecting structural damage with limited input and output measurement signals. The algorithm is based on sequential application of an extended Kalman estimator for the extended state vector of a structure and least-squares estimation of its unknown external excitations. Analytical recursive solutions for the identification of structural parameters and unknown excitations are derived. Such straightforward derivation and analytical solutions are not available in the previous literature. Structural damage can be detected from the degradation of the identified element stiffness. Numerical examples of detecting damage of some small size structural systems are used to demonstrate the performances of the proposed algorithm. Then, the algorithm is extended to detect structural damage of large size structural systems based on substructure approach. Inter-connection effect between adjacent substructures is considered by 'additional unknown inputs' to substructures. It is shown that the 'additional unknown inputs' can be estimated by the algorithm without the measurements of the substructure interface DOFs, which is superior to previous identification approaches. A numerical example of detecting structural damage of a large size truss illustrates the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Pestell R.G.,Thomas Jefferson University | Yu Z.,Tongji University
Asian Journal of Andrology | Year: 2014

Hyperactive androgen receptor (AR) activity remains a key determinant of the onset and progression of prostate cancer and resistance to current therapies. The mechanisms governing castrate resistant prostate cancer are poorly understood, but defining these molecular events is essential in order to impact deaths from prostate cancer. Yang et al. demonstrate that two lnc-RNAs known to be overexpressed in therapy resistant prostate cancer, PRNCR1 (also known as PCAT8) and PCGEM1, bound to the AR to enhance ligand-dependent and ligand-independent AR gene expression and proliferation of prostate cancer cells.1 The sequence of these interactions involved the binding of PRNCR1 to the acetylated AR and a subsequent association of DOT1L, which was required for the sequential recruitment of the lncRNA PCGEM1 to the AR amino terminus, which in turn was methylated by DOT1L. © 2014 AJA, SIMM & SJTU. All rights reserved.


Xu B.,Tongji University | Zhu Y.,University of California at Los Angeles
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment | Year: 2013

To determine ways to reduce commuters' ultrafine particle exposure, factors such as ventilation condition, mechanical airflow rate, driving speed, cabin air filter quality, and cabin air filter use are examined. The results show that the in-cabin to on-roadway ratio is reduced by 20% when the fan is set to recirculation-on versus when set to recirculation-off because fewer ultrafine particles are exchanged between the inside and outside of the cabin. Also, when the fan is set to recirculation-off, the ratio is reduced by 40% at lower mechanical airflow rates. The thickest cabin air filter resulted in a 30% in-cabin to on-roadway ratio decrease compared with the thinnest. Thus, driving conditions with the least UFP in-cabin to on-roadway ratio is when a vehicle is operating with a high efficiency cabin filter, the ventilation set to fan-on and recycling is recirculation on, and at a high ventilation airflow rate. Furthermore, recirculating in-cabin air through a high efficiency particulate air filter was found to significantly reduce in-cabin UFP exposure. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Liu L.,Tongji University | Xu Y.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Reiter R.J.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Bone | Year: 2013

It seems established that the onset of osteosarcoma and the reduction in melatonin production run in parallel; this suggests that the decline in the cancer-inhibiting agent, melatonin, may contribute to the occurrence of osteosarcoma and that melatonin supplementation may have promise for preventing the development and progression of this condition. There is, however, no direct evidence regarding an antiproliferative effect of melatonin in osteosarcoma cells. In the current study, we examined whether melatonin inhibits the proliferation of human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63. MTT staining showed that at 4mM-10mM concentrations, melatonin significantly reduced the MG-63 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry documented that 4mM melatonin significantly increased the fraction of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, while simultaneously reducing the proportion in the S and G2/M phases. Western blot and real-time PCR analyses further confirmed that melatonin's inhibitory effect was possibly because of downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4, related to the G1 phase, and of cyclin B1 and CDK1, related to the G2/M phase. There was no downregulation of cyclin E, CDK2, and cyclin A, which are related to G1/S transition and S phase. These findings provide evidence that melatonin may significantly inhibit human osteosarcoma cell proliferation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner and this inhibition involves the downregulation of cyclin D1, CDK4, cyclin B1 and CDK1. © 2013.


Jin F.,Tongji University | Jin F.,Tohoku University | Enomoto H.,Tohoku University
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2011

An overview of recent advances in research on selective conversion of carbohydrates into products with hydrothermal chemistry is given. Conversion methods tend to use acid- or base-catalysed reactions and oxidation reactions. Conversion products that can be selectively produced include acetic acid, formic acid, lactic acid, levulinic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde (2-FA). Future conversion paths and possible new products that can be formed with hydrothermal chemistry include aldol/reverse condensation, dehydration, benzilic acid rearrangement, keto-enol tautomerization, Lobry de Bruyn-Alberda van Ekenstein transformation and oxidation reactions. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Coggins M.K.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Zhang M.-T.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Zhang M.-T.,Tsinghua University | Chen Z.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | And 3 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2014

The complex CuII(Py3P) (1) is an electrocatalyst for water oxidation to dioxygen in H2PO4 -/HPO4 2- buffered aqueous solutions. Controlled potential electrolysis experiments with 1 at pH 8.0 at an applied potential of 1.40 V versus the normal hydrogen electrode resulted in the formation of dioxygen (84 % Faradaic yield) through multiple catalyst turnovers with minimal catalyst deactivation. The results of an electrochemical kinetics study point to a single-site mechanism for water oxidation catalysis with involvement of phosphate buffer anions either through atom-proton transfer in a rate-limiting O-O bond-forming step with HPO4 2- as the acceptor base or by concerted electron-proton transfer with electron transfer to the electrode and proton transfer to the HPO4 2- base. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Changshui Z.,Tsinghua University | Guangdong H.,Tsinghua University | Jun W.,Tongji University
Renewable Energy | Year: 2011

In the design of a wind farm, the placement of turbines is an important factor that affects the efficiency and profit, but automatic placement of turbines is still a challenging problem.This study reveals the " submodular" property of the wind turbine positioning problem based on Jensen wake model. Based on this property, a " lazy greedy" algorithm is used to optimize the placement. This method can obtain solutions with theoretical guarantee of quality. It can also estimate the lower bound of the optimal value of the objective function. This method is tested on three types of wind scenarios. Compared to previous research, this algorithm takes much less time, and always gains a better solution.To enlarge the application scope, the wake model is extended to the large scale complex terrain in this study. The present algorithm and some other algorithms are tested in the simulation of the complex terrain. The experimental results demonstrate the present method's superior performance. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Liao Y.,University of California at Los Angeles | Liao Y.,Tongji University | Li X.-G.,Tongji University | Kaner R.B.,University of California at Los Angeles
ACS Nano | Year: 2010

Water-dispersible polypyrrole nanospheres with diameters of less than 100 nm were synthesized in high yield without any templates, surfactants, or functional dopants by the introduction of 2,4-diaminodiphenylamine as an initiator into a reaction mixture of pyrrole monomer, oxidant, and acid. The initiator plays a critical role in tailoring the nanostructures of polypyrrole. 2,4-Diaminodiphenylamine interacts with acid to form cations, which combine with various anions to self-assemble resulting in different size nanomicelles. These nanomicelles, stabilized by initiator molecules, act as templates to encapsulate pyrrole and oxidant leading to the formation of nanospheres during polymerization. When smaller acids are used, smaller diameter sphere-like polypyrrole nanostructures are obtained. The as-synthesized polypyrrole nanospheres can then be used to fabricate highly conducting nitrogen-doped carbon nanospheres with controllable sizes of 50-220 nm with monodispersities up to 95% after pyrolysis. The size of the carbon nanospheres decreases by 20-30 nm due to carbonization when compared to the original polymer nanospheres. The molecular structures, morphologies, and electrical properties along with the formation mechanism of the polypyrrole and carbon nanospheres are discussed. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Liao Y.Z.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology | Strong V.,University of California at Los Angeles | Wang Y.,University of California at Los Angeles | Li X.-G.,Tongji University | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2012

Blue light-emitting oligotriphenylene nanofibers are synthesized by oxidizing triphenylene using ferric chloride. By adjusting the monomer concentration, the acid used, and the temperature employed, the average diameter and length of the nanofibers can be readily tuned from 50 to 200 nm and 0.5 to 5 μm, respectively. Structural characterization, electrical conductivity, thermal stability, and fluorescence of oligotriphenylene, along with a proposed nanofiber formation mechanism, are presented. Both oligotriphenylene nanofiber dispersions and oligotriphenylene/polysulfone composite films are developed as fluorescent sensors for detecting traces of nitro-based explosives including nitromethane, nitrobenzene, and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, as well as an electron-deficient metal ion, Fe(III). The sensors exhibit much better selectivity and sensitivity compared to conventional sensors, with detection limits down to 1.0 nm with a detection range covering ∼4 orders of magnitude. The detection mechanism of the fluorescent sensors is also disscussed. Blue light-emitting oligotriphenylene nanofiber molecular wires exhibit high thermal stability, high fluorescence quantum yield, enhanced conductivity, and stable fluorescence, when compared to the monomer. Fluorescent sensors based on oligotriphenylene nanofibers and their polysulfone composite films enable trace detection, high sensitivity, and high selectivity of nitro-based explosives including nitromethane, nitrobenzene, and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol as well as Fe(III) owing to formation of stable π-electron/charge transfer complexes between the fluorophores and the analytes. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Zhang G.,Wuhan University of Technology | Gao Y.,Wuhan University of Technology | Zhang Y.,Tongji University | Guo Y.,Wuhan University of Technology
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

An efficient Fe2O3-pillared rectorite (Fe-R) clay was successfully developed as a heterogeneous catalyst for photo-Fenton degradation of organic contaminants. X-ray diffraction analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscope analysis clearly showed the existence of the Fe2O3 nanoparticles in the Fe-R catalyst. The catalytic activity of the Fe-R catalyst was evaluated by the discoloration and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of an azo-dye rhodamine B (RhB, 100 mg/L) and a typical persistent organic pollutant 4-nitrophenol (4-NP, 50 mg/ L) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). It was found that the discoloration rate of the two contaminants was over 99.3%, and the COD removal rate of the two contaminants was over 87.0%. The Fe-R catalyst showed strong adsorbability for the RhB in the aqueous solution. Moreover, the Fe-R catalyst still showed good stability for the degradation of RhB after five recycles. Zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to examine the photoreaction processes. Finally, a possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Zhen G.,Tohoku University | Zhen G.,Tongji University | Lu X.,Tohoku University | Li Y.-Y.,Tohoku University | Zhao Y.,Tongji University
Applied Energy | Year: 2014

Pretreatment can be used prior to anaerobic digestion to improve the efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion. In this study, electrolysis and a commonly used pretreatment method of alkaline (NaOH) solubilization were integrated as a pretreatment method for promoting WAS anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment effectiveness of combined process were investigated in terms of disintegration degree (DDSCOD), suspended solids (TSS and VSS) removals, the releases of protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS), and subsequent anaerobic digestion as well as dewaterability after digestion. Electrolysis was able to crack the microbial cells trapped in sludge gels and release the biopolymers (PN and PS) due to the cooperation of alkaline solubilization, enhancing the sludge floc disintegration/solubilization, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays showed the highest methane yield was achieved with 5V plus pH 9.2 pretreatment with up to 20.3% improvement over the non-pretreated sludge after 42days of mesophilic operation. In contrast, no discernible improvements on anaerobic degradability were observed for the rest of pretreated sludges, probably due to the overmuch leakage of refractory soluble organics, partial chemical mineralization of solubilized compounds and sodium inhibition. The statistical analysis further indicated that increased solubilization induced by electrical-alkali pretreatment increased the first-order anaerobic hydrolysis rate (khyd), but had no, or very slight enhancement on WAS ultimate methane yield (fd), demonstrating that increased solubilization of WAS from a pretreatment does not always induce an improved anaerobic digestion efficiency. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Li Y.,Tongji University | Wang J.,Tsinghua University
Journal of Fluids and Structures | Year: 2012

In this paper and based on the linear potential theory of a fluid and an analogical approach, a supplementary, (complete) exact solution of an equivalent model is developed for a sloshing fluid in a rectangular tank and is compared with the existing solutions given by Graham and Rodriguez, Housner and a semi-analytical/numerical method. The results indicate that Graham and Rodriguez did not provide the correct location expressions for the convective masses. The expressions for the impulsive mass and its position given by Housner are not completely satisfactory approximations of the exact solutions. The solution in this paper can be an exact formulation to supplement the famous, traditional formulations given by Graham and Rodriguez as well as Housner. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Yu Z.,Tongji University | Pestell T.G.,Thomas Jefferson University | Lisanti M.P.,Thomas Jefferson University | Pestell R.G.,Thomas Jefferson University
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2012

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subpopulation of cells within tumors with capabilities of self-renewal, differentiation, and tumorigenicity when transplanted into an animal host. A number of cell surface markers such as CD44, CD24, and CD133 are often used to identify and enrich CSCs. A regulatory network consisting of microRNAs and Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways controls CSC properties. The clinical relevance of CSCs has been strengthened by emerging evidence, demonstrating that CSCs are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiation treatment and that CSCs are very likely to be the origin of cancer metastasis. CSCs are believed to be an important target for novel anti-cancer drug discovery. Herein we summarize the current understanding of CSCs, with a focus on the role of miRNA and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and discuss the clinical application of targeting CSCs for cancer treatment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Jiang Q.-Q.,Tongji University | Liu B.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica | Yuan T.,Tongji University
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

MicroRNA-16 (miR-16) has been demonstrated to regulate proliferation and apoptosis in many types of cancers, but its biological function in bladder cancer remains unknown. Here, we found expression of miR-16 to be downregulated in bladder cancer in comparison with the adjacent normal tissues. Enforced expression of miR-16 was able to inhibit cell proliferation in TCHu-1 cells, in line with results for miR-16 antisense oligonucleotides (antisense miR-16). At the molecular level, our results further revealed that cyclin D1 expression was negatively regulated by miR-16. Therefore, the data reported here demonstrate that miR-16 is an important regulator in bladder cancer, which will contribute to better understanding of important mis-regulated miRNAs.


Obrebski M.,University of California at Berkeley | Allen R.M.,University of California at Berkeley | Xue M.,Tongji University | Hung S.-H.,National Taiwan University
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2010

The Pacific Northwest has undergone complex plate reorganization and intense tectono-volcanic activity to the east during the Cenozoic (last 65 Ma). Here we show new high-resolution tomographic images obtained using shear and compressional data from the ongoing USArray deployment that demonstrate first that there is a continuous, whole-mantle plume beneath the Yellowstone Snake River Plain (YSRP) and second, that the subducting Juan de Fuca (JdF) slab is fragmented and even absent beneath Oregon. The analysis of the geometry of our tomographic models suggests that the arrival and emplacement of the large Yellowstone plume had a substantial impact on the nearby Cascadia subduction zone, promoting the tearing and weakening of the JdF slab. This interpretation also explains several intriguing geophysical properties of the Cascadia trench that contrast with most other subduction zones, such as the absence of deep seismicity and the trench-normal fast direction of mantle anisotropy. The DNA velocity models are available for download and slicing at http://dna.berkeley. edu. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.


Wang X.,Tongji University | Wang X.,University of Virginia | Andrews L.,University of Virginia
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2011

Electron-deficient group 13 metals react with F2 to give the compounds MF2 (M = B, Al, Ga, In, Tl), which combine with F 2 to form a new class of very high electron affinity neutral molecules, (F2)MF2, in solid argon and neon. These (F 2)MF2 fluorine metal difluoride molecules were identified through matrix IR spectra containing new antisymmetric and symmetric M-F stretching modes. The assignments were confirmed through close comparisons with frequency calculations using DFT methods, which were calibrated against the MF3 molecules observed in all of the spectra. Electron affinities calculated at the CCSD(T) level fall between 7.0 and 7.8 eV, which are in the range of the highest known electron affinities. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Zhu W.,Tsinghua University | Liang S.,Tongji University | Wei Y.,Microsoft | Sun J.,Microsoft
Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition | Year: 2014

Recent progresses in salient object detection have exploited the boundary prior, or background information, to assist other saliency cues such as contrast, achieving state-of-the-art results. However, their usage of boundary prior is very simple, fragile, and the integration with other cues is mostly heuristic. In this work, we present new methods to address these issues. First, we propose a robust background measure, called boundary connectivity. It characterizes the spatial layout of image regions with respect to image boundaries and is much more robust. It has an intuitive geometrical interpretation and presents unique benefits that are absent in previous saliency measures. Second, we propose a principled optimization framework to integrate multiple low level cues, including our background measure, to obtain clean and uniform saliency maps. Our formulation is intuitive, efficient and achieves state-of-the-art results on several benchmark datasets. © 2014 IEEE.


Zhao L.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Xue M.,Tongji University
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2015

Azimuthal anisotropy of attenuation is a physical phenomenon related to the directional change of attenuation. This study examines the frequency properties and directional attenuation of SKS waves. The directional frequency-dependent characteristics of SKS waves are investigated in the frequency band of 0.02-0.5 Hz using data from 53 permanent seismic stations located throughout the northern Yangtze Craton, the southern North China Craton and adjacent areas. In addition to normal splitting behavior, the analysis reveals that many SKS splitting measurements exhibit a lemniscate shape, reflecting frequency differences along fast and slow polarization directions. Frequency analysis shows that spectral ratios between fast/slow components of the lemniscate-type splitting results fluctuate strongly in a higher frequency band of 0.2-0.5 Hz, and fluctuate less within the main frequency band of 0.02-0.2 Hz. For each station, the ratio of the peak amplitude of the fast/slow components can be represented as a cotangential function of event backazimuth multiplying with a constant = 0.42 ± 0.10. This transformation shows that the regional average angles consistently fall within the relatively narrow range of -46.5 ± 3° with respect to the north, suggesting that a regional tectonic controlling factor dictates the relatively uniform directional attenuation of SKS waves within the frequency band of 0.02-0.2 Hz. Further analysis is performed by projecting the SKS waves onto the components along and perpendicular to the regional average angles. The calculation also shows that, in the 0.02-0.2 Hz band, the relationship between amplitude ratio and event backazimuth matches a cotangential functions with the same best matching angles and constant a < 1. Synthetic calculations demonstrate that although different filters influence the splitting parameters, attenuation anisotropy cannot be explained by elastic anisotropic media, including multilayer anisotropy and anisotropy with a tilting symmetrical axis. This observed behavior of the SKS wave may arise from the combined effects of frequency-dependent attenuation anisotropy and small-scale heterogeneities in the crust and the upper mantle. © The Authors 2015.


Li X.-G.,Tongji University | Liao Y.,Tongji University | Liao Y.,University of California at Los Angeles | Huang M.-R.,Tongji University | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Science | Year: 2013

Electron-rich oligofluoranthene has been successfully synthesized by a one-step direct chemical oxidative oligomerization of fluoranthene. Key advantages include easy synthesis, high synthetic yield and low cost when compared with electropolymerization. Oligofluoranthene in solution is a very strong cyan fluorescence emitter with 12.2 times higher intensity than the fluoranthene monomer. The strong fluorescence can be effectively quenched by specific electron-deficient species, enabling the fabrication of low-cost, high-performance chemosensors for the selective detection of Fe(iii) ions and the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid). A concentration range of >9 orders of magnitude with exceedingly low detection limits down to 10 -12 M is possible. No sample enrichment is needed likely due to the synergistic effects of well-distributed π-conjugated electrons with a conical stereo configuration that may enhance the detection ability. Common interferents appear to have little effect as Fe(iii) can be selectively detected in both tap water and seawater containing many other metal ions and picric acid can be detected at low concentrations even in the presence of inorganic acids. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


« NXP & Tongji University collaborate on Shanghai Intelligent And Connected Vehicle Demonstration Program | Main | Navigant Research Leaderboard puts LG Chem as leader for Li-ion batteries for transportation » Federal-Mogul Powertrain, a division of Federal-Mogul Holdings Corporation, has developed a new piston ring for two-stroke diesel engines that reduces oil consumption and marine pollution by allowing the quantity of lubricant used to be greatly reduced. The patented surface topography of the new eWAVE rings has been designed to distribute oil more evenly around the cylinder bores, enabling less oil to provide greater protection. eWAVE is the first ring that disperses oil around the bore in a homogeneous layer, protecting against local oil film breakdown, improving the sealing of combustion gases, reducing wear and ensuring more uniform liner temperatures. This means the amount of oil injected into the cylinder can be greatly reduced and, because two-stroke engines expel their lubricant in the exhaust, less oil means lower carbon emissions as well as reduced operating costs. Conventional two-stroke piston rings are predominantly designed using principles very similar to those used in four-stroke engines, in which there is a flow of oil from the crank case around the entire circumference of the ring. However, in two-stroke engines the lube oil is sprayed against the cylinder liner in proportion to the engine load. This feed oil is not uniformly distributed on the cylinder wall. To ensure a safe minimum coverage of all areas of the liner, surplus oil is injected in order to compensate for the uneven distribution. Because there is no mechanism to distribute the oil circumferentially around the bore much of the surplus is pushed downwards in the direction of the ports, meaning that approximately 30 to 40 percent of the oil supplied passes through to the exhaust without ever performing a useful function. The geometry of the eWAVE piston ring creates a circumferential pressure difference that generates controlled oil flow around the bore as the piston reciprocates, improving the uniformity of the oil film. It achieves this by varying, around the circumference, the point about which the ring pivots in its groove as the piston reverses direction. Tests have shown that the eWAVE ring distributes oil over an area around 10 times the size of that achieved by conventional ring profiles, which generate less than one percent of their oil flow in a circumferential direction. Long term trials since 2013 in a number of vessels with different oil injection technologies have confirmed the economic and environmental advantages of eWAVE rings. In over 8000 hours of testing, we have seen improved wear resistance while reducing oil consumption by up to 20 percent, helping to reduce operating costs while improving the marine environment. The detail of the eWAVE design can be optimized to suit individual types and arrangements of feed nozzle and different engine strokes and operating speeds.


News Article | October 4, 2016
Site: www.rdmag.com

Scientists have discovered new evidence strengthening the link between a previously misunderstood gene and major mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and autism. The University of Aberdeen-led research, published in Scientific Reports, expands on an unexpected finding by the same team two years ago that linked a poorly-understood gene with mental health disorders. The 2014 study looked at five major groups of patients and identified that a mutation of the gene ULK4 was found far more frequently in patients with schizophrenia. The same mutation was also found in some people with bipolar disorder, depression and autism. Before this Aberdeen work, ULK4 had previously been associated with hypertension but never before with mental health disorders. In this latest study in collaboration with Tongji University, Shanghai, the team used cutting-edge techniques to 'turn off' ULK4 in selected subsets of stem cells in the mouse brain. They then observed that the offspring of these stem cells turned up in the wrong places, become 'lost' and 'communicated less' with neighbouring nerve cells. These problems were rectified fully when the ULK4 gene was 'turned back on'. They conclude that ULK4 plays an essential role in normal brain development and when defective, the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia is increased. Schizophrenia is among the top 10 causes of human disability worldwide. The causes are highly variable with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to overall risk. Although the chances of inheriting the condition are estimated at between 60-80 percent, the genes responsible for causing the condition remain highly controversial. Identifying which genes are responsible for these diseases opens the way for the development of therapies to treat the symptoms of these conditions. First author of the paper, Bing Lang, Ph.D., from the University's Institute of Medical Sciences, said: "Schizophrenia and other mental health disorders are multi-faceted and it is extremely complicated to identify which genes, in combination with other environmental factors, contribute to people developing the condition. "This latest study supports our highly novel findings that the ULK4 gene plays a role in normal brain development, and that a mutation in the gene contributes to the risk of several neurodevelopmental disorders. "We hope that by fully understanding the roles of ULK4 in schizophrenia, this will pave the way for the development of new drugs to treat this devastating condition."


Gu W.-J.,Central China Normal University | Li G.-X.,Central China Normal University | Yang Y.-P.,Tongji University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

We investigate the generation of squeezed states in a movable mirror in dissipative optomechanics in which the oscillating mirror modulates both the resonance frequency and the linewidth of the cavity mode. Via feeding broadband squeezed-vacuum light accompanying a coherent driving laser field into the cavity, the master equation for the cavity-mirror system is derived by following the general reservoir theory. When the mirror is weakly coupled to the cavity mode, we find that the driven cavity field can effectively perform as a squeezed-vacuum reservoir for the movable mirror via utilizing the completely destructive interference of quantum noise. Efficient transfer of squeezing from the light to the movable mirror occurs, irrespective of the ratio between the cavity damping rate and the mechanical frequency. Moreover, when the mirror is moderately coupled to the cavity mode, photonic excitation can preclude the completely destructive interference of quantum noise. As a consequence, the mirror deviates from the ideal squeezed state. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Leung E.L.,Macau University of Science and Technology | Cao Z.-W.,Tongji University | Jiang Z.-W.,Macau University of Science and Technology | Zhou H.,Macau University of Science and Technology | Liu L.,Macau University of Science and Technology
Briefings in Bioinformatics | Year: 2013

Network-based intervention has been a trend of curing systemic diseases, but it relies on regimen optimization and valid multi-target actions of the drugs. The complex multi-component nature of medicinal herbs may serve as valuable resources for network-based multi-target drug discovery due to its potential treatment effects by synergy. Recently, robustness of multiple systems biology platforms shows powerful to uncover molecular mechanisms and connections between the drugs and their targeting dynamic network. However, optimization methods of drug combination are insufficient, owning to lacking of tighter integration across multiple '-omics' databases. The newly developed algorithm- or network-based computational models can tightly integrate '-omics' databases and optimize combinational regimens of drug development, which encourage using medicinal herbs to develop into new wave of network-based multi-target drugs. However, challenges on further integration across the databases of medicinal herbs with multiple system biology platforms for multi-target drug optimization remain to the uncertain reliability of individual data sets, width and depth and degree of standardization of herbal medicine. Standardization of the methodology and terminology of multiple system biology and herbal database would facilitate the integration. Enhance public accessible databases and the number of research using system biology platform on herbal medicine would be helpful. Further integration across various '-omics' platforms and computational tools would accelerate development of network-based drug discovery and network medicine. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press.


Denisov S.,Sumy State University | Denisov S.,University of Augsburg | Denisov S.,Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University | Flach S.,Massey University | And 2 more authors.
Physics Reports | Year: 2014

Transport properties of particles and waves in spatially periodic structures that are driven by external time-dependent forces manifestly depend on the space-time symmetries of the corresponding equations of motion. A systematic analysis of these symmetries uncovers the conditions necessary for obtaining directed transport. In this work we give a unified introduction into the symmetry analysis and demonstrate its action on the motion in one-dimensional periodic, both in time and space, potentials. We further generalize the analysis to quasi-periodic drives, higher space dimensions, and quantum dynamics. Recent experimental results on the transport of cold and ultracold atomic ensembles in ac-driven optical potentials are reviewed as illustrations of theoretical considerations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Huang X.-L.,Tongji University | Wang G.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Hu F.,University of Alabama
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology | Year: 2013

Recently, compressive sensing (CS) and spectrum sensing have been two hot topics in the signal processing and cognitive radio network (CRN) fields, respectively. Due to the sampling rate limitation of the analog-to-digital converter in spectrum-sensing circuits, some works have proposed integrating these two techniques to achieve low-overhead spectrum sensing in CRNs. These works aim to minimize spectrum reconstruction errors based on linear regression methods, and ℓ1-norm is typically used to make a tradeoff between spectrum sparseness and reconstruction accuracy. However, since the interference range of primary users is limited, multiple clusters in the CRN may not share a common sparse spectrum, and thus, the ℓ1-norm may not be appropriate to handle all clusters in CS inversion. Hence, we propose a novel multitask spectrum-sensing method based on spatiotemporal data mining methods. In each cluster, we assume that the spectrum sensing is executed in a synchronized way. The cluster head (CH) manages the operations, and a common sparseness hyperparameter is used to make a consensus decision. Among multiple clusters, synchronized CS sampling is not required in our scheme; instead, the Dirichlet process prior is employed to make an automatic grouping of the spectrum-sensing results among different clusters with a common sparseness hyperparameter shared inside each group. To exploit the time-domain relevance among consecutive CS observations, a hidden Markov model is employed to describe the relationship between the hidden subcarrier states and the consecutive CS observations, and the Viterbi algorithm is used to make an accurate spectrum decision for each secondary user. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm can successfully exploit the spatiotemporal relationship to achieve higher spectrum-sensing performance in terms of normalized mean square error, probability of correct detection, and probability of false alarm, compared with a few other related works. © 1967-2012 IEEE.


Huang D.-S.,Tongji University | Yu H.-J.,Anhui Science and Technology University
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics | Year: 2013

Based on all kinds of adjacent amino acids (AAA), we map each protein primary sequence into a 400 by (L-1) matrix M. In addition, we further derive a normalized 400-tuple mathematical descriptors D, which is extracted from the primary protein sequences via singular values decomposition (SVD) of the matrix. The obtained 400-D normalized feature vectors (NFVs) further facilitate our quantitative analysis of protein sequences. Using the normalized representation of the primary protein sequences, we analyze the similarity for different sequences upon two data sets: 1) ND5 sequences from nine species and 2) transferrin sequences of 24 vertebrates. We also compared the results in this study with those from other related works. These two experiments illustrate that our proposed NFV-AAA approach does perform well in the field of similarity analysis of sequence. © 2004-2012 IEEE.


Jiang M.,Tongji University | Shen Z.,Tongji University | Thornton C.,University of Birmingham
Computers and Geotechnics | Year: 2013

The grains of lunar regolith are characterized with rough surfaces, angular shapes and mutual adhesions due to short-range interactions. These features control the macroscopic mechanical behavior of lunar regolith but have not been completely captured by contact models in previous Discrete Element Method (DEM) analyses. In this paper, a simplified two-dimensional microscopic contact model is proposed for high efficiency DEM analyses of lunar regolith. The model consists of three components in the normal, tangential and rolling directions respectively, plus two new parameters. A shape parameter is used to control the rolling resistance ability at the contact area between two particles to capture the features of grain shape and interlocking. The second parameter, micro-separation, which denotes the nominal minimum distance between the molecules of the two contacting particles, is introduced to account for van der Waals force as the major component of the short-range interactions that contribute to the adhesion of regolith grains in lunar environment conditions. The novel model has been implemented in a two-dimensional DEM code for numerical simulations of biaxial compression tests on lunar regolith. The effects of interparticle friction, grain shape, lunar environment conditions and void ratio on the strength of lunar regolith were numerically investigated. The results show that soils in the simulated lunar environment exhibit greater strength and more apparent strain-softening and shear dilatancy than on the Earth. The proposed model can capture the main features of the mechanical behavior of lunar regolith (apparent cohesion and high peak friction angle) and a wide range of strength indices can be obtained by the contact model. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


News Article | September 22, 2016
Site: news.mit.edu

Educators and administrators from 33 nations gathered at MIT last week for the third World Symposium on Sustainable Development at Universities, where they discussed successful programs already adopted at their institutions, and plans for improving and expanding education about sustainability over the coming years. The first symposium was held in Rio de Janeiro in 2012, in conjunction with the U.N. Conference on Sustainable Development. A second symposium was held in Manchester, U.K., in 2014. This year’s symposium at MIT featured 175 participants, from six continents, most of whom presented research papers or participated in panel discussions at the three-day meeting. The meeting was co-sponsored by MIT’s Office of Sustainability, which was formed three years ago. Julie Newman, director of that office, said her mission, and that of the symposium, was “to generate new and proven ways of responding” to the unprecedented challenges presented by global climate change, “to inspire countries to develop breakthrough solutions, and to connect people, ideas, and systems” to help address those challenges. Representatives from many universities described their efforts to create educational programs, courses, and research projects to increase their students’ awareness of the many dimensions of sustainability, including technical, social, economic, political, and educational aspects. They also discussed the process of transforming their own campuses into “living laboratories” to help develop more efficient systems that could persist without depleting resources or exploiting resources or peoples. Nicholas Ashford, a professor of technology and policy at MIT, said in an introductory panel discussion that “we are actually in the midst of a sustainability crisis.” He cited not only the rapid pace of global climate change but also “unprecedented rates of income and wealth inequality.” But, he said, this is not a problem that requires new technological solutions: “It’s not an innovation deficit, it’s a diffusion deficit. We have the technologies to solve the energy crisis right now,” if only political, economic, and social factors would enable their deployment. Chris Shiel, a professor of life and environmental science at Bournemouth University in the U.K., said that awareness of the need for sustainable solutions at universities has been growing rapidly around the world, but there is also a need for careful evaluation of proposed solutions, some of which amount to mere “window dressing.” In particular, approaches that ignore the economics of a situation, or that are distorted by the wrong kind of incentives, can produce inadequate or even counterproductive results. “Some policies are not worth the paper they’re written on,” she said, adding that sometimes it’s better to just get on with doing useful work at a grass-roots level rather than battling with resistant administrators over planned curricula. “I’d rather be doing good work that makes a difference, than trying to change the minds of senior staff.” While some participants who teach college courses on sustainability, or run university programs centered on that goal, said they had faced some initial resistance from administration and other faculty members, many of them found that such resistance faded once they were able to demonstrate concrete results as well as enthusiastic responses and useful research carried out by students. At MIT, the administration’s firm commitment to research and teaching about sustainability was emphasized by Israel Ruiz, executive vice president and treasurer, who described the Institute’s efforts to work with local governments and industries to strengthen its impact on achieving sustainability goals. Wu Jiang, a professor at Tongji University in Shanghai and co-chair of the Global Universities Partnership on Environment and Sustainability, said that it is important for students and faculty in every discipline to incorporate the concept of sustainability into their curricula. Sustainability, he said, “is not a research field, but should be engaged in by all the people.” It should affect “how we should reform all of education, how we should change our philosophy, our sense of values.” In multiple parallel panel sessions, educators and researchers presented examples of how sustainability has been taught and put into practice at many universities, as well as analyses of the many different approaches and variations in subject matter covered by courses in sustainability. Leon Glicksman, a professor of building technology and mechanical engineering at MIT, presented several examples of projects carried out by MIT students that produced significant, tangible results. For example, he cited a project that analyzed the energy use of the chemistry building, which turned out to be the highest of any building on campus. A careful analysis showed that the obvious suspects — heating, lighting, and air conditioning — were actually only a small fraction of that building’s energy use. Rather, it was the fume hoods in the labs, which draw heated air from the room and vent it to the outside, that were the big energy users. A careful study showed that this wasted energy could be drastically cut without compromising safety, by simply making sure the hoods were closed when not in use, and by reducing the flow rate. “We reduced the energy use by a factor of two, just from the observations,” he said. Other projects achieved savings related to unneeded lighting, simply by installing diffusers on existing skylights in order to distribute the light better and eliminate areas of glare. And even one of the most energy-efficient buildings on campus, where efficiency had been carefully incorporated into the design from the start, was found to have room for major improvement when students discovered that its automated system for closing and opening window shades had been designed to operate by time of day and season, rather than by actual lighting conditions. Adding light meters so the shades could respond quickly to cloudy conditions greatly reduced the lighting and heating loads. “MIT is a testbed,” Glicksman said. John Fernandez, director of MIT’s Environmental Solutions Initiative, echoed others at the symposium in stressing the importance of addressing the inherently cross-disciplinary nature of sustainability issues. “These things are all linked,” he said. “Isolating climate change, in particular, without consideration to all these other issues,” including economic equity and a healthy environment, “runs the risk of us having a bankrupt set of solutions.” Addressing these problems adequately, he said, “is as much about people as it is about the planet.” And it is crucial for people at the local level, in their own communities around the world, to play active parts in developing solutions. At MIT, he said, “We’re interested in doing the best we can, and then partnering” with others in their own localities. “They know what the local challenges are, and the best solutions.”


News Article | September 23, 2016
Site: www.theenergycollective.com

Educators and administrators from 33 nations gathered at MIT last week for the third World Symposium on Sustainable Development at Universities, where they discussed successful programs already adopted at their institutions, and plans for improving and expanding education about sustainability over the coming years. The first symposium was held in Rio de Janeiro in 2012, in conjunction with the U.N. Conference on Sustainable Development. A second symposium was held in Manchester, U.K., in 2014. This year’s symposium at MIT featured 175 participants, from six continents, most of whom presented research papers or participated in panel discussions at the three-day meeting. The meeting was co-sponsored by MIT’s Office of Sustainability, which was formed three years ago. Julie Newman, director of that office, said her mission, and that of the symposium, was “to generate new and proven ways of responding” to the unprecedented challenges presented by global climate change, “to inspire countries to develop breakthrough solutions, and to connect people, ideas, and systems” to help address those challenges. Representatives from many universities described their efforts to create educational programs, courses, and research projects to increase their students’ awareness of the many dimensions of sustainability, including technical, social, economic, political, and educational aspects. They also discussed the process of transforming their own campuses into “living laboratories” to help develop more efficient systems that could persist without depleting resources or exploiting resources or peoples. Nicholas Ashford, a professor of technology and policy at MIT, said in an introductory panel discussion that “we are actually in the midst of a sustainability crisis.” He cited not only the rapid pace of global climate change but also “unprecedented rates of income and wealth inequality.” But, he said, this is not a problem that requires new technological solutions: “It’s not an innovation deficit, it’s a diffusion deficit. We have the technologies to solve the energy crisis right now,” if only political, economic, and social factors would enable their deployment. Chris Shiel, a professor of life and environmental science at Bournemouth University in the U.K., said that awareness of the need for sustainable solutions at universities has been growing rapidly around the world, but there is also a need for careful evaluation of proposed solutions, some of which amount to mere “window dressing.” In particular, approaches that ignore the economics of a situation, or that are distorted by the wrong kind of incentives, can produce inadequate or even counterproductive results. “Some policies are not worth the paper they’re written on,” she said, adding that sometimes it’s better to just get on with doing useful work at a grass-roots level rather than battling with resistant administrators over planned curricula. “I’d rather be doing good work that makes a difference, than trying to change the minds of senior staff.” While some participants who teach college courses on sustainability, or run university programs centered on that goal, said they had faced some initial resistance from administration and other faculty members, many of them found that such resistance faded once they were able to demonstrate concrete results as well as enthusiastic responses and useful research carried out by students. At MIT, the administration’s firm commitment to research and teaching about sustainability was emphasized by Israel Ruiz, executive vice president and treasurer, who described the Institute’s efforts to work with local governments and industries to strengthen its impact on achieving sustainability goals. Wu Jiang, a professor at Tongji University in Shanghai and co-chair of the Global Universities Partnership on Environment and Sustainability, said that it is important for students and faculty in every discipline to incorporate the concept of sustainability into their curricula. Sustainability, he said, “is not a research field, but should be engaged in by all the people.” It should affect “how we should reform all of education, how we should change our philosophy, our sense of values.” In multiple parallel panel sessions, educators and researchers presented examples of how sustainability has been taught and put into practice at many universities, as well as analyses of the many different approaches and variations in subject matter covered by courses in sustainability. Leon Glicksman, a professor of building technology and mechanical engineering at MIT, presented several examples of projects carried out by MIT students that produced significant, tangible results. For example, he cited a project that analyzed the energy use of the chemistry building, which turned out to be the highest of any building on campus. A careful analysis showed that the obvious suspects — heating, lighting, and air conditioning — were actually only a small fraction of that building’s energy use. Rather, it was the fume hoods in the labs, which draw heated air from the room and vent it to the outside, that were the big energy users. A careful study showed that this wasted energy could be drastically cut without compromising safety, by simply making sure the hoods were closed when not in use, and by reducing the flow rate. “We reduced the energy use by a factor of two, just from the observations,” he said. Other projects achieved savings related to unneeded lighting, simply by installing diffusers on existing skylights in order to distribute the light better and eliminate areas of glare. And even one of the most energy-efficient buildings on campus, where efficiency had been carefully incorporated into the design from the start, was found to have room for major improvement when students discovered that its automated system for closing and opening window shades had been designed to operate by time of day and season, rather than by actual lighting conditions. Adding light meters so the shades could respond quickly to cloudy conditions greatly reduced the lighting and heating loads. “MIT is a testbed,” Glicksman said. John Fernandez, director of MIT’s Environmental Solutions Initiative, echoed others at the symposium in stressing the importance of addressing the inherently cross-disciplinary nature of sustainability issues. “These things are all linked,” he said. “Isolating climate change, in particular, without consideration to all these other issues,” including economic equity and a healthy environment, “runs the risk of us having a bankrupt set of solutions.” Addressing these problems adequately, he said, “is as much about people as it is about the planet.” And it is crucial for people at the local level, in their own communities around the world, to play active parts in developing solutions. At MIT, he said, “We’re interested in doing the best we can, and then partnering” with others in their own localities. “They know what the local challenges are, and the best solutions.”


Hao X.,Tongji University | Hao X.,Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology | Zhai J.,Tongji University | Kong L.B.,Nanyang Technological University | Xu Z.,City University of Hong Kong
Progress in Materials Science | Year: 2014

Lead zirconate (PbZrO3 or PZ)-based antiferroelectric (AFE) materials, as a group of important electronic materials, have attracted increasing attention for their potential applications in high energy storage capacitors, micro-actuators, pyroelectric security sensors, cooling devices, and pulsed power generators and so on, because of their novel external electric field-induced phase switching behavior between AFE state and ferroelectric (FE) state. The performances of AFE materials are strongly dependent on the phase transformation process, which are mainly determined by the constitutions and the external field. For AFE thin/thick films, the electrical properties are also strongly dependent on their thickness, crystal orientation and the characteristics of electrode materials. Accordingly, various strategies have been employed to tailor the phase transformation behavior of AFE materials in order to improve their performances. Due to their relatively poor electrical strength (low breakdown fields), most PZ-based orthorhombic AFE ceramics are broken down before a critical switching field can be applied. As a consequence, the electric-field-induced transition between AFE and FE phase of only those AFE bulk ceramics, with compositions within tetragonal region near the AFE/FE morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), can be realized experimentally at room temperature. AFE materials with such compositions include (Pb,A)ZrO3 (A = Ba, Sr), (Pb1-3/2xLa x)(Zr1-yTiy)O 3 (PLZT x/(1-y)/y), (Pb0.97La0.02)(Zr,Sn,Ti) O3 (PLZST) and Pb0.99(Zr,Sn,Ti)0.98Nb 0.02O3 (PNZST). As compared to bulk ceramics, AFE thin and thick films always display better electric-field endurance ability. Consequently, room temperature electric-field-induced AFE-FE phase transition could be observed in the AFE thin/thick films with orthorhombic structures. Moreover, AFE films are more easily integrated with silicon technologies. Therefore, AFE thin/thick films have been a subject of numerous researches. This review serves to summarize the recent progress of PZ-based AFE materials, focusing on the external field (electric field, hydrostatic pressure and temperature) dependences of the AFE-FE phase transition, with a specific attention to the performances of AFE films for various potential applications, such as high energy storage, electric field induced strains, pyroelectric effect and electrocaloric effect. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Xiao J.,Tongji University | Li H.,Tongji University | Yang Z.,University of Manchester
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

The fatigue behavior of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) with 100% recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) replacement percentage under uniaxial compression was experimentally investigated in this study. Key quantities, including the residual strain variation, fatigue strain variation and the fatigue modulus of RAC, were calculated and analyzed to correlate the strain response and fatigue damage behavior of RAC. It is found that there exist no obvious differences of compressive fatigue behavior between RAC and natural aggregate concrete (NAC). Based on the experimental results and continuum damage mechanics, a fatigue model relating the fatigue strain variation and the fatigue modulus degradation to the fatigue damage evolution is proposed. Furthermore, RAC with 100% RCA replacement percentage was also tested under cyclic bend loading. It is found that the fatigue life of RAC is lower than that of NAC for the same stress level under cyclic bend loading. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Huang J.,Tongji University | Zhu H.,University of Maryland University College | Chen Y.,University of Maryland University College | Preston C.,University of Maryland University College | And 3 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2013

Renewable and clean "green" electronics based on paper substrates is an emerging field with intensifying research and commercial interests, as the technology combines the unique properties of flexibility, cost efficiency, recyclability, and renewability with the lightweight nature of paper. Because of its excellent optical transmittance and low surface roughness, nanopaper can host many types of electronics that are not possible on regular paper. However, there can be tremendous challenges with integrating devices on nanopaper due to its shape stability during processing. Here we demonstrate for the first time that flexible organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with high transparency can be fabricated on tailored nanopapers. Useful electrical characteristics and an excellent mechanical flexibility were observed. It is believed that the large binding energy between polymer dielectric and cellulose nanopaper, and the effective stress release from the fibrous substrate promote these beneficial properties. Only a 10% decrease in mobility was observed when the nanopaper transistors were bent and folded. The nanopaper transistor also showed excellent optical transmittance up to 83.5%. The device configuration can transform many semiconductor materials for use in flexible green electronics. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Hao X.,Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology | Zhai J.,Tongji University
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2014

In this letter, orthorhombic Pb(Nb,Zr,Sn,Ti)O3 (PNZST) and tetragonal (Pb,La)(Zr,Sn,Ti)O3 (PLZST) antiferroelectric (AFE) thin films were deposited on LaNiO3/Pt(111)/TiO2/SiO 2/Si(100) substrates via a sol-gel method. The electrocaloric effect (ECE) of PNZST and PLZST films originated from phase transition between AFE and ferroelectric were studied, based on their pyroelectric results. A large tunable ECE near room temperature was realized in these films under the function of electric field. As the applied electric field increased, the temperature corresponding to the peak of ECE was decreased for the orthorhombic PNZST films, while the temperature was increased for the tetragonal PLZST films. The maximum ECE of 0.040 K · cm/kV in PNZST films and 0.048 K · cm/kV in PLZST films was received at 323 and 305 K, respectively. The results indicated that AFE thin films had the potential for application in tunable cooling devices near room temperature. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.


Sun M.,Tongji University | He C.,Tongji University | He C.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Cong Y.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Liu Z.,Tongji University
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2015

The intestinal lumen harbors nearly 100 trillion commensal bacteria that exert crucial function for health. An elaborate balance between immune responses and tolerance to intestinal microbiota is required to maintain intestinal homeostasis. This process depends on diverse regulatory mechanisms, including both innate and adaptive immunity. Dysregulation of the homeostasis between intestinal immune systems and microbiota has been shown to be associated with the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in genetically susceptible populations. In this review, we discuss the recent progress reported in studies of distinct types of regulatory immune cells in the gut, including intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, Foxp3 + regulatory T cells, regulatory B cells, alternatively activated macrophages, dendritic cells, and innate lymphoid cells, and how dysfunction of this immune regulatory system contributes to intestinal diseases such as IBD. Moreover, we discuss the manipulation of these regulatory immune cells as a potential therapeutic method for management of intestinal inflammatory disorders. © 2015 Society for Mucosal Immunology.


Li P.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Qu W.,Tongji University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

Biodeposition treatment had been proposed as alternative techniques for improvement in the durability of concrete structures. Laboratory experiments were conducted by bacterially mediated carbonate precipitation on the surface and subsurface of specimens of concrete. Some properties of specimens and crystal, such as the crystal phase, morphology and growth of the crystal deposited on specimens, water penetration, the resistance towards carbonation of concrete and so on, were analyzed by XRD, SEM, water absorptivity test and concrete accelerated carbonation test. Some efficiencies of biodeposition treatment for were investigated by experiment. Results show that the mineral crystal deposits uniformly on the surface and subsurface of specimens, phases of crystal are calcite and vaterite. Biodeposition effectively reduces capillary water uptake and leading to carbonation rate constant decreased by 25~40%. Bacterially mediated carbonate mineralization can be an ecological and novel alternative for improvement in the durability of concrete structures.


Liu Z.,Tongji University | Cao A.T.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Cong Y.,University of Texas Medical Branch
Seminars in Cancer Biology | Year: 2013

The host and microbiota have evolved mechanisms for coexistence over millions of years. Accumulating evidence indicates that a dynamic mutualism between the host and the commensal microbiota has important implications for health, and microbial colonization contributes to the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis. However, alterations in communication between the mucosal immune system and gut microbial communities have been implicated as the core defect that leads to chronic intestinal inflammation and cancer development. We will discuss the recent progress on how gut microbiota regulates intestinal homeostasis and the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Xiao J.,Tongji University | Xie H.,Tongji University | Yang Z.,University of Manchester
Cement and Concrete Research | Year: 2012

In this paper, 32 pre-cracked recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) push-off specimens made from 10 mix designs were tested to study the shear transfer performance across cracks. The effects of recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) replacement ratio, the water to cement ratio, the concrete strength, and the lateral constraint on the shear transfer performance were carefully investigated. The experimental results and data analysis show that the shear transfer mechanism and process across cracks in RAC is largely the same as that in natural aggregate concrete (NAC). Both the lateral constraint and the concrete compressive strength positively affect the shear transfer strength of the RAC. However, the RCA replacement ratio has adverse effects on the shear transfer strength when it is over 30%. It is also found that the design equations for NAC in ACI and PCI codes may be used to predict the shear transfer strength of RAC. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Yang Y.-H.,Shanghai Normal University | Wu J.,Tongji University
Gongcheng Lixue/Engineering Mechanics | Year: 2012

The differential equations of stability are derived by the principle of variation for arbitrary thin-walled curved beams. When mono-symmetric arch is subjected to uniformly distributed radial load (uniform compression) or to equal but opposite end moments (uniform bending), its in-plane displacements are uncoupled with out-plane displacements, so it undergoes either in-plane flexural buckling or out-plane flexural-torsional buckling. Theoretic solutions are obtained for mono-symmetric circular arches under uniform compression and under uniform bending respectively. The equations are simple enough to be applied in engineering. Numerical examples are presented to validate the equation, observing good agreement with the result calculated by finite element software ANSYS and previous theoretical.


Zhao Y.Y.,Nanchang Hangkong University | Xu J.,Tongji University
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2012

In the present paper, the delayed feedback control is applied to suppress or stabilize the vibration of the primary system in a two degree-of-freedom dynamical system with parametrically excited pendulum. The case of a 1:2 internal resonance between pendulum and primary system is studied. The method of multiple scales is applied to obtain second-order approximations of the response of the system. The system stability and bifurcations of equilibrium point of the averaged equations are computed. It is shown that the delayed feedback control can be used to suppress the vibration or stabilize the system when the saturation control is invalid. The vibration of the primary system can be suppressed by the delayed feedback control when the original system is in the single-mode motion. The effect of gain and delay on the vibration suppression is discussed. As the delay varies at a fixed value of the gain, the vibration of the primary system can be suppressed at some values of the delay. The vibration suppression performance of the system is improved at a large value of the gain. The vibration of the primary system could be suppressed about 56% compared with the original system by choosing the appropriate values of gain and delay. The delayed feedback control also can be used to stabilize the system when the original system is unstable. The gain and delay could be chosen as the controlling parameters. Numerical simulation is agreement with the analytical solutions well. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Wang W.,Tongji University | Ng M.K.,Hong Kong Baptist University
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2012

The main aim of this paper is to develop an algorithm for blending of multiple images in the image-stitching process. Our idea is to propose a variational method containing an energy functional to determine both a stitched image and weighting mask functions of multiple input images for image blending. The existence of the solution of the proposed energy functional is shown. We also present an alternative minimizing algorithm to solve the proposed model numerically and show the convergence of this algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed model works effectively and efficiently and that the proposed method is competitive with the tested existing methods under noisy conditions. © 2011 IEEE.


Heinz N.A.,California Institute of Technology | Ikeda T.,Ibaraki University | Pei Y.,Tongji University | Snyder G.J.,California Institute of Technology
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2014

Microstructure control in functional materials draws from a historical reserve rich in established theory and experimental observation of metallurgy. Methods such as rapid solidification, eutectoid reaction, and nucleation and growth precipitation have all proven to be effective means to produce microstructure relevant for a wide array of applications. Here, the available parameters to control structure morphology, size, and spacing are discussed using thermoelectric composites as an example. Moreover, exploiting different aspects of a material system's phase diagram enables a controlled introduction of nanostructures. While much of this discussion is pertinent to the rapidly developing field of thermal conductivity control in thermoelectric composites, these techniques can be applied to a variety of other material systems where their use may lead to novel electrical, optical, as well as thermal properties of semiconductors and insulators as it has in the past for the mechanical properties of metals. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Zhang Z.X.,Tongji University | Hu X.Y.,Tongji University | Scott K.D.,University of Graz
Computers and Geotechnics | Year: 2011

In this paper, a numerical simulation method for evaluating tunnelling-induced ground movement is presented. The method involves discrete element simulation of TBM slurry shield advancement and considers explicitly soil excavation from the face, effects of varying face support pressure, and the influence of tunnel cover depth. For the cases studied, it is found that for tunnel cover depths (C/. D) between 0.7 and 2.1, ground deformations inducing by the tunnelling can be controlled within a certain extent and tunnel face stability can ensured, provided the support pressure ratio (N) lies between 0.8 and 1.5. The proposed method is reasonably benefited to modeling the face stability in shield-driven tunnels in soft soils. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Pan F.,Johns Hopkins University | Fan H.,Tongji University | Liu Z.,Tongji University | Jiang S.,Tongji University
Science Signaling | Year: 2012

To respond to infection, resting or naïve T cells must undergo activation, clonal expansion, and differentiation into specialized functional subsets of effector T cells. However, to prevent excessive or self-destructive immune responses, regulatory T cells (Tregs) are instrumental in suppressing the activation and function of effector cells, including effector T cells. The transcription factor Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) regulates the expression of genes involved in the development and function of Tregs. Foxp3 interacts with other transcription factors and with epigenetic elements such as histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases. Treg suppressive function can be increased by exposure to HDAC inhibitors. The individual contributions of different HDAC family members to Treg function and their respective mechanisms of action, however, remain unclear. A study showed that HDAC6, HDAC9, and Sirtuin-1 had distinct effects on Foxp3 expression and function, suggesting that selectively targeting HDACs individually or in combination may enhance Treg stability and suppressive function. Another study showed that the receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1), a well-known inhibitor of T cell activation, halted cell cycle progression in effector T cells by inhibiting the transcription of the gene encoding the substrate-recognition component (Skp2) of the ubiquitin ligase SCFSkp2. Together, these findings reveal new signaling targets for enhancing Treg or effector T cell function that may be helpful in designing future therapies, either to increase Treg suppressive function in transplantation and autoimmune diseases or to block PD-1 function, thus increasing the magnitude of antiviral or antitumor immune responses of effector T cells.


Zhang Z.,Chongqing Jiaotong University | Zhang L.,Henan Polytechnic University | Li H.,Tongji University | Chen H.,Tongji University
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2014

The phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is demonstrated in a surface plasmon polariton waveguide at infrared frequencies. The comb line slot and rectangle cavity are placed inside one of the metallic claddings, and their coupling intensities among them are utilized to obtain bright and dark states. The destructive interference between the bright and dark states leads to an EIT-like transmission spectrum of the waveguide. The induced transparency peak can be manipulated by adjusting the coupling distance between the bright and dark states. Finally, the influence of Joule loss on the EIT-like effect is investigated. It is found that the EIT-like transmission contrast is sensitive to the variation in the metallic damping factor. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.


Cheng H.,Tongji University | Vervoort J.D.,Washington State University
American Mineralogist | Year: 2015

Subduction of rocks into the mantle results in high-pressure metamorphism and the formation of eclogites from basaltic precursor rocks. In general, many kilometers of oceanic lithosphere are ultimately consumed prior to the subsequent continental slab subduction and collision. The exposure of the eclogites derived from oceanic subduction and continental subduction at the surface of Earth today record provide different P-T-t records of the subduction process. The Huwan shear zone in the Hong'an orogenic belt, marking a former ocean-continent transition zone, has been the focus of many studies on subduction-related high-pressure metamorphism. In this study, Lu-Hf garnet, U-Pb zircon, and Ar-Ar mica ages are combined with geochemical data to understand the origin of two coexisting eclogite bodies exposed along the Xuehe River in the Huwan Shear zone. In total, the results indicate that the two eclogites have different protoliths but experienced a similar metamorphic history. This observation requires new tectonic model for the coupled subduction of oceanic and continental crust in subduction zones. Combined geochemistry and zircon U-Pb geochronology suggest distinct oceanic and continental affinities for the eclogite protoliths. The Lu-Hf dates of 261.5 ± 2.4 Ma of the continental-type eclogite and 262.7 ± 1.7 Ma of the oceanic-type eclogite reflect garnet growth and are interpreted to closely approximate the age of eclogite-facies metamorphism. Therefore, both the geochemically oceanic- and continental-type eclogites underwent the same episode of Permian eclogite-facies metamorphism. The Permian Lu-Hf ages of ca. 262 Ma and the obtained Triassic Ar-Ar ages (∼240 Ma) of the oceanic-type and continental-type eclogites imply coupled subduction and exhumation of oceanic and continental crustal materials in the Hong'an orogenic belt during the Permian and the Triassic. Though limited, the geochemical and geochronological results of this study, together with the discrepant Carboniferous dates for the nearby eclogites of previous studies, apparently suggest that the Huwan shear zone was not always a single coherent unit but instead comprises different tectonic slices that were metamorphosed at different times before final assembly. Some slices of the oceanic and continental crust underwent two subduction cycles during the Carboniferous and the Permian, whereas some eclogites registered only a single subduction-exhumation loop during the convergence between the South China Block and the North China Block in the Huwan shear zone. The consistent ages of the oceanic- and continental-type eclogites disfavor the traditional mélange model that high-pressure rocks are dismembered fragments that have been assembled and intercalated with rocks devoid of any high-pressure history at shallow crustal levels, forming a tectonic mélange. © 2015, Walter de Gruyter GmbH. All rights reserved.


Xing K.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Han L.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Zhou M.,Tongji University | Zhou M.,New Jersey Institute of Technology | Wang F.,Xi'an Jiaotong University
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics | Year: 2012

Deadlock-free control and scheduling are vital for optimizing the performance of automated manufacturing systems (AMSs) with shared resources and route flexibility. Based on the Petri net models of AMSs, this paper embeds the optimal deadlock avoidance policy into the genetic algorithm and develops a novel deadlock-free genetic scheduling algorithm for AMSs. A possible solution of the scheduling problem is coded as a chromosome representation that is a permutation with repetition of parts. By using the one-step look-ahead method in the optimal deadlock control policy, the feasibility of a chromosome is checked, and infeasible chromosomes are amended into feasible ones, which can be easily decoded into a feasible deadlock-free schedule. The chromosome representation and polynomial complexity of checking and amending procedures together support the cooperative aspect of genetic search for scheduling problems strongly. © 2012 IEEE.


Wang H.,California Institute of Technology | Lalonde A.D.,California Institute of Technology | Pei Y.,California Institute of Technology | Pei Y.,Tongji University | Snyder G.J.,California Institute of Technology
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2013

Forming solid solutions has long been considered an effective approach for good thermoelectrics because the lattice thermal conductivities are lower than those of the constituent compounds due to phonon scattering from disordered atoms. However, this effect could also be compensated by a reduction in carrier mobility due to electron scattering from the same disorder. Using a detailed study of n-type (PbTe)1-x (PbSe)x solid solution (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) as a function of composition, temperature, and doping level, quantitative modeling of transport properties reveals the important parameters characterizing these effects. Based on this analysis, a general criterion for the improvement of zT due to atomic disorder in solid solutions is derived and can be applied to several thermoelectric solid solutions, allowing a convenient prediction of whether better thermoelectric performance could be achieved in a given solid solution. Alloying is shown to be most effective at low temperatures and in materials that are unfavorable for thermoelectrics in their unalloyed forms: high lattice thermal conductivity (stiff materials with low Grüneisen parameters) and high deformation potential. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Tang J.,Tongji University | Tang J.,University of Rhode Island | Yan H.,Tongji University | Zhuang S.,Tongji University | Zhuang S.,University of Rhode Island
Clinical Science | Year: 2013

HDACs (histone deacetylases) are a group of enzymes that deacetylate histones as well as non-histone proteins. They are known as modulators of gene transcription and are associated with proliferation and differentiation of a variety of cell types and the pathogenesis of some diseases. Recently, HDACs have come to be considered crucial targets in various diseases, including cancer, interstitial fibrosis, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and metabolic disorders. Pharmacological inhibitors of HDACs have been used or tested to treat those diseases. In the present review, we will examine the application of HDAC inhibitors in a variety of diseases with the focus on their effects of anti-cancer, fibrosis, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory activity and regulating metabolic disorders. © 2013 Biochemical Society.


Li X.,Tongji University | Zhuang S.,Tongji University | Zhuang S.,University of Rhode Island
Fibrogenesis and Tissue Repair | Year: 2014

Although kidney transplantation has been an important means for the treatment of patients with end stage of renal disease, the long-term survival rate of the renal allograft remains a challenge. The cause of late renal allograft loss, once known as chronic allograft nephropathy, has been renamed "interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy" (IF/TA) to reflect the histologic pattern seen on biopsy. The mechanisms leading to IF/TA in the transplanted kidney include inflammation, activation of renal fibroblasts, and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. Identifying the mediators and factors that trigger IF/TA may be useful in early diagnosis and development of novel therapeutic strategies for improving long-term renal allograft survival and patient outcomes. In this review, we highlight the recent advances in our understanding of IF/TA from three aspects: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. © 2014 Li and Zhuang; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Feng J.,Tongji University | Liu T.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Zhang Y.,Tongji University
Current Protocols in Bioinformatics | Year: 2011

Model-based Analysis of ChIP-Seq (MACS) is a command-line tool designed by X. Shirley Liu and colleagues to analyze data generated by ChIP-Seq experiments in eukaryotes, especially mammals. MACS can be used to identify transcription factor binding sites and histone modification-enriched regions if the ChIP-Seq data, with or without control samples, are given. This unit describes two basic protocols that provide detailed information on how to use MACS to identify either the binding sites of a transcription factor or the enriched regions of a histone modification with broad peaks. Furthermore, the basic ideas for the MACS algorithm and its appropriate usage are discussed. © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Ding X.,Tongji University | Ding X.,Seoul National University
Journal of Materials Chemistry C | Year: 2014

We report the fabrication and characterization of large-scale graphene quantum dots (GQDs) grown on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) substrates with different layers and similar size of island diameters. The GQDs on h-BN synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) exhibit excellent morphology, unambiguous interfaces and well-ordered arrangement. These characteristics were achieved by adjusting the control parameters in the growth process, including the gas flow rate, temperature and pressure. The synthesized GQDs were shown to possess a thickness-dependent photoluminescence (PL) feature. Broad and red-shift emission features in monolayer GQDs suggest that the inhomogeneity of the surfaces, shapes and edges in the quantum dots of the nearby one-layer thickness sensitively affect the PL spectra. However, the GQDs with a thickness of more than 10 layers emit very sharp PL spectra with nearly identical shape and position independent of the excitation wavelength. The results suggest routes towards creating large-scale optoelectronic devices in solid-state white-light emission, photovoltaic solar cells, and flat panel displays. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.


Feng J.,Tongji University | Liu T.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Qin B.,Tongji University | Zhang Y.,Tongji University | Liu X.S.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Nature Protocols | Year: 2012

Model-based analysis of ChIP-seq (MACS) is a computational algorithm that identifies genome-wide locations of transcription/chromatin factor binding or histone modification from ChIP-seq data. MACS consists of four steps: removing redundant reads, adjusting read position, calculating peak enrichment and estimating the empirical false discovery rate (FDR). In this protocol, we provide a detailed demonstration of how to install MACS and how to use it to analyze three common types of ChIP-seq data sets with different characteristics: the sequence-specific transcription factor FoxA1, the histone modification mark H3K4me3 with sharp enrichment and the H3K36me3 mark with broad enrichment. We also explain how to interpret and visualize the results of MACS analyses. The algorithm requires ĝ̂1/43 GB of RAM and 1.5 h of computing time to analyze a ChIP-seq data set containing 30 million reads, an estimate that increases with sequence coverage. MACS is open source and is available from http://liulab.dfci.harvard.edu/MACS/. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Chen T.,Case Western Reserve University | Chen T.,Tongji University | Dai L.,Case Western Reserve University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

Using a copper wire as the substrate for the CVD growth of a hollow multilayer graphene tube, we prepared a macroscopic porous graphene fiber by removing the copper in an aqueous mixture solution of iron chloride (FeCl3, 1 M) and hydrochloric acid (HCl, 3 M) and continuously drawing the newly released graphene tube out of the liquid. The length of the macroscopic graphene fiber thus produced is determined mainly by the length of the copper wire used. The resultant macroscopic graphene fiber with the integrated graphene structure exhibited a high electrical conductivity (127.3 S cm-1) and good flexibility over thousands bending cycles, showing great promise as flexible electrodes for wearable optoelectronics and energy devices - exemplified by its use as a flexible conductive wire for lighting a LED and a cathode in a fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with one of the highest energy conversion efficiencies (3.25 %) among fiber-shaped DSSCs. Down to the wire: Multilayer graphene tubes can be grown by CVD on a copper wire. Dissolving the copper wire leaves a free graphene tube that is as long as the wire used. This novel approach gives porous graphene fibers with high electrical conductivity and flexibility. A high efficiency fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cell was prepared by using these graphene fibers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Pei Y.,Tongji University | Wang H.,California Institute of Technology | Snyder G.J.,California Institute of Technology
Advanced Materials | Year: 2012

Lead chalcogenides have long been used for space-based and thermoelectric remote power generation applications, but recent discoveries have revealed a much greater potential for these materials. This renaissance of interest combined with the need for increased energy efficiency has led to active consideration of thermoelectrics for practical waste heat recovery systems-such as the conversion of car exhaust heat into electricity. The simple high symmetry NaCl-type cubic structure, leads to several properties desirable for thermoelectricity, such as high valley degeneracy for high electrical conductivity and phonon anharmonicity for low thermal conductivity. The rich capabilities for both band structure and microstructure engineering enable a variety of approaches for achieving high thermoelectric performance in lead chalcogenides. This Review focuses on manipulation of the electronic and atomic structural features which makes up the thermoelectric quality factor. While these strategies are well demonstrated in lead chalcogenides, the principles used are equally applicable to most good thermoelectric materials that could enable improvement of thermoelectric devices from niche applications into the mainstream of energy technologies. Band structure engineering approaches for high-performance thermoelectric materials have been demonstrated in lead chalcogenides, shedding light on effective strategies to increase the performance of thermoelectrics. These approaches for enhancing electrical properties are in principle independent of other mechanisms to achieve low lattice thermal conductivity, and enable a combination of effects for revolutionary applications of thermoelectrics. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Pei Y.,Tongji University | Wang H.,California Institute of Technology | Gibbs Z.M.,California Institute of Technology | LaLonde A.D.,California Institute of Technology | Snyder J.G.,California Institute of Technology
NPG Asia Materials | Year: 2012

The Seebeck coefficient of p-type PbTe can be enhanced at 300 K, either due to the addition of Tl-resonant states or by manipulation of the multiple valence bands by alloying with isovalent compounds, such as MgTe. PbTe alloyed with MnTe shows a similar thermopower enhancement that could be due to either mechanism. Here we investigate the characteristics that distinguish the resonant state mechanism from that due to multiple valence bands and their effect on the thermoelectric figure of merit, zT. Ultimately, we find that the transport properties of PbTe alloyed with MnTe can be explained by alloy scattering and multiple band model that result in a zT as high as 1.6 at 700 K, and additionally a B30% enhancement of the average zT. © 2012 Nature Japan K.K. All rights reserved.


Dong W.,Wuhan University | Zhou M.,Tongji University | Zhou M.,New Jersey Institute of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems | Year: 2014

This paper presents a Gaussian classifier-based evolutionary strategy (GCES) to solve multimodal optimization problems. An evolutionary technique for them must answer two crucial questions to guarantee its success: how to distinguish among the different basins of attraction and how to safeguard the already discovered good-quality solutions including both global and local optima. In GCES, multimodal optimization problems are regarded as classification ones, and Gaussian mixture models are employed to save the locations and basins of already and presently identified local or global optima. A sequential estimation technique for the covariance of a Gaussian model is introduced into GCES. To best adjust the global step size, a strategy named top-ranked sample selection is introduced, and a classification method instead of a common but problematic radius-triggered manner is proposed. Experiments are performed on a series of benchmark test functions to compare GCES with the state-of-the-art multimodal optimization approaches. The results show that GCES is not only simple to program and understand, but also provides better and consistent performance. © 2012 IEEE.


News Article | November 25, 2015
Site: www.greencarcongress.com

« ARPA-E awards $2.1M to Marine BioEnergy for open ocean farming of kelp for hydrocarbon biofuels | Main | NXP & Tongji University collaborate on Shanghai Intelligent And Connected Vehicle Demonstration Program » Ensyn (earlier post) has been granted a key regulatory approval from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for its renewable gasoline product, RFGasoline. This approval, pursuant to Title 40 CFR Part 79 promulgated under the Clean Air Act, is required for the sale of RFGasoline into US commerce. This approval follows the recently announced Part 79 approval of Ensyn’s renewable diesel product, RFDiesel. (Earlier post.) RFGasoline, a drop-in gasoline transportation fuel, is created by processing Ensyn’s renewable crude (RFO), a liquid cellulosic feedstock for refiners, with customary petroleum feedstocks in conventional petroleum refineries (RFO Coprocessing). Ensyn is developing and commercializing RFO Coprocessing in a strategic alliance with Honeywell UOP, a global leader in technology solutions for the refining industry. RFO is the output of Ensyn’s patented RTP (rapid thermal processing) technology—a processing system that uses heat to thermally crack carbon-based non-food solid biomass feedstocks (including wood residues) into high yields of a higher-value liquid product. The RTP pyrolysis process is based on the application of a hot “transported” bed (typically sand) that is circulating between two key vessels. Feedstocks are subjected to fast, intimate contact with the hot sand for under a few seconds, resulting in the thermal cracking of the feedstock to gases and vapors. Product vapors are rapidly quenched, or cooled, and recovered as a light liquid product. The RTP process is actually an analog to Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC), used in petroleum refineries. An FCC system circulates catalyst in a closed loop between two key vessels in order to convert vacuum gas oil to gasoline. Ensyn uses a similar mechanical process, but typically circulates readily-available sand while converting biomass to high yields of a light liquid product. Technology licensing, engineering services and supply of equipment is being provided to RTP projects by Honeywell UOP through Envergent Technologies, a joint venture between Honeywell UOP and Ensyn. Ensyn is advancing its RFO Coprocessing business with UOP and an array of global industry leaders. The Part 79 registration process involved a number of these industry leaders. The liquid RFO feedstock was produced at one of Ensyn’s commercial facilities and shipped to Brazil. Using Petrobras proprietary FCC coprocessing technology, 400 gallons of coprocessed gasoline were produced in a technical collaboration between Petrobras and the US Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The gasoline fraction was shipped to a major international oil company in the US for initial evaluation and preparation for the Part 79 test. The final RFGasoline product was then shipped to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in San Antonio, Texas, where independent Part 79 testing was conducted. Conventional biofuel solutions are based on producing blend fuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, that are blended with finished fuels post-refining. In contrast, Ensyn’s coprocessing solution provides refiners with a renewable feedstock and the result is ASTM-specification transportation fuel, not a blend. In addition, the RFO Coprocessing solution is based on conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks to fuels, avoiding competition with food markets. Ensyn and UOP have a broad technology alliance that covers the production of RFO, as well as the commercialization of RFO Coprocessing. Ensyn and UOP have established a joint venture known as Envergent Technologies LLC that licenses Ensyn’s biomass conversion technology (RTP) for certain applications and provides performance guarantees to RFO projects that UOP, Ensyn and its partners are developing worldwide. In addition, Ensyn and UOP are collaborating on the commercialization of RFO Coprocessing. Under this collaboration, UOP is interfacing with refiners and facilitating a seamless integration of RFO into their refineries.


HONG KONG, Nov. 7, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- JC Group Holdings, a subsidiary of JC Group, topped a large number of Hong Kong-listed competitors to win the Hong Kong Outstanding Enterprise 2016 award at the Hong Kong Outstanding Enterprises Parade 2016 Dinner held by Economic Digest, a leading financial magazine in Hong Kong, on November 1. The award served as a testament to JC Group's strengths and to the high level of recognition by international capital markets and the economic community in Hong Kong. "JC Group is a modern financial service group committed to the integrated urban development. Its subsidiary JC Group Holdings leverages its own resources and strategic platform to help JC Group further its strategy of servicing new urbanization development worldwide and drive economic growth in Hong Kong and the wider world," said Wei Jie, chairman of JC Group and JC Group Holdings, at the award ceremony. Established over 30 years ago, Economic Digest is an iconic and authoritative financial magazine in Hong Kong. Since 2004, Economic Digest has been hosting the Hong Kong Outstanding Enterprises Parade, an annual event. This year, 22 listed companies won the Hong Kong Outstanding Enterprise 2016 award. In addition to JC Group Holdings, the lineup of winners also included New World Development, MTR Corporation and The Bank of East Asia. Among the winners, JC Group Holdings was highlighted as one of the fastest growing and most promising. On May 12, 2016, Mr. Wei struck the gong at the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and announced the firm's entry into international capital markets by starting to trade publicly in Hong Kong. When asked by journalists who attended the event why the company chose to list in Hong Kong, Mr. Wei commented, "Hong Kong is an international metropolis with well-developed capital and stock markets. I look forward to demonstrating our commitment to openness and transparency through the open and transparent market in Hong Kong." JC Group expects to attract more attention with the listing of JC Group Holdings. While furthering its pace in globalization, JC Group plans to continue its in-depth exploration of the regional markets. The focus on regional markets, a distinction that is noted when the group is compared to its peers, plays a key role in its development in diversified market segments. As JC Group builds out and expands its presence in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and beyond to other countries or regions, the group will continue to combine the advantages it has derived as a result of the regional specialization. The approach is expected to support the group's development strategy of making use of advanced technologies and management principles that have been brought in from abroad while sticking to its Chinese traditional values. In addition to improving the firm's industrial chain by capitalizing on its unique regional resources, JC Group is also boosting exchanges between Chinese industries and Asian markets. JC Group expects to gain access to high-quality resources worldwide, by leveraging the Asian market as a platform for better servicing progress in new urbanization all over the world. "JC Group has made great strides in the growth of its global businesses. Today, we are well positioned to bring on board advanced technologies in addition to highly capable talents and adopt the most effective management styles from across the world, including Canada, South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Japan," said Mr. Wei in a recent speech made at Tongji University. He added that JC Group aims to drive overall economic growth and respond to challenges facing the current world economy by promoting new urbanization development.


Zhou F.,Tongji University | Young B.,University of Hong Kong
Engineering Structures | Year: 2013

This paper reports a numerical investigation of cold-formed high strength stainless steel square and rectangular hollow sections subjected to web crippling at elevated temperatures. Finite element analysis was conducted on cold-formed high strength austenitic and duplex stainless steel material. Four loading conditions specified in the American Specification and Australian/New Zealand Standard for cold-formed stainless steel structures were investigated in the numerical study. A non-linear finite element model which includes geometric and material non-linearities was developed and verified against experimental results. It was shown that the finite element model closely predicted the web crippling strengths and failure modes of the tested specimens under the four loading conditions. Hence, parametric study was carried out to investigate the web crippling behaviour of cold-formed high strength stainless steel square and rectangular hollow sections at elevated temperatures. The web crippling strengths predicted from the finite element analysis were compared with the design strengths obtained using the American, Australian/New Zealand and European specifications for stainless steel structures by substituting the reduced material properties in the current web crippling design equations. A unified web crippling equation for cold-formed high strength stainless steel square and rectangular hollow sections at elevated temperatures is proposed. It is demonstrated that the web crippling strength obtained using the proposed equation is safe and reliable using reliability analysis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Song Y.,Tongji University | Zou X.,University of Western Ontario
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2014

In this paper, a ratio-dependent predator–prey model with diffusion is considered. The stability of the positive constant equilibrium, Turing instability, and the existence of Hopf and steady state bifurcations are studied. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the stability of the positive constant equilibrium are explicitly obtained. Spatially heterogeneous steady states with different spatial patterns are determined. By calculating the normal form on the center manifold, the formulas determining the direction and the stability of Hopf bifurcations are explicitly derived. For the steady state bifurcation, the normal form shows the possibility of pitchfork bifurcation and can be used to determine the stability of spatially inhomogeneous steady states. Some numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate and expand our theoretical results, in which, both spatially homogeneous and heterogeneous periodic solutions are observed. The numerical simulations also show the coexistence of two spatially inhomogeneous steady states, confirming the theoretical prediction. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Zhuang S.,Tongji University | Zhuang S.,Brown University
Cellular Signalling | Year: 2013

Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) belong to a family of latent cytoplasmic factors that can be activated by tyrosine phosphorylation by the members of the Jak tyrosine kinase family in response to a variety of cytokines and growth factors. Activated STATs form dimers and translocate into nucleus to induce expression of critical genes essential for normal cellular events. In the past several years, significant progress has been made in the characterization of STAT acetylation, which is dependent on the balance between histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs) such as CBP/p300. Acetylation of STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT5b and STAT6 has been identified. This review will highlight acetylation on the modulation of STAT activation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Wang F.,Tongji University | Yang Y.,Houston Methodist Research Institute
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2014

The xCT antiporter is known to be upregulated in 30 % of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines. The xCT-CD44 variant (CD44v) system regulates the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells and promotes tumor growth. Here, the role of this antiporter system in relation to chemotherapy was evaluated. MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436 cells were transfected with lentiviral vectors expressing short hairpin RNA against xCT or CD44v. Following doxorubicin treatment, cellular proliferation was monitored, ROS were measured, and intracellular levels of cysteine and glutathione (GSH) were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A TNBC orthotopic tumor model was used to evaluate the impact of xCT-CD44v inhibition on doxorubicin efficacy in vivo. Doxorubicin treatment of TNBC cells caused increased expression of xCT through upregulation of CD44v. Consequently, the intracellular uptake of cystine increased, enabling rapid synthesis of GSH, and neutralization of doxorubicin-induced ROS. Suppression of xCT or CD44v impaired the defense against drug-induced oxidative stress, thereby sensitizing cells to doxorubicin. The importance of the xCT-CD44v in supporting tumor growth during doxorubicin treatment was also demonstrated in an in vivo tumor model of TNBC. These findings suggest that the antiporter system could serve as a target for increasing the anticancer efficacy of conventional therapy in patients with TNBC. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.


Song Y.,Tongji University | Zou X.,University of Western Ontario
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2014

Spatiotemporal dynamics in a ratio-dependent predator-prey model with diffusion is studied by analytical methods. Normal forms associated with codimension-two Hopf-Turing bifurcation are derived, which can be used to understand and classify the spatiotemporal dynamics of the model for values of parameters close to the Hopf-Turing bifurcation point. In the vicinity of this degenerate point, a wealth of complex spatiotemporal dynamics are observed. Our theoretical results are confirmed by numerical simulations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wang Z.,Tongji University | Yu H.,Tongji University | Ma J.,Tongji University | Zheng X.,Renmin University of China | Wu Z.,Tongji University
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2013

This paper is designed to critically review the recent developments of membrane bio-technologies for sludge reduction and treatment by covering process fundamentals, performances (sludge reduction efficiency, membrane fouling, pollutant removal, etc.) and key operational parameters. The future perspectives of the hybrid membrane processes for sludge reduction and treatment are also discussed. For sludge reduction using membrane bioreactors (MBRs), literature review shows that biological maintenance metabolism, predation on bacteria, and uncoupling metabolism through using oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process are promising ways that can be employed in full-scale applications. Development of control methods for worm proliferation is in great need of, and a good sludge reduction and MBR performance can be expected if worm growth is properly controlled. For lysis-cryptic sludge reduction method, improvement of oxidant dispersion and increase of the interaction with sludge cells can enhance the lysis efficiency. Green uncoupler development might be another research direction for uncoupling metabolism in MBRs. Aerobic hybrid membrane system can perform well for sludge thickening and digestion in small- and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and pilot-scale/full-scale applications have been reported. Anaerobic membrane digestion (AMD) process is a very competitive technology for sludge stabilization and digestion. Use of biogas recirculation for fouling control can be a powerful way to decrease the energy requirements for AMD process. Future research efforts should be dedicated to membrane preparation for high biomass applications, process optimization, and pilot-scale/full-scale tracking research in order to push forward the real and wide applications of the hybrid membrane systems for sludge minimization and treatment. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Lu W.,University of Delaware | Zu M.,University of Delaware | Zu M.,Tongji University | Byun J.-H.,Korea Institute of Materials Science | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2012

The superb mechanical and physical properties of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have provided the impetus for researchers in developing high-performance continuous fibers based upon CNTs. The reported high specific strength, specific stiffness and electrical conductivity of CNT fibers demonstrate the potential of their wide application in many fields. In this review paper, we assess the state of the art advances in CNT-based continuous fibers in terms of their fabrication methods, characterization and modeling of mechanical and physical properties, and applications. The opportunities and challenges in CNT fiber research are also discussed. Carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers have been developed in recent years as promising materials for various applications, such as tethers of space elevators, high-performance composites and electrochemical devices. In this review paper, we assess the recent advances in CNT fibers in terms of their fabrication methods, characterization and modeling of mechanical and physical properties, and applications. The opportunities and challenges in CNT fiber research are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Zu M.,Tongji University | Zu M.,University of Delaware | Li Q.,CAS Suzhou Institute of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics | Wang G.,Tongji University | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2013

Carbon nanotube (CNT) based continuous fiber, a CNT assembly that could potentially retain the superb properties of individual CNTs on a macroscopic scale, belongs to a fascinating new class of electronic materials with potential applications in electronics, sensing, and conducting wires. Here, the fabrication of CNT fiber based stretchable conductors by a simple prestraining-then-buckling approach is reported. To enhance the interfacial bonding between the fibers and the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrate and thus facilitate the buckling formation, CNT fibers are first coated with a thin layer of liquid PDMS before being transferred to the prestrained substrate. The CNT fibers are deformed into massive buckles, resulting from the compressive force generated upon releasing the fiber/substrate assembly from prestrain. This buckling shape is quite different from the sinusoidal shape observed previously in otherwise analogous systems. Similar experiments performed on carbon fiber/PDMS composite film, on the other hand, result in extensive fiber fracture due to the higher fiber flexural modulus. Furthermore, the CNT fiber/PDMS composite film shows very little variation in resistance (≈1%) under multiple stretching-and-releasing cycles up to a prestrain level of 40%, indicating the outstanding stability and repeatability in performance as stretchable conductors. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Yang X.,Tongji University | Yang X.,Brown University | He P.,Tongji University | Gao H.,Brown University
Nano Research | Year: 2011

Recent experiments have shown that entangled networks of carbon nanotubes exhibit temperature- and frequency-invariant dissipative behaviors under cyclic loading. We have performed coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations which show that these intriguing phenomena can be attributed to the unstable attachments/detachments between individual carbon nanotubes induced by van der Waals interactions. We show that this behavior can be described by a triboelastic constitutive model. This study highlights the promise of carbon nanomaterials for energy absorption and dissipation under extreme conditions.[Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2011 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Tang J.,Tongji University | Zhuang S.,Tongji University | Zhuang S.,Brown University
Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension | Year: 2015

Purpose of review: Recent advances in epigenetics indicate the involvement of several epigenetic modifications in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI). The purpose of this review is to summarize our understanding of recent advances in the epigenetic regulation of AKI and provide mechanistic insight into the role of acetylation, methylation, and microRNA expression in the pathological processes of AKI. Recent findings: Enhancement of protein acetylation by pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases leads to more severe tubular injury and impairment of renal structural and functional recovery. The changes in promoter DNA methylation occur in the kidney with ischemia/reperfusion. microRNA expression is associated with regulation of both renal injury and regeneration after AKI. Summary: Recent studies on epigenetic regulation indicate that acetylation, methylation, and microRNA expression are critically implicated in the pathogenesis of AKI. Strategies targeting epigenetic processes may hold a therapeutic potential for patients with AKI. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Zhou F.,Tongji University | Young B.,University of Hong Kong
Thin-Walled Structures | Year: 2012

This paper presents numerical investigation and design of concrete-filled aluminum circular hollow section (CHS) columns. A non-linear finite element model is developed and verified against experimental results. An extensive parametric study was carried out to study the effects of cross-section geometries and material properties on the concrete-filled aluminum CHS column strengths. A total of 192 numerical data is presented in this study. The aluminum CHS tubes of normal strength material (T5) and high strength material (T6) using three different nominal concrete cylinder strengths of 40, 70 and 100 MPa were investigated. The nominal outer diameter-to-thickness (D/t) ratio of the sections ranged from 10 to 160. The test and numerical results of the concrete-filled aluminum CHS columns were compared with the design strengths to evaluate the reliability of the design rules in the American and Australian/New Zealand specifications for aluminum and concrete structures. Furthermore, the composite column design equations are proposed in this study. The proposed design equations consider the benefits of composite action between the aluminum CHS tube and the concrete infill. It is shown that the proposed design equations accurately predicted the strengths of the concrete-filled aluminum CHS columns. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zhou F.,Tongji University | Young B.,University of Hong Kong
Engineering Structures | Year: 2010

Experimental and numerical investigations of aluminium alloy square hollow sections with a circular hole in the webs subjected to web crippling are presented in this paper. A total of 216 data that include 84 test results and 132 numerical results are presented. The web crippling tests were conducted under two loading conditions of end-two-flange (ETF) and interior-two-flange (ITF). The test specimens were fabricated by extrusion using a 6061-T6 heat-treated aluminum alloy. The web holes were located at the mid-depth of the webs and centred beneath the bearing plates. A non-linear finite element model is developed and verified against the experimental results. Geometric and material non-linearities were included in the finite element model. It was shown that the finite element model closely predicted the web crippling strengths and the failure modes of the tested specimens. Hence, the model was used for an extensive parametric study of the different sizes of the cross-section and circular holes in the webs. The influence of the circular web holes on the web crippling strength of aluminium square hollow sections is investigated in this study. Web crippling strength reduction factor equations are proposed for the ETF and ITF loading conditions. It is shown that the proposed strength reduction factors are generally conservative and agree well with the experimental and numerical results. Furthermore, a unified web crippling equation for the aluminium square hollow sections with circular web holes is also proposed. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Yang L.,University of New South Wales | Wang J.,University of New South Wales | Knight N.L.,University of New South Wales | Shen Y.,Tongji University
Journal of Geodesy | Year: 2013

Outlier separability analysis is a fundamental component of modern geodetic measurement analysis, positioning, navigation, and many other applications. The current theory of outlier separability is based on using two alternative hypotheses-an assumption that may not necessarily be valid. In this paper, the current theory of outlier separability is statistically analysed and then extended to the general case, where there are multiple alternative hypotheses. Taking into consideration the complexity of the critical region and the probability density function of the outlier test, the bounds of the associated statistical decision probabilities are then developed. With this theory, the probabilities of committing type I, II, and III errors can be controlled so that the probability of successful identification of an outlier can be guaranteed when performing data snooping. The theoretical findings are then demonstrated using a simulated GPS point positioning example. Detailed analysis shows that the larger the correlation coefficient, between the outlier statistics, the smaller the probability of committing a type II error and the greater the probability of committing a type III error. When the correlation coefficient is greater than 0.8, there is a far greater chance of committing a type III error than committing a type II error. In addition, to guarantee successful identification of an outlier with a set probability, the minimal detectable size of the outlier (often called the Minimal Detectable Bias or MDB) should dramatically increase with the correlation coefficient. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


News Article | February 17, 2017
Site: www.theguardian.com

When Stefano Boeri imagines the future of urban China he sees green, and lots of it. Office blocks, homes and hotels decked from top to toe in a verdant blaze of shrubbery and plant life; a breath of fresh air for metropolises that are choking on a toxic diet of fumes and dust. Last week, the Italian architect, famed for his tree-clad Bosco Verticale (Vertical Forest) skyscraper complex in Milan, unveiled plans for a similar project in the eastern Chinese city of Nanjing. The Chinese equivalent – Boeri’s first in Asia – will be composed of two neighbouring towers coated with 23 species of tree and more than 2,500 cascading shrubs. The structures will reportedly house offices, a 247-room luxury hotel, a museum and even a green architecture school, and are currently under construction, set for completion next year. But Boeri now has even bolder plans for China: to create entire “forest cities” in a country that has become synonymous with environmental degradation and smog. “We have been asked to design an entire city where you don’t only have one tall building but you have 100 or 200 buildings of different sizes, all with trees and plants on the facades,” Boeri told the Guardian. “We are working very seriously on designing all the different buildings. I think they will start to build at the end of this year. By 2020 we could imagine having the first forest city in China.” Boeri described his “vertical forest” concept as the architectural equivalent of a skin graft, a targeted intervention designed to bring new life to a small corner of China’s polluted urban sprawl. His Milan-based practice claimed the buildings would suck 25 tons of carbon dioxide from Nanjing’s air each year and produce about 60 kg of oxygen every day. “It is positive because the presence of such a large number of plants, trees and shrubs is contributing to the cleaning of the air, contributing to absorbing CO2 and producing oxygen,’ the architect said. “And what is so important is that this large presence of plants is an amazing contribution in terms of absorbing the dust produced by urban traffic.” Boeri said, though, that it would take more than a pair of tree-covered skyscrapers to solve China’s notorious pollution crisis. “Two towers in a huge urban environment [such as Nanjing] is so, so small a contribution – but it is an example. We hope that this model of green architecture can be repeated and copied and replicated.” If the Nanjing project is a skin graft, Boeri’s blueprints for “forest cities” are more like an organ transplant. The Milan-born architect said his idea was to create a series of sustainable mini-cities that could provide a green roadmap for the future of urban China. The first such settlement will be located in Luizhou, a mid-sized Chinese city of about 1.5 million residents in the mountainous southern province of Guangxi. More improbably, a second project is being conceived around Shijiazhuang, an industrial hub in northern China that is consistently among the country’s 10 most polluted cities. Compared with the vertical forests, these blueprints represent “something more serious in terms of a contribution to changing the environmental urban conditions in China,” Boeri said. Boeri, 60, first came to China in 1979. Five years ago he opened an office in Shanghai, where he leads a research program at the city’s Tongji University. The architect said believed Chinese officials were finally understanding that they needed to embrace a new, more sustainable model of urban planning that involved not “huge megalopolises” but settlements of 100,000 people or fewer that were entirely constructed of “green architecture”. “What they have done until now is simply to continue to add new peripheral environments to their cities,” he said. “They have created these nightmares – immense metropolitan environments. They have to imagine a new model of city that is not about extending and expanding but a system of small, green cities.” Boeri described the idea behind his shrub-shrouded structures as simple, not spectacular: “What is spectacular is the nature, the idea of having a building that changes colour with each season. The plants and trees are growing and they are completely changing.” “We think – and we hope – that this idea of vertical forests can be replicated everywhere. I absolutely have no problem if there are people who are copying or replicating. I hope that what we have done can be useful for other kinds of experiments.” Guardian Cities is dedicating a week to investigating one of the worst preventable causes of death around the world: air pollution. Explore our coverage at The Air We Breathe and follow Guardian Cities on Twitter and Facebook to join the discussion


Cheng C.,Tongji University | Sun Y.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2012

In the present study, we demonstrate a facile route to fabricate vertical-aligned carbon doped TiO2 nanowire arrays on FTO substrate by combining of a simple hydrothermal growth and a subsequent calcination process in air. The photoelectrochemical measurements indicate that the carbon doped TiO2 photoanode yields a ∼70% enhancement in the photocurrent density in comparison to that of the pristine TiO2. Further IPCE, diffuse reflectance spectra and electrochemical impedance characterizations confirm that the photocurrent improvement is mainly in the UV light region, which is arise from the increased charge carrier densities as well as improved charge transfer and separation induced by carbon doping. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Luo K.,Tongji University | Luo K.,Molecular Therapeutics | Zhang H.,Molecular Therapeutics | Wang L.,Molecular Therapeutics | And 3 more authors.
EMBO Journal | Year: 2012

In response to DNA damage, many DNA damage factors, such as MDC1 and 53BP1, redistribute to sites of DNA damage. The mechanism governing the turnover of these factors at DNA damage sites, however, remains enigmatic. Here, we show that MDC1 is sumoylated following DNA damage, and the sumoylation of MDC1 at Lys1840 is required for MDC1 degradation and removal of MDC1 and 53BP1 from sites of DNA damage. Sumoylated MDC1 is recognized and ubiquitinated by the SUMO-targeted E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF4. Mutation of the MDC1 Lys 1840 (K1840R) results in impaired CtIP, replication protein A, and Rad51 accumulation at sites of DNA damage and defective homologous recombination (HR). The HR defect caused by MDC1K1840R mutation could be rescued by 53BP1 downregulation. These results reveal the intricate dynamics governing the assembly and disassembly of DNA damage factors at sites of DNA damage for prompt response to DNA damage. ©2012 European Molecular Biology Organization.


Liu X.,Key Laboratory of Embedded System and Service Computing | Liu X.,Tongji University | Lu W.,Fudan University | Chen T.,Fudan University
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2010

In this note, the consensus problem with infinite time-varying delays for linearly coupled static network is investigated. The delay affects only the off-diagonal terms in continuous-time equations. At first, we define an effective consensus ability index. Then, by using the graph theory and a new concept of consensus, we prove that under some mild conditions, the network can realize consensus. An example is given to show the validity of obtained results. © 2010 IEEE.


Tan P.-Q.,Tongji University | Hu Z.-Y.,Tongji University | Lou D.-M.,Tongji University | Li Z.-J.,Tianjin University
Energy | Year: 2012

In this study, regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions with petroleum diesel fuel and Jatropha-based biodiesel blends at proportions of 5%, 10%, 20%, 50% and 100% (v/v) have been investigated. This study examines four regulated emissions: nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon and smoke, and four typical unregulated emissions: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and toluene. The biodiesel shows no obvious NOx emission difference from the pure diesel fuel at low and medium engine loads. Biodiesel blend ratios have little effect on the NO/NOx ratio at medium and high engine loads. The CO emission of biodiesel increases at low engine loads. The HC emissions show a continuous reduction with increasing biodiesel blend ratios. There is a good correlation between smoke reduction and the ratio of the biodiesel blends. The addition of biodiesel fuel increases formaldehyde emission. Compared to the pure diesel fuel, the acetaldehyde emission of B5 fuel is higher. The acetaldehyde emission of the B100 fuel is lower than the pure diesel fuel at low and middle engine loads. The acetone emission of biodiesel, from B5 to B100, is higher than the pure diesel fuel. The higher biodiesel blend ratio the fuel has, the lower toluene emission the engine has. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Huang Z.-M.,Tongji University | Liu L.,Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences | Year: 2014

A long standing and very challenging problem is to predict the ultimate strength of a fibrous laminate under arbitrary load condition only based on the mechanical properties of its constituents measured independently. Although the Bridging Model is unique for calculating the internal stresses in the constituent fiber and resin (which stands for a matrix material throughout this paper) materials subjected to any load including a temperature variation, the in situ mechanical properties of the constituents must be provided beforehand. A unidirectional (UD) composite exhibits a transverse tensile strength smaller than the tensile strength of the monolithic resin material, indicating that the in situ tensile strength of the resin in the transverse direction is different from that measured using monolithic material specimens. This is attributed to a stress concentration. The stress concentration factors (SCFs) of the resin material in a RVE (representative volume element) due to occurrence of the fiber are determined in terms of elasticity theory. The resin in situ tensile, compressive, and shear strengths in the transverse plane are obtained by the corresponding resin strengths measured independently divided by the respective SCFs, whereas the resin in situ longitudinal strengths together with all the other constituent properties are the same as their original counterparts. Using these originally provided constituent properties as input data, the Bridging Model has been applied to analyze the second World-Wide Failure Exercise (WWFE-II) problems. The model's predictions for all the problems have been compared with available experimental data. Favorable correlation has been found. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Yu R.,University of Central Florida | Yu R.,Tongji University | Abdel-Aty M.,University of Central Florida
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2013

The Bayesian inference method has been frequently adopted to develop safety performance functions. One advantage of the Bayesian inference is that prior information for the independent variables can be included in the inference procedures. However, there are few studies that discussed how to formulate informative priors for the independent variables and evaluated the effects of incorporating informative priors in developing safety performance functions. This paper addresses this deficiency by introducing four approaches of developing informative priors for the independent variables based on historical data and expert experience. Merits of these informative priors have been tested along with two types of Bayesian hierarchical models (Poisson-gamma and Poisson-lognormal models). Deviance information criterion (DIC), R-square values, and coefficients of variance for the estimations were utilized as evaluation measures to select the best model(s). Comparison across the models indicated that the Poisson-gamma model is superior with a better model fit and it is much more robust with the informative priors. Moreover, the two-stage Bayesian updating informative priors provided the best goodness-of-fit and coefficient estimation accuracies. Furthermore, informative priors for the inverse dispersion parameter have also been introduced and tested. Different types of informative priors' effects on the model estimations and goodness-of-fit have been compared and concluded. Finally, based on the results, recommendations for future research topics and study applications have been made. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cheng C.,Tongji University | Cheng C.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics | Ren W.,Tongji University | Zhang H.,Tongji University
Nano Energy | Year: 2014

A novel photoanode of 3D TiO2/SnO2 hierarchically branched nanowires on transparent FTO glass substrate with SnO2 nanowires as backbones and TiO2 nanorods as branches is fabricated by a combination of chemical vapor deposition and hydrothermal growth process. PEC device constructed by using this hierarchical architecture presents excellent performance with a maximum photocurrent density of 1mAcm-2, which is 5 times larger than that of TiO2/SnO2 core-shell nanowires. The greatly improved PEC performance is due to the 3D hierarchically branched structural effect, as result of enhancing the surface area as well as improvement of light harnessing and charge collection efficiency. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhang D.,Tongji University | Li J.,Tongji University | Wang Q.,Tongji University | Wu Q.,Tongji University | Wu Q.,Dalian University of Technology
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2013

Efficient photocatalytic nanocrystals with high-ratio exposure of active facets have aroused a great number of research interests in recent years. However, most preparations of such materials need the addition of special capping agents (like surfactants) or harsh reaction conditions (such as hydrothermal reactions). In this work, a controllable synthesis of BiOBr nanosheets with a thickness from 9 nm to 32 nm was easily achieved in a hydrolysis system through adjusting temperature and solvent, without adding any surfactant or capping agents. As the thickness of the nanosheets decreases from 32 nm to 9 nm, the ratio of exposed {001} facets, the active photocatalysis facets in BiOBr crystals, increases from 83% to 94%, along with an increased photocatalytic efficiency over rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light. Various methods such as SEM, TEM, AFM, DRS and Raman spectroscopy were used to fully characterize the as-obtained BiOBr nanosheets. More importantly, the obtained BiOBr nanosheets exhibit a selective visible-light photocatalytic behavior as the activity over RhB is much higher than that over Methyl Orange (MO) or Methylene Blue (MB). This phenomenon was studied with in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements and the potential mechanism was explored. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Guo F.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Wang X.,Tongji University | Abdel-Aty M.A.,University of Central Florida
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2010

Intersections in close spatial proximity along a corridor should be considered as correlated due to interacted traffic flows as well as similar road design and environmental characteristics. It is critical to incorporate this spatial correlation for assessing the true safety impacts of risk factors. In this paper, several Bayesian models were developed to model the crash data from 170 signalized intersections in the state of Florida. The safety impacts of risk factors such as geometric design features, traffic control, and traffic flow characteristics were evaluated. The Poisson and Negative Binomial Bayesian models with non-informative priors were fitted but the focus is to incorporate spatial correlations among intersections. Two alternative models were proposed to capture this correlation: (1) a mixed effect model in which the corridor-level correlation is incorporated through a corridor-specific random effect and (2) a conditional autoregressive model in which the magnitude of correlations is determined by spatial distances among intersections. The models were compared using the Deviance Information Criterion. The results indicate that the Poisson spatial model provides the best model fitting. Analysis of the posterior distributions of model parameters indicated that the size of intersection, the traffic conditions by turning movement, and the coordination of signal phase have significant impacts on intersection safety. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ding Z.,Tongji University | Tamura Y.,Tokyo Polytechnic University
Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics | Year: 2013

Internal forces in cladding support components of large-span roof structures under wind loads were usually estimated only based on the local wind loads imposed on tributary areas. However, internal forces on such members depend not only on local behaviors caused by local wind loads but also on wind-induced overall behaviors of main structural frames. By ignoring the contribution of overall behaviors of main structural frames, internal forces in cladding support components may be underestimated following current wind load codes or recommendations. It is necessary to investigate the contributions of local and overall behaviors to improve the wind-resistant design of the cladding support component members on large-span roof systems. In this paper, a method was proposed to separate the internal forces of cladding support components due to wind-induced local and overall behaviors and investigate the corresponding contributions for the largest internal forces. Wind loads used for loading effects estimation were obtained based on wind pressures measured from a 1:400 scaled roof model under a boundary layer wind flow configuration. Wind loading effects considering wind-induced total behaviors (overall behaviors and local behaviors together) for axial force, bending moment and shear force were calculated by time-history analysis using finite element (FE) models of the prototype structure. Meanwhile, internal forces in cladding support components only considering local behaviors were extracted by using local wind loads based on quasi-static assumption. Finally, based on the contributions to the largest wind-induced internal forces resulting from the proposed method, a procedure for remedying the current wind load codes for such members were discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Yuan J.,Tongji University | Yuan J.,Molecular Therapeutics | Luo K.,Tongji University | Luo K.,Molecular Therapeutics | And 2 more authors.
Genes and Development | Year: 2012

SIRT1 regulates a variety of cellular functions, including cellular stress responses and energy metabolism. SIRT1 activity is negatively regulated by DBC1 (Deleted in Breast Cancer 1) through direct binding. However, how the DBC1-SIRT1 interaction is regulated remains unclear. We found that the DBC1-SIRT1 interaction increases following DNA damage and oxidative stress. The stress-induced DBC1-SIRT1 interaction requires the ATM-dependent phosphorylation of DBC1 at Thr 454, which creates a second binding site for SIRT1. Finally, we showed that the stress-induced DBC1-SIRT1 interaction is important for cell fate determination following genotoxic stress. These results revealed a novel mechanism of SIRT1 regulation during genotoxic stress.


Yi T.-H.,Dalian University of Technology | Yi T.-H.,Tongji University | Li H.-N.,Dalian University of Technology | Gu M.,Tongji University
Structural Control and Health Monitoring | Year: 2013

Monitoring the response of structures, especially tall buildings, under severe loading conditions is an important requirement for the validation of their design and construction, as well as being a maintenance concern. This paper presents a review of current research and development activities (since 1995) in the field of high-rise structure health monitoring using the Global Positioning System (GPS). The GPS monitoring technology and its accurate assessment method are firstly briefly described. Then, the progresses on monitoring the displacement of the high-rise structure caused by the ambient effects including wind, thermal variation, and earthquake-induced responses are discussed in details. Following that, the states of the art of augmenting the GPS monitoring technology are reviewed. Finally, existing problems and promising research efforts in the GPS-based health monitoring are given. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Chen F.,Shanghai Institute of Technology | Zhu D.,Tongji University
Habitat International | Year: 2013

This paper addresses the background research on the low-carbon city and determines its definition, models and methods of appraisal. It carries out a quantitative and empirical analysis of carbon emissions in the process of Shanghai's development in order to seek out the conflicts of interest and the issues involved and to determine the overall strategic objectives for building, industry (production) and transportation in the future. In conclusion, the article sets development strategies for concepts in low-carbon lifestyle, recycling of materials and intensive use of urban space. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Sun H.,Tongji University | Wang Z.,Zhoushan Hospital of Zhejiang Province | Yakisich J.S.,Karolinska University Hospital
Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway is a key regulator of authophagy. Natural products show anticancer activity and often induce apoptosis or autophagy. The crosstalk between these two types of cell death makes autophagy an interesting target since drugs targeting this process not only can induce cell death by inducing autophagy but can also sensitize cells to apoptosis. Autophagy is also a protective mechanism associated with increased resistance to chemotherapy. In this review, we discuss natural products known to induce autophagy cell death in cancer cells via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.


Zhao Y.,Hefei University of Technology | Zhao Y.,Chinese Academy of Science | Huang D.-S.,Tongji University | Jia W.,Chinese Academy of Science
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2012

In this brief, a novel local descriptor, named local binary count (LBC), is proposed for rotation invariant texture classification. The proposed LBC can extract the local binary grayscale difference information, and totally abandon the local binary structural information. Although the LBC codes do not represent visual microstructure, the statistics of LBC features can represent the local texture effectively. In addition, a completed LBC (CLBC) is also proposed to enhance the performance of texture classification. Experimental results obtained from three databases demonstrate that the proposed CLBC can achieve comparable accurate classification rates with completed local binary pattern. © 1992-2012 IEEE.


Yu R.,Tongji University | Abdel-Aty M.,University of Central Florida
Safety Science | Year: 2014

This study focuses on developing crash injury severity analysis models for a mountainous freeway section. In addition to the data obtained from crash reports, real-time traffic and weather data were utilized. The introduction of real-time data would benefit model applications on crash injury severity prediction. Crash injury severity was classified as a binary outcome (severe and non-severe crashes) and random forest model was firstly estimated to select the most important explanatory variables associated with severe crash occurrence. Four most critical variables (snow season indicator, steep grade indicator, speed standard deviation, and temperature) were chosen by the random forest model as inputs for the modeling analyses. For the purpose of identifying actual relationships between severe crash occurrence and the chosen explanatory variables and enhancing model goodness-of-fit, a total of three models were developed to analyze crash injury severity: (1) fixed parameter logit model; (2) support vector machine (SVM) model with radial-basis kernel function to detect non-linearity; and (3) random parameter logit model with unrestricted variance-covariance matrix to account for individual heterogeneity and also to investigate potential correlations between the explanatory variables. The three models were compared based on the areas under the ROC curve (AUC) values and it was demonstrated that SVM model and random parameter model provide superior model fits than the fixed parameter logit model. Findings of this study demonstrate that real-time traffic and weather variables have substantial influences on crash injury severity, which could be utilized to predict crash injury severity. Moreover, it is important to consider possible non-linearity and individual heterogeneity when analyzing crash injury severity. In addition, potential applications of the modeling results, limitations of this study have been discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Yu R.,Tongji University | Abdel-Aty M.,University of Central Florida
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies | Year: 2014

Active Traffic Management (ATM) systems have been emerging in recent years in the US and Europe. They provide control strategies to improve traffic flow and reduce congestion on freeways. This study investigates the feasibility of utilizing a Variable Speed Limits (VSL) system, one key part of ATM, to improve traffic safety on freeways. A proactive traffic safety improvement VSL control algorithm is proposed. First, an extension of the METANET (METANET: A macroscopic simulation program for motorway networks) traffic flow model is employed to analyze VSL's impact on traffic flow. Then, a real-time crash risk evaluation model is estimated for the purpose of quantifying crash risk. Finally, optimal VSL control strategies are achieved by employing an optimization technique to minimize the total crash risk along the VSL implementation corridor. Constraints are setup to limit the increase of average travel time and the differences of the posted speed limits temporarily and spatially. This novel VSL control algorithm can proactively reduce crash risk and therefore improve traffic safety. The proposed VSL control algorithm is implemented and tested for a mountainous freeway bottleneck area through the micro-simulation software VISSIM. Safety impacts of the VSL system are quantified as crash risk improvements and speed homogeneity improvements. Moreover, three different driver compliance levels are modeled in VISSIM to monitor the sensitivity of VSL effects on driver compliance. Conclusions demonstrated that the proposed VSL system could improve traffic safety by decreasing crash risk and enhancing speed homogeneity under both the high and moderate compliance levels; while the VSL system fails to significantly enhance traffic safety under the low compliance scenario. Finally, future implementation suggestions of the VSL control strategies and related research topics are also discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Fang J.,Tongji University | Gao Y.,Tongji University | Sun G.,Hunan University | Li Q.,University of Sydney
Finite Elements in Analysis and Design | Year: 2013

Structural optimization for vehicle door signifies one of the key topics of research to continuously improve its performances. However, majority of the studies to date have not considered uncertainties whilst it has been known that a deterministic optimization may lead to an unreliable design in practice. In this paper, a multiobjective reliability-based design optimization (MORBDO) procedure is proposed to explore the design of vehicle door. To improve the efficiency of optimization, response surface method (RSM) is used to replace the time-consuming finite element simulations. In conjunction with Monte Carlo simulation and descriptive sampling technique, probabilistic sufficiency factor is adopted as a design constraint. The multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm is employed to perform the optimization. The results demonstrate that the proposed optimization procedure is capable of generating a well-distributed Pareto frontier of reliable solutions, and it is suggested to select an optimum from relative insensitive regions. Moreover, the influence of varying the uncertainty and increasing the target reliability level in the optimization results is analyzed, which provided decision-makers with insightful design information. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Yu R.,Tongji University | Abdel-Aty M.,University of Central Florida
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2014

Severe crashes are causing serious social and economic loss, and because of this, reducing crash injury severity has become one of the key objectives of the high speed facilities' (freeway and expressway) management. Traditional crash injury severity analysis utilized data mainly from crash reports concerning the crash occurrence information, drivers' characteristics and roadway geometric related variables. In this study, real-time traffic and weather data were introduced to analyze the crash injury severity. The space mean speeds captured by the Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) system on the two roadways were used as explanatory variables in this study; and data from a mountainous freeway (I-70 in Colorado) and an urban expressway (State Road 408 in Orlando) have been used to identify the analysis result's consistence. Binary probit (BP) models were estimated to classify the non-severe (property damage only) crashes and severe (injury and fatality) crashes. Firstly, Bayesian BP models' results were compared to the results from Maximum Likelihood Estimation BP models and it was concluded that Bayesian inference was superior with more significant variables. Then different levels of hierarchical Bayesian BP models were developed with random effects accounting for the unobserved heterogeneity at segment level and crash individual level, respectively. Modeling results from both studied locations demonstrate that large variations of speed prior to the crash occurrence would increase the likelihood of severe crash occurrence. Moreover, with considering unobserved heterogeneity in the Bayesian BP models, the model goodness-of-fit has improved substantially. Finally, possible future applications of the model results and the hierarchical Bayesian probit models were discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Haiying Z.,Shanghai Institute of Technology | Youcai Z.,Tongji University | Jingyu Q.,Tongji University
Waste Management | Year: 2011

In this study, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash was used as a blending in making ceramic brick based on its characterization and an orthogonal test was performed to determine the optimal mixture ratio of the materials. Besides, the fired bricks made in accordance with the optimal mixture ratio were characterized for performance, phase transformation, microstructure, leaching toxicity of the heavy metals in accordance with GB/T 2542-92 (Detection methods for bricks analysis, China) and by means of XRD, SEM and leaching toxicity analysis. It was found that the optimal mixture ratio of materials (MSWI fly ash:red ceramic clay:feldspar:gang sand) was 20:60:10:10 by mass, and the optimal sintering temperature was 950 °C. Leaching results of heavy metals from sintered bricks were reduced considerably in comparison with those from green bricks prior to sintering process. The results as a whole suggested that utilization of MSWI fly ash in ceramic brick constituted a potential means of adding value. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Yi T.-H.,Dalian University of Technology | Yi T.-H.,Tongji University | Li H.-N.,Dalian University of Technology | Gu M.,Tongji University
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2013

The bridge engineer has long needed methods of accurate global displacement measurement for use in construction and more recently in the areas of bridge health monitoring. In this paper, the reliability and practicability of using high-rate carrier phase global positioning system (GPS) receivers are investigated to characterize dynamic oscillations of bridges. Initially, the short baseline trial is conducted to study the precision and characteristics of such kind of receivers as well as the potential applications of such a high-frequency data rate. After that, the performance of high-rate GPS receivers for dynamic response tracking is validated against accelerometers through controlled experimental tests and a novel kind of wavelet packet-based filtering method is also proposed. Finally, on-site dynamic experiments are carried out to measure the bridge deck oscillation induced by different external loads. Observed data are compared with predicted values derived from modeling undertaken with the finite element (FE) analysis software. The results of all the experiments proved to be very encouraging, and showed that high-rate GPS receiver is successful in quantifying both environmental induced bridge vibrations and high-frequency transient motion caused by vehicle loading, providing the ability for verification and/or improvement of structural design and modeling. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Sun D.-Z.,Tianjin University | Zhong J.-D.,Tongji University
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics | Year: 2012

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags are small, wireless electronic devices that help identify objects and people. Privacy protection and integrity assurance become rather crucial in the RFID systems, because these RFID tags may have a wide transmission range, making them subject to unauthorized scanning by malicious readers and various other attacks. Hence, Ha et al. proposed an RFID protocol and proved that their protocol can provide the forward privacy service. However, in this paper, it is shown that an attacker can track a target tag by observing unsuccessful previous session of the tag. That is, Ha et al.'s RFID protocol fails to provide the forward privacy protection as claimed. Therefore, to overcome the privacy weaknesses of Ha et al.'s RFID protocol, an RFID protocol based on the cryptographic hash functions is proposed. Moreover, the proposed RFID protocol is evaluated according to both the privacy attribute and the implementation performance. © 2011 IEEE.


Rahaman M.N.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Bal B.S.,University of Missouri | Huang W.,Tongji University
Materials Science and Engineering C | Year: 2014

Bacterial contamination of implanted orthopedic prostheses is a serious complication that requires prolonged systemic antibiotic therapy, major surgery to remove infected implants, bone reconstruction, and considerable morbidity. Local delivery of high doses of antibiotics using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cement as the carrier, along with systemic antibiotics, is the standard treatment. However, PMMA is not biodegradable, and it can present a surface on which secondary bacterial infection can occur. PMMA spacers used to treat deep implant infections must be removed after resolution of the infection. Alternative carrier materials for antibiotics that could also restore deficient bone are therefore of interest. In this article, the development of bioactive glass-based materials as a delivery system for antibiotics is reviewed. Bioactive glass is osteoconductive, converts to hydroxyapatite, and heals to hard and soft tissues in vivo. Consequently, bioactive glass-based carriers can provide the combined functions of controlled local antibiotic delivery and bone restoration. Recently-developed borate bioactive glasses are of particular interest since they have controllable degradation rates coupled with desirable properties related to osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Such glasses have the potential for providing a new class of biomaterials, as substitutes for PMMA, in the treatment of deep bone infections. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Zhou Y.-T.,Tongji University | Lee K.Y.,Dalian University of Technology
Mechanics of Materials | Year: 2014

A theoretical model of a frictional sliding contact problem for monoclinic piezoelectric materials under triangular and cylindrical punches is established. The characteristic equation related to the governing equations of monoclinic piezoelectric materials is of eight-order, which generates real and/or complex eigenvalues. Fundamental solutions that can lead to real values of physical quantities are given for both real and complex eigenvalues. By applying Fourier transform, the mixed boundary value problem is reduced to a singular integral equation of the second kind of Cauchy type. Based on exact solutions of the reduced singular integral equation, closed-form expressions of various surface stresses and electric displacement are obtained. Moreover, relations between the applied load and the contact region are obtained. Numerical results are given to show the influences of the friction coefficient on various surface stresses, electric displacement and even the width of the contact region. The underlying physics/mechanics accounting for the observations are presented. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Huang D.-S.,Tongji University | Jiang W.,Hefei University of Technology | Jiang W.,Chinese Academy of science
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics | Year: 2012

The algorithm of Continuous Point Location with Adaptive d-ary Search (CPL-AdS) strategy exhibits its efficiency in solving stochastic point location (SPL) problems. However, there is one bottleneck for this CPL-AdS strategy which is that, when the dimension of the feature, or the number of divided subintervals for each iteration, d is large, the decision table for elimination process is almost unavailable. On the other hand, the larger dimension of the features d can generally make this CPL-AdS strategy avoid oscillation and converge faster. This paper presents a generalized universal decision formula to solve this bottleneck problem. As a matter of fact, this decision formula has a wider usage beyond handling out this SPL problems, such as dealing with deterministic point location problems and searching data in Single Instruction Stream-Multiple Data Stream based on Concurrent Read and Exclusive Write parallel computer model. Meanwhile, we generalized the CPL-AdS strategy with an extending formula, which is capable of tracking an unknown dynamic parameter λ * in both informative and deceptive environments. Furthermore, we employed different learning automata in the generalized CPL-AdS method to find out if faster learning algorithm will lead to better realization of the generalized CPL-AdS method. All of these aforementioned contributions are vitally important whether in theory or in practical applications. Finally, extensive experiments show that our proposed approaches are efficient and feasible. © 1996-2012 IEEE.


Tian G.,Northeast Forestry University | Zhou M.,Tongji University | Chu J.,New Jersey Institute of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering | Year: 2013

Disassembly planning is aimed to perform the optimal disassembly sequence given a used or obsolete product in terms of cost and environmental impact. However, the actual disassembly process of products can experience great uncertainty due to a variety of unpredictable factors. To deal with such uncertainty, this work presents some chance constrained programming models for disassembly cost from the perspective of stochastic planning. Moreover, two hybrid intelligent algorithms, namely, one integrating stochastic simulation and neural network (NN), and another integrating stochastic simulation, genetic algorithm (GA) and neural network (NN), are proposed to solve the proposed models, respectively. Some numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed models and the effectiveness of proposed algorithms. © 2004-2012 IEEE.


Mao S.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Lu G.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Yu K.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Bo Z.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2010

(Figure Presented) A highly sensitive and selective fieldeffect transistor biosensor using thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRCO) sheet decorated with gold nanoparticle-antibody conjugates is demonstrated. Probe antibody (anti-Immunoglobulin G) is labeled on the surface of the TRCO sheet through gold nanoparticles and electrical detection of the protein binding (Immunoglobulin C and anti-lmmunoglobulin G) is accomplished by FET and dc measurements. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Zhang Z.,Tongji University | Huang H.,University of Utah | Yang X.,University of Utah | Zang L.,University of Utah
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters | Year: 2011

Intrinsic graphene is a semimetal or zero bandgap semiconductor, which hinders its applications for nanoelectronics. To develop high-performance nanodevices with graphene, it is necessary to open the bandgap and precisely control the charge carrier type and density. In this perspective, we focus on tailoring the electronic properties of graphene by noncovalent stacking with aromatic molecules through π-π interaction. Different types of molecules (functioning as either an electron donor or acceptor when stacked with graphene) as reported in recent literature are presented regarding surface patterning, bandgap engineering, surface doping, as well as applications in nanodevices, particularly the field-effect transistors (FETs). On the basis of the current progress along this research line, future issues and challenges are also briefly discussed. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Sung-Chan P.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University | Sung Y.W.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Zhao X.,Tongji University | Brownson R.C.,Washington University in St. Louis
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2013

Effective interventions are needed to address the growing epidemic of childhood obesity. In the past 35 years, family-based approach has gradually developed as a preferred intervention. This review aimed to examine the methodological rigour and treatment effectiveness of family-based interventions according to intervention types and theoretical orientations. A total of 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of family-based lifestyle interventions for children and adolescents aged 2-19 years were included. The adapted Methodological Quality Rating Scales (MQRS) and a four-grade qualitative scoring scheme were adopted to evaluate the methodological rigour and the effectiveness of treatment, respectively. The average MQRS score was 7.93 out of 14 points. Ten of the 15 RCTs had well aligned their research questions with appropriate research methods. The overall short-term outcome of the15 RCTs were satisfactory with an average score of 3.1. Family-based interventions rooted in behaviour theory achieved better results than those theoretically connected to family systems theory in terms of treatment effectiveness. Results suggest future studies to improve the methodological design and continue to explore the potential of the family systems approach. © 2012 The Authors. Obesity Reviews. © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.


Huang Y.,Control Hosp. of Jinshan Dist. | Zhang C.,Tongji University | Luo Y.,Control Hosp. of Jinshan Dist.
International Orthopaedics | Year: 2013

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical strength of the cephalomedullary nail InterTAN in cases of intertrochanteric fractures with the commonly used PFNA. Methods: Sixteen fresh specimens of the proximal femur were used as intertrochanteric fracture models and were fixed using two fixation devices: the new proximal femoral nail (InterTAN) and proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA). An intertrochanteric fracture was created in composite bone models. Each specimen was loaded to simulate single leg stance while stiffness, migration (cut out), compressive force across the fracture site, and distal fragment rotation were monitored. The different internal fixation methods were tested by an experimental press analysis. Results: Results of tests for femoral strength, stiffness, stability, and bearing capacity demonstrated that the biomechanical function of InterTAN was better than that of PFNA (P < 0.05). Compared with the PFNA nail, InterTAN showed increased strength, stiffness, and resistance torque of 30 %, 15 %, and 27 %, respectively. Conclusion: Comparison of the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures with InterTAN and PFNA internal fixation showed that the InterTAN yielded improvement relative to the PFNA. InterTAN has a firmer and biomechanically superior performance and is therefore an ideal internal fixation method for treating intertrochanteric fractures. Additional research in osteopenic bone is necessary to comprehensively characterize the effects of the design enhancements of these two implants. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Tong X.,Tongji University | Liu S.,Tongji University | Weng Q.,Indiana State University
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing | Year: 2010

The rational function model (RFM) is widely used as an alternative to physical sensor models for 3D ground point determination with high-resolution satellite imagery (HRSI). However, owing to the sensor orientation bias inherent in the vendor-provided rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs), the geo-positioning accuracy obtained from these RPCs is limited. In this paper, the performances of two schemes for orientation bias correction (i.e., RPCs modification and RPCs regeneration) is presented based on one separate-orbit QuickBird stereo image pair in Shanghai, and four cases for bias correction, including shift bias correction, shift and drift bias correction, affine model bias correction and second-order polynomial bias correction, are examined. A 2-step least squares adjustment method is adopted for correction parameter estimation with a comparison with the RPC bundle adjustment method. The experiment results demonstrate that in general the accuracy of the 2-step least squares adjustment method is almost identical to that of the RPC bundle adjustment method. With the shift bias correction method and minimal 1 ground control point (GCP), the modified RPCs improve the accuracy from the original 23 m to 3 m in planimetry and 17 m to 4 m in height. With the shift and drift bias correction method, the regenerated RPCs achieve a further improved positioning accuracy of 0.6 m in planimetry and 1 m in height with minimal 2 well-distributed GCPs. The affine model bias correction yields a geo-positioning accuracy of better than 0.5 m in planimetry and 1 m in height with 3 well-positioned GCPs. Further tests with the second-order polynomial bias correction model indicate the existence of potential high-order error signals in the vendor-provided RPCs, and on condition that an adequate redundancy in GCP number is available, an accuracy of 0.4 m in planimetry and 0.8 m in height is attainable. © 2010 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).


Caruana G.,Brunel University | Li M.,Brunel University | Li M.,Tongji University
ACM Computing Surveys | Year: 2012

From just an annoying characteristic of the electronic mail epoch, spam has evolved into an expensive resource and time-consuming problem. In this survey, we focus on emerging approaches to spam filtering built on recent developments in computing technologies. These include peer-to-peer computing, grid computing, semantic Web, and social networks. We also address a number of perspectives related to personalization and privacy in spam filtering. We conclude that, while important advancements have been made in spam filtering in recent years, high performance approaches remain to be explored due to the large scale of the problem. © 2012 ACM.


A mathematical model for describing groundwater flow to a partially penetrating pumping well of a finite diameter in an anisotropic leaky confined aquifer is developed. The model accounts for the jointed effects of aquitard storage, aquifer anisotropy, and wellbore storage by treating the aquitard leakage as a boundary condition at the aquitard-aquifer interface rather than a volumetric source/sink term in the governing equation, which has never developed before. A new semi-analytical solution for the model is obtained by the Laplace transform in conjunction with separation of variables. Specific attention was paid on the flow across the aquitard-aquifer interface, which is of concern if aquitard and aquifer have different pore water chemistry. Moreover, Laplace-domain and steady-state solutions are obtained to calculate the rate and volume of (total) leakage through the aquitard-aquifer interface due to pump in a partially penetrating well, which is also useful for engineers to manager water resources. The sensitivity analyses for the drawdown illustrate that the drawdown is most sensitive to the well partial penetration. It is apparently sensitive to the aquifer anisotropic ratio over the entire time of pumping. It is moderately sensitive to the aquitard/aquifer specific storage ratio at the intermediate times only. It is moderately sensitive to the aquitard/aquifer vertical hydraulic conductivity ratio and the aquitard/aquifer thickness ratio with the identical influence at late times. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Yan H.,Tongji University | Yan H.,Sanming University | Jin B.,Tongji University
International Journal of Solids and Structures | Year: 2012

The swelling deformation behavior of polymer gels is often described in terms of the Flory-Rehner framework, in which the Flory-Rehner free energy function is based on the simplest affine network model, does not take entanglements into account. However, the real polymer networks have many chain entanglements. In this paper, a new hybrid free energy function composed of the Edwards-Vilgis slip-link model and the Flory-Huggins solution theory is presented for the prediction of the influence of chain entanglements on mechanical behavior of gels. The simulation results of mechanical behavior in free swelling, uniaxial extension, biaxial constraint and simple shear are presented. It is shown that in the nonentangled state, this new hybrid free energy function reduces to the Flory-Rehner free energy function; in the entangled state, the influence of entanglements on the mechanical behavior of gels is significant, the more entangled networks exhibit higher stress. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Liu Z.-M.,Tongji University | Hu M.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Chan P.,Taipei Medical University | Tomlinson B.,Chinese University of Hong Kong
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs | Year: 2015

Introduction: The fibrates have been used for many years to treat dyslipidemias and have also recently been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. They are relatively weak PPAR-α agonists and do have some adverse effects. Novel compounds are in development, which are selective PPAR modulators (SPPARMs) and have more potent PPAR-α agonist activity. These may prove to have advantages in the treatment of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).Areas covered: This review focuses on PPAR-α agonists or SPPARMs in development describing the preclinical and early clinical studies. The information was obtained by searching the published literature and abstracts from recent meetings. Ongoing clinical trials were identified using the Clinicaltrial.gov database.Expert opinion: There is still a need for new drugs to treat atherogenic dyslipidemia. The highly potent and selective PPAR-α agonist K-877 has shown beneficial effects on atherogenic dyslipidemia and absence of some adverse effects seen with fibrates. The dual PPAR-α/PPAR-δ agonist GFT-505 has shown favorable results in improving atherogenic dyslipidemia and insulin resistance and appears to be a potential candidate for the treatment of NAFLD. Long-term trials are needed to assess the safety and efficacy of these new agents for cardiovascular and liver outcomes. © Informa UK, Ltd.


Fan J.,Tongji University | Wang L.,Shandong Academy of Sciences | Jiang G.-N.,Tongji University | Gao W.,Tongji University
Annals of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: The selection of surgeries for patients with stage I NSCLC remains controversial. We evaluated the effectiveness of different surgeries for stage I NSCLC through a meta-analysis of studies that compared sublobectomy with lobectomy. Methods: The overall survival/cancer-specific survival (OS/CSS) of stage I NSCLC after sublobectomy or lobectomy was compared. The log (hazard ratio) [ln (HR)] and its standard error (SE) were used as the outcome measure for data combining. Results: There were 24 eligible studies, published from 1990 to 2010, enrolled (11,360 patients). Compared with sublobectomy, there was a significant benefit of lobectomy on OS and CSS of stage I NSCLC patients (HR 1.40; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.15-1.69; P = .0006). In stage Ia patients with tumor no large than 2 cm, there were no differences in OS between lobectomy and sublobectomy (HR 0.81; 95% CI, 0.39-1.71; P = .58). For the comparison between lobectomy and segmentectomy, there was no significant difference on OS (HR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.85-1.40; P = .45) and CSS (HR 0.99; 95% CI, 0.72-1.38; P = .97) in stage I NSCLC patients. There was no significant publication bias detected in any sections of the analysis. Conclusions: For stage I patients, sublobectomy causes lower survival than lobectomy, whereas the outcomes of segmentectomy are comparable to that of lobectomy; for stage Ia patients with tumor ≤2 cm, sublobectomy produces similar survival to lobectomy. © 2011 Society of Surgical Oncology.


Gallais L.,Aix - Marseille University | Cheng X.,MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro Structured Materials | Cheng X.,Tongji University | Wang Z.,MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro Structured Materials | Wang Z.,Tongji University
Optics Letters | Year: 2014

The influence of nodular coating defects on the sub-picosecond laser damage resistance of multilayer coatings is investigated. The study is conducted on engineered nodules from monodisperse silica microspheres in HfO 2/SiO2 high-reflective mirrors, at 400 fs/1030 nm. We demonstrate through an experimental study coupled with 3D finitedifference time-domain simulations that nodules in dielectric multilayer coatings are a main concern for the damage resistance of femtosecond optics. The nodules, and hence possibly other defects that produce E-field enhancement in coating materials, induce damage initiation at very low fluences (0.1 J/cm2 in the case under study) compared to the intrinsic damage threshold of the component (1.4 J/cm2 for the present mirror). After initiation, the damage sites grow catastrophically at a determined threshold, reducing significantly the damage resistance (0.6 J/cm2) but allowing a "safe" operating fluence to be defined. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Guo L.,Shanghai Finance University | Song Z.-G.,Shanghai Ocean University | Xu J.,Tongji University
Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation | Year: 2014

In this paper, we present a Leslie-Gower type of food chain system composed of three species, which are resource, consumer, and predator, respectively. The digestion time delays corresponding to consumer-eat-resource and predator-eat-consumer are introduced for more realistic consideration. It is called the resource digestion delay (RDD) and consumer digestion delay (CDD) for simplicity. Analyzing the corresponding characteristic equation, the stabilities of the boundary and interior equilibrium points are studied. The food chain system exhibits the species coexistence for the small values of digestion delays. Large RDD/CDD may destabilize the species coexistence and induce the system dynamic into recurrent bloom or system collapse. Further, the present of multiple delays can control species population into the stable coexistence. To investigate the effect of time delays on the recurrent bloom of species population, the Hopf bifurcation and periodic solution are investigated in detail in terms of the central manifold reduction and normal form method. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to display some complex dynamics, which include multiple periodic solution and chaos motion for the different values of system parameters. The system dynamic behavior evolves into the chaos motion by employing the period-doubling bifurcation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Sheikholeslami M.,Babol Noshirvani University of Technology | Rashidi M.M.,Tongji University | Rashidi M.M.,ENN Group
Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers | Year: 2015

Effect of spatially variable magnetic field on ferrofluid flow and heat transfer is investigated. The enclosure is filled with Fe3O4-water nanofluid. Control volume based finite element method (CVFEM) is applied to solve the governing equations. The combined effects of ferrohydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic have been taken into account. The influences of Magnetic number, Hartmann number, Rayleigh number and nanoparticle volume fraction on the flow and heat transfer characteristics have been examined. Results show that enhancement in heat transfer decrease with increase of Rayleigh number while for two other active parameters different behavior is observed. Also it can be concluded that Nusselt number is an increasing function of Magnetic number, Rayleigh number and nanoparticle volume fraction while it is a decreasing function of Hartmann number. © 2015 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers.


Sun L.,Tongji University | Du J.,Tongji University | Du J.,Fudan University
Polymer | Year: 2012

Polymer vesicles have been widely explored as drug delivery carriers. However, there are still several notable problems in the determination of the drug loading content (DLC) and the drug loading efficiency (DLE) of the drug delivery vehicles. Presented in this paper is the reconsideration of various important factors in the measurement of the DLC and DLE based on an 'instant' biocompatible and biodegradable polymer vesicle which can be directly dissolved in water, with a focus on the study on the time for removing the free drug. Firstly, an anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), was successfully encapsulated into a highly biocompatible and biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone)-block- poly[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine] (PCL-b-PMPC) diblock copolymer vesicle. Secondly, a specific methodology for removing the unencapsulated drug by dialysis method before the drug release experiment has been established to verify the DLC and the DLE of DOX. A number of important factors have been investigated, such as the period of time for removing the free drug, the temperature and the volume of water outside the dialysis tube, etc. Finally, the DOX release experiment was carried out at pH 5.0 and pH 7.4 with the cumulative release percentages of 55% and 35% after 24 h when the DOX feeding was 1.0 mg. As PCL-b-PMPC vesicles absorb UV light, the DOX encapsulated in polymer vesicles was calculated by subtracting the UV absorbance of vesicle solution from the UV absorbance of DOX-loaded vesicle solution at different DOX feedings of 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mg. We also found the appropriate calibration curves at different solution conditions were of great significance for the calculation of DLC and DLE. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Dong B.,University of Texas at San Antonio | O'Neill Z.,University of Alabama | Li Z.,Tongji University
Automation in Construction | Year: 2014

Although energy-efficient building technologies are emerging, a key challenge is how to effectively maintain building energy performance over the evolving lifecycle of the building. Field experience shows that energy savings of 5-30% are typically achievable simply by applying energy Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) and correcting faults diagnosed in buildings. Model-based FDD in buildings is a challenging task, not only because the task itself is difficult, but also because the workflow and information exchange behind the task is very complex and error prone. This complexity arises from several aspects. Firstly, creating a baseline building energy performance model suitable for FDD is both time and labor consuming. Secondly, the FDD module typically has its own ad-hoc platform, and the integration of this platform with the existing Building Energy Management System (BEMS) is technically challenging due to the incompatible interoperability. Finally, the information exchange itself is complex due to the existence of multiple functioning modules to make FDD workflow happen. To perform an efficient and effective FDD with the BEMS in buildings, information is needed to flow among an as-built building static information module, a building energy performance simulation module, a building operational data acquisition module and a FDD module. In such a complex process, it is challenging to ensure the information integrity and consistence. In this paper, we propose a Building Information Modeling (BIM) enabled information infrastructure for FDD, which streamlines the information exchange process and therefore has the potential to improve the efficiency of similar works in practice. The proposed information infrastructure was deployed and implemented in a real building for a FDD case study.


Hu D.,Fudan University | He L.,Tongji University | Wang X.,Columbia University
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2011

In orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-based cognitive radio (CR) systems, the subcarriers already occupied by the primary users cannot be used by the secondary users. This leads to possibly non-contiguous positions of the available subcarriers for the secondary users. The conventional pilot design methods are no longer effective for such systems. In this paper, we propose a new practical pilot design method for OFDM-based CR systems. We first formulate the pilot design as a new optimization problem. Instead of minimizing the mean-square error (MSE) of the least-squares (LS) channel estimator, we minimize an upper bound which is related to this MSE. We then propose an efficient scheme to solve the optimization problem. Specifically, the pilot indices are obtained sequentially by solving a series of one-dimensional optimization problems of significantly lower complexity. The computational complexity of the proposed scheme is low since it only involves real additions. Simulation results show that the pilot index sequences obtained by the proposed method exhibit significantly better performance than those obtained by existing pilot design methods. © 2011 IEEE.


Ding J.,Fudan University | Zhou S.,Fudan University | Guan J.,Tongji University
BMC Bioinformatics | Year: 2010

Background: MicroRNAs (simply miRNAs) are derived from larger hairpin RNA precursors and play essential regular roles in both animals and plants. A number of computational methods for miRNA genes finding have been proposed in the past decade, yet the problem is far from being tackled, especially when considering the imbalance issue of known miRNAs and unidentified miRNAs, and the pre-miRNAs with multi-loops or higher minimum free energy (MFE). This paper presents a new computational approach, miRenSVM, for finding miRNA genes. Aiming at better prediction performance, an ensemble support vector machine (SVM) classifier is established to deal with the imbalance issue, and multi-loop features are included for identifying those pre-miRNAs with multi-loops.Results: We collected a representative dataset, which contains 697 real miRNA precursors identified by experimental procedure and other computational methods, and 5428 pseudo ones from several datasets. Experiments showed that our miRenSVM achieved a 96.5% specificity and a 93.05% sensitivity on the dataset. Compared with the state-of-the-art approaches, miRenSVM obtained better prediction results. We also applied our method to predict 14 Homo sapiens pre-miRNAs and 13 Anopheles gambiae pre-miRNAs that first appeared in miRBase13.0, MiRenSVM got a 100% prediction rate. Furthermore, performance evaluation was conducted over 27 additional species in miRBase13.0, and 92.84% (4863/5238) animal pre-miRNAs were correctly identified by miRenSVM.Conclusion: MiRenSVM is an ensemble support vector machine (SVM) classification system for better detecting miRNA genes, especially those with multi-loop secondary structure. © 2010 Zhou et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Liu X.,Tongji University | Chen T.,Fudan University
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks | Year: 2011

In this paper, we investigate the cluster synchronization problem for linearly coupled networks, which can be recurrently connected neural networks, cellular neural networks, Hodgkin-Huxley models, Lorenz chaotic oscillators, etc., by adding some simple intermittent pinning controls. We assume the nodes in the network to be identical and the coupling matrix to be asymmetric. Some sufficient conditions to guarantee global cluster synchronization are presented. Furthermore, a centralized adaptive intermittent control is introduced and theoretical analysis is provided. Then, by applying the adaptive approach on the diagonal submatrices of the asymmetric coupling matrix, we also get the corresponding cluster synchronization result. Finally, numerical simulations are given to verify the theoretical results. © 2011 IEEE.


Pan S.,Fudan University | Pan S.,Tongji University | Yang Z.,Fudan University | Li H.,Fudan University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

An organic thiolate/disulfide redox couple with low absorption in the visible region was developed for use in fabricating novel dye-sensitized photovoltaic wires with an aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber as the counter electrode. These flexible wire devices achieved a maximal energy conversion efficiency of 7.33%, much higher than the value of 5.97% for the conventional I-/I3 - redox couple. In addition, the aligned CNT fiber also greatly outperforms the conventional Pt counter electrode with a maximal efficiency of 2.06% based on the thiolate/disulfide redox couple. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Lu D.,Tulane University | Lu D.,Tongji University | Han C.,Tulane University | Wu T.,Tulane University
Oncogene | Year: 2014

15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) is a key enzyme in prostaglandin (PG) metabolism. This study provides important evidence for inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) growth by 15-PGDH through the 15-keto-prostaglandin E 2 (15-keto-PGE 2)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)/p21 WAF1/Cip1 signaling pathway. Forced overexpression of 15-PGDH inhibited HCC cell growth in vitro, whereas knockdown of 15-PGDH enhanced tumor growth parameters. In a tumor xenograft model in severe combined immunodeficiency mice, inoculation of human HCC cells (Huh7) with overexpression of 15-PGDH led to significant inhibition of tumor growth, whereas knockdown of 15-PGDH enhanced tumor growth. In a separate tumor xenograft model in which mouse HCC cells (Hepa1-6) were inoculated into syngeneic C57BL/6 mice, intratumoral injection of adenovirus vector expressing 15-PGDH (pAd-15-PGDH) significantly inhibited xenograft tumor growth. The antitumor effect of 15-PGDH is mediated through its enzymatic product, 15-keto-PGE 2, which serves as an endogenous PPARγ ligand. Activation of PPARγ by 15-PGDH-derived 15-keto-PGE 2 enhanced the association of PPARγ with the p21 WAF1/Cip1 promoter and increased p21 expression and association with cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), CDK4 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Depletion of p21 by short hairpin RNA reversed 15-PGDH-induced inhibition of HCC cell growth; overexpression of p21 prevented 15-PGDH knockdown-induced tumor cell growth. These results show a key 15-PGDH/15-keto-PGE 2 -mediated activation of PPARγ and p21 WAF1/Cip1 signaling cascade that regulates hepatocarcinogenesis and tumor progression. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Zhou Y.-N.,Fudan University | Xue M.-Z.,Tongji University | Fu Z.-W.,Fudan University
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2013

Extensive research is underway to yield greater insights into the intrinsic properties of electrode materials for lithium storage. Presently, nanostructured thin-film electrodes without any additives and binders used in powder-based electrodes have been employed as the "ideal" system for fundamental research because of their low resistance, cleanliness and purity. This review summarizes the research on, and progress in such nanostructured thin-film electrode materials for lithium storage and for all-solid-state thin film batteries. Nanostructured thin film electrodes with various electrochemical reaction mechanisms based on nanometer-size effects, chemical composition and structure are summarized. Thin film electrodes used in all-solid-state thin film batteries are also described. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lin R.,Fudan University | Tao R.,Tongji University | Gao X.,Fudan University | Li T.,Fudan University | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2013

Increased fatty acid synthesis is required to meet the demand for membrane expansion of rapidly growing cells. ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) is upregulated or activated in several types of cancer, and inhibition of ACLY arrests proliferation of cancer cells. Here we show that ACLY is acetylated at lysine residues 540, 546, and 554 (3K). Acetylation at these three lysine residues is stimulated by P300/calcium-binding protein (CBP)-associated factor (PCAF) acetyltransferase under high glucose and increases ACLY stability by blocking its ubiquitylation and degradation. Conversely, the protein deacetylase sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) deacetylates and destabilizes ACLY. Substitution of 3K abolishes ACLY ubiquitylation and promotes de novo lipid synthesis, cell proliferation, and tumor growth. Importantly, 3K acetylation of ACLY is increased in human lung cancers. Our study reveals a crosstalk between acetylation and ubiquitylation by competing for the same lysine residues in the regulation of fatty acid synthesis and cell growth in response to glucose. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Sheikholeslami M.,Babol Noshirvani University of Technology | Rashidi M.M.,Tongji University | Rashidi M.M.,ENN Group
European Physical Journal Plus | Year: 2015

In this paper, the Control Volume-based Finite Element Method (CVFEM) is applied to simulate Fe3O4 -water nanofluid mixed convection heat transfer in a lid-driven semi annulus in the presence of a non-uniform magnetic field. The calculations were performed for different governing parameters, namely, Richardson number, viscosity parameter, nanoparticle volume fraction, magnetic number and Hartmann number. Results show that the Nusselt number has a direct relationship with Richardson number and nanoparticle volume fraction, while it has a reverse relationship with Hartmann number and magnetic number. Also, it can be found that the Nusselt number increases by considering magnetic-field-dependent viscosity. © 2015, Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Zehua Q.,Fudan University | Guojian W.,Tongji University
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2012

Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were amino-functionalized by 1,2-ethylenediamine (EDA)' triethylenetetramine (TETA), and dodecylamine (DDA), and investigated by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The dispersion of the DDA functionalized MWCNT in DMF is better than that of the MWCNT functionalized by the EDA and the TETA. Carbon nanotubes reinforced epoxy resin composites were prepared, and the effect of the amino-functionalization on the properties of the composites was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA), and TGA. The composites reinforced by the MWCNTs demonstrate improvement in various mechanical properties. The increase of T g of the composites with the addition of amino-functionalized MWCNT compared to the T g of the composites with the addition of unfunctionalized MWCNT was due to the chemical combination and the physical entanglements between amino group from modified MWNTs and epoxy group from the epoxy resin. The interfacial bonding between the epoxy and the amino group of the EDA and the TETA-modified MWCNT is more important than the well dispersion of DDA-modified MWCNT in the composites for the improvement of the mechanical properties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Li X.-G.,Tongji University | Feng H.,Tongji University | Huang M.-R.,Tongji University | Huang M.-R.,Fudan University
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2010

Poly[aniline(AN)-co-5-sulfo-2-anisidine(SA)] nanograins with rough and porous structure demonstrate ultrastrong adsorption and highly efficient recovery of silver ions. The effects of five key factors-AN/SA ratio, Ag I concentration, sorption time, ultrasonic treatment, and coexisting ions-on Ag I adsorbability were optimized, and AN/SA (50/50) copolymer nanograins were found to exhibit much stronger Ag I adsorption than polyaniline and all other reported sorbents. The maximal Ag I sorption capacity of up to 2034 mgg -1 (18.86 mmolg -1) is the highest thus far and also much higher than the maximal Hg-ion sorption capacity (10.28 mmolg -1). Especially at ≤2mm Ag I, the nanosorbents exhibit ≥ 99.98% adsorptivity, and thus achieve almost complete Ag I sorption. The sorption fits the Langmuir isotherm well and follows pseudo-second-order kinetics. Studies by IR, UV/Vis, X-ray diffraction, polarizing microscopy, centrifugation, thermogravimetry, and conductivity techniques showed that Ag I sorption occurs by a redox mechanism mainly involving reduction of Ag I to separable silver nanocrystals, chelation between Ag I and - NH-/-N=/-NH 2/-SO 3H/-OCH 3, and ion exchange between Ag I and H + on - SO 3 -H +. Competitive sorption of Ag I with coexisting Hg, Pb, Cu, Fe, Al, K, and Na ions was systematically investigated. In particular, the copolymer nanoparticles bearing many functional groups on their rough and porous surface can be directly used to recover and separate precious silver nanocrystals from practical Ag I wastewaters containing Fe, Al, K, and Na ions from Kodak Studio. The nanograins have great application potential in the noble metals industry, resource reuse, wastewater treatment, and functional hybrid nanocomposites. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Guo X.,Tongji University | Shi H.,Tongji University | Dick W.A.,Ohio State University
Cement and Concrete Composites | Year: 2010

Geopolymers prepared from a class C fly ash (CFA) and a mixed alkali activator of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution were investigated. A high compressive strength was obtained when the modulus of the activator viz., molar ratio of SiO2/Na2O was 1.5, and the proper content of this activator as evaluated by the mass proportion of Na2O to CFA was 10%. The compressive strength of these samples was 63.4 MPa when they were cured at 75 °C for 8 h followed by curing at 23 °C for 28 d. In FTIR spectroscopy, the main peaks at 1036 and 1400 cm-1 have been attributed to asymmetric stretching of Al-O/Si-O bonds, while those at 747 cm-1 are due to the Si-O-Si/Si-O-Al bending band. The main geopolymeric gel and calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel co-exist and bond some remaining unreacted CFA spheres as observed in XRD and SEM-EXDA. The presence of gismondine (zeolite) was also observed in the XRD pattern. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


Ge Y.,Tongji University | Rikihisa Y.,Ohio State University
Microbes and Infection | Year: 2011

Progress has been made in deciphering the mechanisms on Orientia tsutsugamushi-host interaction. The genome sequencing, microarray and proteomic analyses of this ancient bacterium have provided a wealth of new information. This paper reviews the general characteristics of O. tsutsugamushi and recent developments especially in signaling events involved in the bacteria-host interaction. © 2011 Institut Pasteur.


Li Z.,Northwest University, China | Lu X.,Tongji University
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2012

This paper examines the cross-correlation properties of agricultural futures markets between the US and China using a cross-correlation statistic test and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA). The results show that the cross-correlations between the two geographically distant markets for four pairs of important agricultural commodities futures are significantly multifractal. By introducing the concept of a " crossover", we find that the multifractality of cross-correlations between the two markets is not long lasting. The cross-correlations in the short term are more strongly multifractal, but they are weakly so in the long term. Moreover, cross-correlations of small fluctuations are persistent and those of large fluctuations are anti-persistent in the short term while cross-correlations of all kinds of fluctuations for soy bean and soy meal futures are persistent and for corn and wheat futures are anti-persistent in the long term. We also find that cross-correlation exponents are less than the averaged generalized Hurst exponent when q<0 and more than the averaged generalized Hurst exponent when q>0 in the short term, while in the long term they are almost the same. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zhang J.,Tongji University
International journal of medical sciences | Year: 2012

To investigate the effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) on the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of normal human gastric mucosal cells and gastric cancer cells. Poorly differentiated gastric cancer BGC823 cells, moderately differentiated gastric cancer cells and normal human gastric mucosal epithelial GES-1 cells were independently treated with recombinant human BMP-2 or its inhibitor Noggin. MTT assay was performed to detect the proliferation, flow cytometry done to measure the cell cycle and apoptosis and immunohistochemistry carried out to determine the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). BMP-2 exerted inhibitory effect on the growth of all types of cells and the inhibition become more evident with the increase of BMP-2 dose. After treatment with 200 ng/ml BMP-2, cancer cells arrested in G1 phase and those in S phase reduced. Gastric cancer cells had higher CDK4 expression than GES-1 cells. BMP-2 decreased CDK-4 expression in cancer cells but had no influence in GES-1 cells. Noggin conferred promotive effect on the growth of 3 types of cells. In 2 types of cancer cells, treatment with 2000 ng/ml Noggin significantly increased the proportion of cells in S phase but reduced that in G1 phase. However, Noggin did not affect the cell cycle of GES-1 cells. The CDK4 expression was markedly increased in 2 types of cancer cells but that of GES-1 remained unchanged after treatment with 2000 ng/ml Noggin. BMP-2 may inhibit the proliferation of both normal and malignant gastric epithelial cells, down-regulate CDK4 expression in gastric cancer cells and arrest gastric cancer cells in G1-phase in cell cycle. Through antagonizing BMP-2, Noggin, may accelerate the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. Thus, the abnormality of BMP signaling pathway may play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer.


Sun D.Q.,Tongji University
Petroleum Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed to investigate the composition, structure, and thermal behavior characteristics of Xinjiang asphaltite and Iran asphaltite. Infrared spectroscopy showed that both asphaltites were composed of predominantly highly condensed polycyclic aromatic rings with long alkyl groups and polar functional groups. NMR spectroscopy indicated that the hydrogens of the aromatic ring in both asphaltites were almost completely substituted. TGA curves showed that the initial decomposition temperature of Xinjiang asphaltite was around 190C, whereas the final decomposition temperature is over 800C. Xinjiang asphaltite exhibited the potential for asphalt modification due to its composition and structural characteristics, which are similar to asphaltene, though some of its components are more thermally stable than asphaltene. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Shi Q.,Tongji University | Blomquist T.,Umeå University
International Journal of Project Management | Year: 2012

As an alternative solution, the Dependency Structure Matrix (DSM) is a useful tool in project scheduling when approaching information dependency issues between activities. However, the current DSM approach faces the dilemma that the overlap of activities cannot be precisely estimated in the planning stage of a project, and the solution calls for a robust methodology for managing schedules within uncertain conditions of information dependency. The aim of our research is to propose an approach that utilizes fuzzy set theory to solve the problem within an uncertain environment. As an extension of traditional DSM-based scheduling, we describe the overlap and duration of activities as fuzzy numbers and put forth a systematic algorithm to calculate the time variables of activities and project duration thereof. An example is also provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. © 2011 APM and IPMA and Elsevier Ltd.


Lu Y.,Tongji University | Yan B.,Tongji University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2014

We report a new ratiometric fluorescent pH sensor based on postsynthetically modified nanoscale MOF-253. Two types of Eu3+ with different characteristic excitation wavelength are realized in MOF-253 by a postsynthetic method (PSM). The pH sensor requires no calibration because only one of the two types of Eu3+ is affected by the pH variation. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Feng L.,Tongji University | Yan Y.,Tongji University | Chen Y.,Tongji University | Wang L.,Shanghai Second Polytechnic University
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2011

Recently, the application of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with cost-effective and long durable cathodic catalysts to generate electricity sustainably, has drawn much attention. This study investigated the use of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) as the cathodic catalyst for oxygen reduction in MFCs to produce electricity efficiently and durably. The obtained maximum power density was 1600 ± 50 mWm-2, which was higher than the commonly used platinum (Pt) catalyst (Pt/C) (1393 ± 35mWm-2). Also, the drop percentage of power densities with NCNTs was lower than with Pt/C over 25 cycles, indicating that MFCs with NCNTs as the cathodic catalyst could generate electricity more durably than those with Pt/C. Further investigation of the mechanisms revealed that MFCs with the bambooshaped and vertically aligned NCNTs had lower internal resistance and higher cathode potentials. Rotating ring-disk electrode voltammogram, Raman microspectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses suggested that NCNTs possessed a higher electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) via a four-electron pathway in neutral pH phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Cyclic voltammograms on NCNTs and Pt/C electrodes before and after a continuous potentiodynamic swept in neutral PBS demonstrated that NCNTs had a better durability for cathodic ORR than Pt/C, which drove MFCs with NCNTs to generate electricity durably. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.


Wu J.,Tongji University | Yan B.,Tongji University
Journal of the American Ceramic Society | Year: 2010

In the context, a novel composite synthesis technology is engaged in the preparation of NaRE(MoO4)2 (RE=Y, La, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Er, and Yb) and Na5Lu(MoO4)4 compounds, which involves a room-temperature solid-state reaction and hydrothermal crystallization process. The synthesis mechanism is predicted, indicating that higher temperature and moisture can speed up the reaction process and especially the existence of crystalline water molecules in the precursor is necessary for the solid-state reaction at room temperature. It is found that different rare-earth nitrate precursors present different reactivity to sodium molybdate at room temperature. The crystallization degree of the products after the room-temperature solid-state reaction depends on the melting point of rare-earth nitrate precursors. The hydrothermal treatment is beneficial for the good crystallization of NaRE(MoO4)2 (RE=Y, La, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Er, and Yb) and Na5Lu(MoO4)4. Finally, the photoluminescent spectra for these NaRE(MoO4)2:Eu 3+ (La, Gd, and Y) are studied, which depend on the species of rare-earth ions. © 2010 The American Ceramic Society.


Fan Y.,Tongji University | Wei Z.,Tongji University | Zhang Z.,Tongji University | Li H.,Tongji University
Optics Letters | Year: 2013

Optical extinction and absorption enhancement in the infrared range of a monolayer graphene sheet by patterning split ring resonators (SRRs) is studied. It is found that the electric mode is stronger in enhancing infrared extinction and absorption compared to the magnetic mode and other higher-order modes. We improve the infrared extinction of the SRR graphene sheet by increasing the graphene area ratio in the SRR unit cell design. With the increase of the graphene area ratio, the radiation ability of the electric dipolar mode and dissipation of graphene compete for a maximum infrared absorption of about 50%. The findings on enhancing infrared extinction and absorption of the graphene sheet by harvesting the electric dipolar mode may have potential applications in terahertz and infrared detection and modulation for graphene photonics and optoelectronics. © 2013 Optical Society of America.


Jones B.,University of Alberta | Peng X.,Tongji University
Sedimentary Geology | Year: 2012

Calcium carbonate nanoparticles are intimately associated with crystalline calcite and aragonite in the Eryuan, Gongxiaoshe, and Zhuyuan hot springs (water temperature >75°C), which are located in Yunnan Province, China. The nanoparticles, <1μm long, are spherical to disc-shaped and commonly fuse together into small clusters. Their general appearance and lack of crystal faces or edges indicate that they are noncrystalline. Morphologically, these nanoparticles are similar to calcified nannobacteria or the constituent grains in amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), which can be formed by various biogenic and abiogenic processes. In the Chinese hot springs, the ACC is always found under, in, or on top of biofilms, commonly in close proximity to crystalline calcite and/or aragonite. Textural evidence indicates that the ACC probably developed in microdomains that develop in the complex biofilm hydrogels. Critically, there is no evidence to support the notion that the nanoparticles are calcified nannobacteria. In the Chinese springs, ACC appears to play a formative role in the development of wheat-sheaf arrays of aragonite crystals and some of the calcite crystals. Hollow cores in some of the aragonite bundles probably formed as ACC was dissolved and many of the aragonite crystals appear to have developed as ACC recrystallized. Similarly, layers of ACC that coat the surfaces of some calcite crystals could be diagenetically transformed into calcite. The development of ACC in hot spring systems may be widespread and may play a critical but transitory role in the development of crystalline CaCO 3 in these high temperature environments. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Xu Q.,Tongji University
Numerical Heat Transfer, Part B: Fundamentals | Year: 2013

This article presents the idea for calculating 2-D steady-state heat conduction problems with multidomain combination by employing the virtual boundary meshless least-square method. Being different from the conventional virtual boundary-element method (VBEM), this method incorporates the point interpolation method (PIM) with the compactly supported radial basis function (CSRBF) to approximately construct the virtual source function of the VBEM. Thus, the proposed method has the advantages of both the boundary-type meshless method and the virtual boundary element method. Since the configuration of the virtual boundary requires a certain preparation, the integration along the virtual boundary can be carried out over the smooth simple curve that can be structured beforehand (for 2-D problems) to reduce the complexity and difficulty of calculus without loss of accuracy, while the "vertex question" existing in the BEM can be avoided. Numerical examples show that the proposed method is more precise than several other numerical methods while selecting fewer degrees of freedom. In addition, its numerical stability is also verified by computing several cases. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


In the Rehai geothermal area, located near Tengchong, there is an old succession of crystalline calcite that formed from a spring that is no longer active. The thin-bedded succession, exposed on the south bank of Zaotang River, is formed of three-dimensional dendrite bushes that are up to 6cm high and 3cm in diameter with multiple levels of branching. Bedding is defined by color, which ranges from white to gray to almost black and locally accentuated by differential weathering that highlights the branching motif of the dendrites. The succession developed through repeated tripartite growth cycles that involved: Phase I that was characterized by rapid vertical growth of the dendrite bushes with ever-increasing branching; Phase II that developed once growth of the dendrites had almost or totally ceased, and involved an initial phase of etching that was followed by the precipitation of various secondary minerals (sheet calcite, trigonal calcite crystals, hexagonal calcite crystals, hexagonal plates formed of Ca and P, Mn precipitates, Si-Mg reticulate coatings, opal-CT lepispheres) on the branches of the calcite dendrites, and Phase III that involved deposition of detrital quartz, feldspar, clay, and calcite on top of the dendrite bushes. The tripartite growth cycle is attributed primarily to aperiodic cycles in the CO 2 content of the spring water that was controlled by subsurface igneous activity rather than climatic controls. High CO 2 coupled with rapid CO 2 degassing triggered growth of the dendrite bushes. As CO 2 levels waned, saturation levels in the spring water decreased and calcite dendrite growth ceased and precipitation of the secondary minerals took place, possibly in the microcosms of microbial mats. Deposition of the detrital sediment was probably related to surface runoff that was triggered by periods of high rainfall. Critically, this study shows that intrinsic factors rather than extrinsic factors (e.g., climate) were the prime control on the development of the tripartite growth cycle. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..


Sun S.,Tongji University | Wang Z.,Tongji University
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2010

The cancer stem cell (CSC) theory has been proposed to explain the tumor heterogeneity and carcinogenesis process. Recent studies indicate that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity represents a promising CSC marker. Here, we aimed to determine whether human adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) also follows CSC model by exploring the CSC properties of AdCC cells expressing high level of ALDH activity. Utilizing in-vivo series transplantation assays, we found ALDHhigh AdCC cells were capable of self-renewal and of generating tumors that recapitulate the heterogeneity of the parental tumor. Utilizing in-vitro assay, we found only ALDHhigh AdCC cells have tumorsphere-forming ability in anchorage-independent cultures. Finally, we showed ALDHhigh AdCC cells possess highly invasive capability and are responsible for mediating metastasis. These findings suggest the existence of a developmental hierarchy within human AdCC and further elucidation of the unique survival mechanism of AdCC derived CSC population may provide novel therapeutic strategies to treat AdCC. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Dagunguo Spring, located in the Tengchong geothermal area in the western part of Yunnan Province, China, is a very active spring with water temperatures of 78 to 97 °C and pH of 7.7 to 8.8. The vent pool, 5.6. m in diameter and up to 1.5. m deep, is lined with opal-A that was precipitated from the near-boiling spring waters. A glass suspended in the pool was coated with opal-A in two months and two PVC pipes that drained water from the pool in late 2010 became lined with opal-A precipitates in less than three months. The opal-A accumulated at rates of 0.5 to 0.75. mm/month in the spring pool and 2.5 to 3.5. mm/month in the PVC pipes. The opal-A precipitates, irrespective of where they developed, are formed primarily of silicified microbes and opal-A spheres along with minor amounts of native sulfur, detrital quartz, and clay (mainly kaolinite). The fabrics in these opal-A deposits were dictated largely by the growth patterns of the filamentous and rod-shaped microbes that dominate this low-diversity biota and the amount of opal-A that was precipitated around them. Many of the microbes were preserved as rapid opal-A was precipitated on and around them before the cells decayed. With continued precipitation, however, the microbes became quickly engulfed in the opal-A precipitates and morphological evidence of their presence was lost. In essence, the process that controls their preservation ultimately disguised them to the point where cannot be seen. Critically, this loss of morphological identity takes places even before opal-A starts its diagenetic transformation towards quartz. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Yan B.,Tongji University | Guo M.,Tongji University
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry | Year: 2013

Novel organic/inorganic/polymeric hybrid microspheres are constructed with rare earth complexes into polymer matrix through covalent bonds. Functional covalent polymer linkages (abbreviated as PAAR(MR)-M1(M2, M3)) are achieved from the functionalization of three 4-substituted aromatic carboxylic acid derivatives (4-aminobenzoic acid (M1), 4-mercapto benzoic acid (M2), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (M3)) with two polymer resins (para-alkoxy-benzyl alcohol resin (PAAR) or Merrifield resin (MR)), which are through nucleophilic substitution reaction between amino (mercapto and hydroxyl) groups of M1 (M2,M3) and methyl chloride groups of PAAR (MR). Furthermore, ternary rare earth polymeric hybrid microsphere (abbreviated as PAAR(MR)-M1-3-RE-Phen) are constructed through coordination bonds with covalent polymer linkages and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) as ligands. The physical characterization and particularly the photoluminescence property of them are studied in detail, which present the regular microsphere morphology and characteristic photoluminescence. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zhang J.,Tongji University | Shen L.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience | Year: 2014

To organize the wide variety of data sets automatically and acquire accurate classification, this paper presents a modified fuzzy c-means algorithm (SP-FCM) based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) and shadowed sets to perform feature clustering. SP-FCM introduces the global search property of PSO to deal with the problem of premature convergence of conventional fuzzy clustering, utilizes vagueness balance property of shadowed sets to handle overlapping among clusters, and models uncertainty in class boundaries. This new method uses Xie-Beni index as cluster validity and automatically finds the optimal cluster number within a specific range with cluster partitions that provide compact and well-separated clusters. Experiments show that the proposed approach significantly improves the clustering effect. © 2014 Jian Zhang and Ling Shen.


Yu H.-Y.,Tongji University
Journal of Iron and Steel Research International | Year: 2013

In order to uncover the mechanism of elastic modulus degradation during plastic deformation, uniaxial tensile test of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels under different prestrain levels was carried out. The real elastic modulus unloaded at each prestrain was calculated by linearly fitting. The microstructure evolution with plastic strain and the fracture morphology were monitored by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Dislocation density and its distribution were detected under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Microscopic mechanism of the elastic modulus degradation of TRIP steels was discussed in detail. Experimental results indicated that the investigated TRIP600 steel was of severe elastic modulus degradation during plastic deformation. The new-born martensite distributed among the retained austenite, resulting in the combination of good ductility and high strength for TRIP steels. It was the change of dislocation movement that induced the variation of atomic binding force and finally led to the variation of elastic modulus. © 2013 Central Iron and Steel Research Institute.


Zhou J.,Tongji University | Gallion P.,Telecom ParisTech
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters | Year: 2013

In this letter, a mode multiplexer/demultiplexer (MUX/DEMUX) for multi-core fibers (MCFs) based on multimode interference (MMI) effect is proposed. Due to the coincidence of the rows of the transfer matrix of an MMI coupler and the modal profile of the MCFs with linearly aligned cores, an MMI coupler with the aid of a phase shifter array is able to distinguish different super-modes of the MCFs. The output port number indicates the number of the super-modes inside the MCFs. Detailed theoretical derivations and numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the multiplexing/demultiplexing capability of the device. The proposed mode MUX/DEMUX can be fiber based or waveguide based and is easy to be integrated with the fiber system. © 1989-2012 IEEE.


Wang H.,Tongji University | Wang X.,Tongji University
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2013

Controllable synthesis and high yield of functional nanomaterials on conductive substrates are highly desirable for energy conversion and storage applications. In this work, two different porous NiCo2O4 nanoarchitectures (including nanowires and nanosheets) are directly grown on carbon cloth collectors, which display a structure-dependence in their capacitive behaviors. Our results show that the nanowire morphology exhibits higher specific capacitance and better cycling performance in the three-electrode configuration. The pseudocapacitive difference is related to the surface area and pore structure of NiCo2O4 nanocrystals. This comparison among different morphologies reveals a process-structure- property relationship in electrochemical energy storage. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


In this paper, super-modes inside multi-core fibers with circularly distributed cores are analyzed in detail. Cores are arranged within one ring, two rings, and multiple rings. Also, MCFs with a center core embedded inside the rings are discussed. In these analyses, analytical formulas are derived for the propagation constants as well as the modal distribution vectors of the super-modes. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Zhang C.-L.,Tongji University | Yuan H.,Tongji University
Energy | Year: 2014

In the conventional vapor-compression heat pumps, the heating capacity and the heating load usually vary in opposite directions, which results in a mismatch of the heating capacity and the heating load at off-design conditions. Air (reversed Brayton) cycle is a potential substitute for the conventional vapor-compression cycles. This paper proved that in theory the air heat pump cycle can make the heating capacity in line with the heating load at a stable level of heating COP (coefficient of performance). A thermodynamic model for the air heat pump cycle with practical compressor and expander was developed. The optimal heating COP and the corresponding pressure ratio were derived from the model. Then the cycle performance was analytically expressed under the optimal COP conditions. The heating capacity under different operating conditions was found in line with the heating load. Comparisons between the air heat pump cycle and two typical vapor-compression heat pump cycles were numerically done for further verification. It also turned out that the energy efficiency of air heat pump is comparable to the transcritical CO2 heat pump, particularly at large temperature difference. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhou J.,Tongji University
Optics Express | Year: 2014

In this paper, an analytical approach is proposed to minimize the mode dependent gain as well as the wavelength dependent gain for the multimode fiber Raman amplifiers (MFRAs). It is shown that the optimal power integrals at the corresponding modes and wavelengths can be obtained by the non-negative least square method (NNLSM). The corresponding input pump powers can be calculated afterwards using the shooting method. It is demonstrated that if the power overlap integrals are not wavelength dependent, the optimization can be further simplified by decomposing the optimization problem into two sub optimization problems, i.e. the optimization of the gain ripple with respect to the modes, and with respect to the wavelengths. The optimization results closely match the ones in recent publications. ©2014 Optical Society of America.


A dynamic computer simulation is carried out in the climates of 35 cities distributed around the world. The variation of the annual air-conditioning energy loads due to changes in the longwave emissivity and the solar reflectance of the building envelopes is studied to find the most appropriate exterior building finishes in various climates (including a tropical climate, a subtropical climate, a mountain plateau climate, a frigid-temperate climate and a temperate climate). Both the longwave emissivity and the solar reflectance are set from 0.1 to 0.9 with an interval of 0.1 in the simulation. The annual air-conditioning energy loads trends of each city are listed in a chart. The results show that both the longwave emissivity and the solar reflectance of building envelopes play significant roles in energy-saving for buildings. In tropical climates, the optical parameters of the building exterior surface affect the building energy-saving most significantly. In the mountain plateau climates and the subarctic climates, the impacts on energy-saving in buildings due to changes in the longwave emissivity and the solar reflectance are still considerable, but in the temperate continental climates and the temperate maritime climates, only limited effects are seen. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhou J.,Tongji University
Optics Express | Year: 2014

In this paper, a non-orthogonal coupled mode theory is proposed to analyze the super-modes of multi-core fibers (MCFs). The theory is valid in the strong coupling regime and can provide accurate analytical formulas for the super-modes inside MCFs. MCFs with circularly distributed cores are analyzed as an example. Analytical formulas are derived both for the refractive indexes and the eigen vectors of the super-modes. It is rigorously revealed that the eigen vectors for the super-modes of such MCFs are the row vectors of the inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT) matrix. Therefore, by pre-coding the signal channels via IDFT, one is able to generate the super-modes for the MCFs with circularly distributed cores. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Wang Y.,Tongji University | Zhao G.,Tongji University | Chai S.,Tongji University | Zhao H.,Tongji University
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2013

This work focuses on constructing a high catalytic activity cathode of an electro-Fenton system, to overcome the defects of low activity, poor stability, and intricate fabrication of supported catalysts. A series of ferrite-carbon aerogel (FCA) monoliths with different iron/carbon ratios was synthesized directly from metal-resin precursors accompanied by phase transformation. Self-doped ferrite nanocrystals and carbon matrix were formed synchronously via moderate condensation and sol-gel processes, leading to homogeneous texture. An optimal 5% ferric content FCA was composed of coin-like carbon nano-plate with continuous porous structure, and the ferric particles with diameters of dozens of nanometers were uniformly embedded into the carbon framework. The FCA exhibited good conductivity, high catalytic efficiency, and distinguished stability. When it was used as an electro-Fenton cathode, metalaxyl degradation results demonstrated that 98% TOC elimination was realized after 4 h, which was 1.5 times higher than that of the iron oxide supported electrode. It was attributed to self-doped Fe@Fe2O3 ensuring Fe(II) as the mediator, maintaining high activity via reversibe oxidation and reduction by electron transfer among iron species with different valences. Meanwhile, an abundance of independent reaction microspaces were provided for every ferric crystal to in situ decompose electrogenerated H2O2. Moreover, the possible catalytic mechanism was also proposed. The FCA was a promising candidate as potential cathode materials for high-performance electro-Fenton oxidation. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Mao J.,Tongji University | Gao N.,Tongji University
Building and Environment | Year: 2015

The inter-flat airborne cross-transmission driven by single-sided natural ventilation has been identified recently in high-rise residential buildings, where most people live now in densely populated areas, and is one of the most complex and least understood transport routes. Given potential risks of infection during the outbreak of severe infectious diseases, the need for a full understanding of its mechanism and protective measures within the field of epidemiology and engineering becomes pressing. This review paper considers progress achieved in existing studies of the concerned issue regarding different research priorities. Considerable progress in observing and modeling the inter-flat transmission and dispersion under either buoyancy- or wind-dominated conditions has been made, while fully understanding the combined buoyancy and wind effects is not yet possible. Many methods, including on-site measurements, wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations, have contributed to the research development, despite some deficiencies of each method. Although the inter-flat transmission and dispersion characteristics can be demonstrated and quantified in a time-averaged sense to some extent, there are still unanswered questions at a fundamental level about transient dispersion process and thermal boundary conditions, calling for further studies with more advanced models for simulations and more sound experiments for validations. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


An F.,Tongji University | Yu J.,Tongji University
Journal of the American Ceramic Society | Year: 2010

Perovskite-structured Pb0.6Bi0.4(Ti 0.75Zn0.15Fe0.1)O3 ceramic patches were prepared with conventional electronic ceramic processing on the basis of its near-zero thermal expansion coefficient, in contrast to most of PbTiO 3-based solid solutions with decreasing tetragonality and Curie temperature. For the 1% Nb+0.5% Mg-doped samples sintered at 1050°C, enhanced tetragonality of c/a=1.100 and Curie temperature of T c=705°C, dielectric constant of ε=204, dielectric loss of tan δ=1.7%, and piezoelectric constant of d33=2.0 pC/N were obtained. © 2010 The American Ceramic Society.


Lou L.,Tongji University | Pu H.,Tongji University
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

Vinyl functionalized hollow silica spheres (HSSs) were prepared via a template method and surface modification thereafter. Poly(vinylbenzyl phosphonic acid) (PVBPA) grafted HSSs (HPSSs) were prepared via emulsion polymerization of diisopropyl p-vinylbenzyl phosphonate (DIPVBP) on the surface of HSSs, and hydrolysis thereafter. The chemical structure and morphology of HPSSs were characterized by FTIR and TEM. A series of proton exchange membranes based-on Nafion®212 and HPSSs were prepared via solution casting. The water uptake, swelling ratio, mechanical properties, thermal behavior, proton conductivity, and chemical oxidative stability of the composite membranes were investigated. The addition of HPSSs in Nafion® membranes can improve the water retentivity of the composite membranes. The composite membranes with HPSSs exhibit higher water uptake and proton conductivity than that of the recast Nafion® membranes. The water uptake and the proton conductivity of the composite membranes increase with increasing HPSSs loading. With the higher water retentivity, the membranes exhibit high proton conductivity at high temperature (1.6 × 10-1 S cm-1 at 125°C). © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Li Y.,Tongji University | Yan B.,Tongji University
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2010

A series of novel ternary organic-inorganic mesoporous polymeric hybrids TTFA-S16-Eu-PMMA, TTFA-S16-Eu-PMAA, and TTFA-S16-Eu-PVP (TTFA = 2-Thenoyltrifluoroacetone; PMMA = polymethyl methacrylate; PMAA = polymethacrylic acid; PVP = polyvinylpyrrolidone) have been assembled by the Eu3+ complex covalently attaching to the TTFA directly functionalized ordered mesoporous SBA-16 and organic polymer. FTIR, UV, XRD, TEM, N 2 adsorption measurements, photoluminescent spectra, and TG plots were characterized, and the results reveal that they all have high surface area, uniformity in the mesostructure, and good crystallinity. In addition, the ternary rare earth mesoporous polymeric hybrids show an overall increase in luminescent lifetime and quantum efficiency compared to binary rare earth mesoporous hybrid TTFA-S16-Eu, especially the mesoporous hybrid with PVP exhibits the highest luminescence quantum efficiency and longest lifetime. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.


A new functional polysilsesquioxanes linkage (abbreviated as VPBA-Si) is achieved through the hydrogen transfer nucleophilic addition reaction between 4-vinylphenylboronic acid and 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propylisocyanate (TEPIC). Three kinds of rare earth (Eu3+, Tb3+) centred hybrid materials are assembled with VPBA-Si and the copolymers, through the radical addition polymerization reaction between VPBA-Si, trans-styrylacetic acid and N-vinylphthalimid, the hydrolysis and copolycondensation reaction between the VPBA-Si unit and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and coordination reaction between ligand and rare-earth ions. In addition, another kind of rare earth (Eu 3+, Tb3+) hybrid is constructed only through the addition polymerization reaction between trans-styrylacetic acid and vinyltrimethoxysilane without VPBA-Si. All these four series of hybrids and the precursors are characterized by NMR, FTIR, ultraviolet absorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In particular the photoluminescence properties of them are studied deeply, indicating that the hybrids with trans-styrylacetic acid show the most favourable characteristic luminescent properties (i.e. long lifetime and high quantum efficiency). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.


Chen M.,Tongji University | Miao D.,Tongji University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

Rough k-means clustering describes uncertainty by assigning some objects to more than one cluster. Rough cluster quality index based on decision theory is applicable to the evaluation of rough clustering. In this paper we analyze rough k-means clustering with respect to the selection of the threshold, the value of risk for assigning an object and uncertainty of objects. According to the analysis, clusters presented as interval sets with lower and upper approximations in rough k-means clustering are not adequate to describe clusters. This paper proposes an interval set clustering based on decision theory. Lower and upper approximations in the proposed algorithm are hierarchical and constructed as outer-level approximations and inner-level ones. Uncertainty of objects in out-level upper approximation is described by the assignment of objects among different clusters. Accordingly, ambiguity of objects in inner-level upper approximation is represented by local uniform factors of objects. In addition, interval set clustering can be improved to obtain a satisfactory clustering result with the optimal number of clusters, as well as optimal values of parameters, by taking advantage of the usefulness of rough cluster quality index in the evaluation of clustering. The experimental results on synthetic and standard data demonstrate how to construct clusters with satisfactory lower and upper approximations in the proposed algorithm. The experiments with a promotional campaign for the retail data illustrates the usefulness of interval set clustering for improving rough k-means clustering results. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Both zeolite A/L and SBA-15 have been used to assemble novel photofunctional multi-component lanthanide hybrid materials. Microporous zeolites A/L are first functionalized by embedding lanthanide or zinc complexes (TTA = thenoyltrifluoroacetone, TAA = trifluoroacetone, bipy = 2,2′-bipyridyl) into the pores of zeolite A/L, and then the surface of functionalized zeolite A/L is modified via covalent linkers from aromatic carboxylic acids (para-aminobenzoic acid ABA and para-hydroxyl benzoic acid HBA) grafted by 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (TEPIC). On the other hand, SBA-15 is modified by grafting covalent linker phen-Si from the modification of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) with TEPIC. Further, another lanthanide ion is used to link both functionalized zeolites, A/L and SBA-15, through the coordination with the two covalent linkers, ABS-Si (HBA-Si) and phen-Si, respectively. Subsequently, the obtained multicomponent microporous-mesoporous hybrid materials are assembled and characterized using XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis DRS, SEM, TEM and luminescent approaches (spectra, lifetimes and quantum efficiencies). These hybrids with both microporous zeolite and SBA-15 mesoporous host possess favourable luminescent performance and some hybrid systems present the high quantum efficiencies of 90%. Besides, the luminescent color can be tuned by adjusting the composition of these hybrids, among which four hybrids (S-phen-Eu-HBA-[ZA-Tb-bipy], S-phen-Eu-HBA-[ZA-Zn-bipy], S-phen-Eu-ABA-[ZA-Tb- TAA], S-phen-Eu-ABA-[ZL-Tb-bipy]) can be integrated to white light emission. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

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