Tongji Architectural Design Group Co. TJAD

Shanghai, China

Tongji Architectural Design Group Co. TJAD

Shanghai, China
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Sun C.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology | Huang C.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology | Liu W.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology | Zou Z.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Building and Environment | Year: 2017

Few studies have estimated the effects of dampness-related exposures and its interaction effects with poor household ventilation on common colds of preschool children. During April 2011–April 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional survey on home environment and childhood health and collected 13,335 parents-reported questionnaires of 4–6 year-old children in Shanghai, China. In this paper, we investigated associations between the incidence and duration of common colds among these children during the past 12 months before the survey and frequency of opening windows, as well as household dampness-related exposures (indicated by six dampness indicators). Significantly higher incidence (≥3 times) and longer duration (≥2 weeks) of common cold were found among children with than without these dampness exposures (p-value <0.01 for mold spots and p-value <0.001 for all other indicators). The number of dampness-related indicators had a positive and strong dose-response relationship with common colds (p-trend <0.01). Low frequency of ventilation was also a risk factor for children common colds. After adjusted for the potential confounders in the multiple logistic regression analyses, all dampness-related indicators were significantly associated with the increased odds of common colds and the highest odds ratios was 1.21 (95% CI: 1.16–1.27). We also found that dampness-related exposures and household ventilation habits (p-value for interaction <0.001) had a strong interaction effect on the incidence and duration of common cold. The stratified analysis of ventilation condition displays that the influence of dampness-related exposures has been modified by ventilation. Therefore, good household ventilation habits may have an effect of modification for dampness-related exposures. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Cai J.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology | Liu W.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology | Hu Y.,Tongji Architectural Design Group Company Ltd TJAD | Zou Z.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2016

From April 2011 to April 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China. A total of 13,335 modified ISAAC questionnaires (response rate: 85.3%) were returned by parents or guardians for 4-6 year-old children. Six dampness-related indicators (visible mold spots, visible damp stains, damp bed clothing, water damage, window pane condensation, and moldy odor) were used to evaluate home dampness-related exposures. In the present study, we applied logistic regression model to reveal associations, dose-response relationships, and statistical interaction effects of these dampness-related exposures, with childhood eczema, during lifetime since birth (ever) and in the last 12 months before the questionnaire. The dampness-related indicators were frequently reported in the perinatal and current residences. Prevalences of eczema ever and in the last 12 months were 22.9% and 13.2%, respectively. The dampness-related indicators were robustly associated and dose-response related with increased risk of eczema ever and in the last 12 months in the logistic regression analyses, with adjusted for potential confounders. Specifically, in the perinatal residence, visible mold spots or damp stains could increase 46% (OR, 95% CI: 1.46, 1.29-1.66) odds of childhood eczema (ever); in the current residence, visible mold spots and visible damp stains could increase 34% (1.34, 1.14-1.58) and 38% (1.38, 1.22-1.56) odds of childhood eczema (ever), respectively. Associations were not appreciably different between boys and girls, nor were they different between children with and without parental history of atopy. In conclusion, perinatal and current dampness-related exposures in the residence perhaps are risk factors for childhood eczema. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Huang C.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology | Liu W.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology | Hu Y.,Tongji Architectural Design Group Co. TJAD | Zou Z.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background The prevalence of asthma among Shanghai children has increased over time. This increase might be associated with changes in environmental exposures. Investigation of the timetrend of asthma and current prevalences is essential to understanding the causes. Objective To estimate the current prevalences of asthma, allergies and other respiratory symptoms among Shanghai preschool children, and to investigate the time-trend of childhood asthma prevalence of from 1990 to 2011. Methods From April 2011 to April 2012, the CCHH (China, Children, Homes, Health) cross-sectional study was conducted in Shanghai. Questionnaires were distributed to 17,898 parents or guardians of preschool children from 72 kindergartens in 5 districts. Previous similar studies were also summarized by a systematic literature review. Results From a total of 14,884 questionnaires for 3-7 year old children, prevalences of the following diseases and symptoms were calculated: asthma 10.2%, wheeze (ever) 28.1%, pneumonia (ever) 33.5%, otitis media 11.0%, rhinitis (ever) 54.1%, hay fever 12.2%, eczema (ever) 22.7%, and food allergy 15.7%. Urban children had higher prevalences of most symptoms than suburban children. The prevalence of asthma has increased significantly, almost five fold, from 2.1% in 1990 to 10.2% in the present study. The prevalence of asthma in boys was higher than in girls in the present study and in all reviewed studies. Conclusions Asthma, allergy and airway symptoms are common among preschool children in Shanghai. The prevalence of childhood asthma in Shanghai has increased rapidly from 1990 to 2011. © 2015 Huang et al.


Liu W.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology | Huang C.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology | Hu Y.,Tongji Architectural Design Group Co. TJAD | Zou Z.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Building and Environment | Year: 2015

A total of 15,266 questionnaires from 1 to 8 year-old children was used to investigate the prevalences of home dampness-related indicators and their associations with the respondent's residential characteristics and lifestyle behaviors in Shanghai, China. Most of the questionnaires were filled out by one of the child's parents (69.0% by mother and 24.9% by father). The prevalence of visible mold (VMS) was 7.9%, visible damp stains (VDS) 15.2%, windows pane condensation (WPC) 54.9%, water damage (WD) 11.9%, damp clothing and/or bedding (DCB) 42.0%, and moldy odor (MO) 11.9%, respectively. Questionnaires submitted by the child's mother noted significantly more dampness-related indicators than those submitted by the father and other respondents. Residences on the ground floor or top floor were strongly and positively associated with VMS and VDS in comparison with residences on the other floors of the dwelling building. Keeping fish in the current residence also had significant and positive associations with VDS, WPC, and WD. Having exhaust fan in the bathroom and/or opening the windows of the child' bedroom, and frequently cleaning rooms was strongly associated with reduced dampness-related indicators in the child' bedroom. Most of these associations among families without asthmatic children were similar to among the whole samples. Therefore, we concluded that studies regarding to home dampness-related evaluation by questionnaire should carefully considered report bias. Living on the ground floor or top floor and fish-keeping are risk factors for home dampness-related exposures. Improving home ventilation and increasing frequency of home cleaning could effectively reduce these exposures. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Fudan University, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, 161 Richdale Road, Tongji Architectural Design Group Co. TJAD and Tsinghua University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

The prevalence of asthma among Shanghai children has increased over time. This increase might be associated with changes in environmental exposures. Investigation of the time-trend of asthma and current prevalences is essential to understanding the causes.To estimate the current prevalences of asthma, allergies and other respiratory symptoms among Shanghai preschool children, and to investigate the time-trend of childhood asthma prevalence of from 1990 to 2011.From April 2011 to April 2012, the CCHH (China, Children, Homes, Health) cross-sectional study was conducted in Shanghai. Questionnaires were distributed to 17,898 parents or guardians of preschool children from 72 kindergartens in 5 districts. Previous similar studies were also summarized by a systematic literature review.From a total of 14,884 questionnaires for 3-7 year old children, prevalences of the following diseases and symptoms were calculated: asthma 10.2%, wheeze (ever) 28.1%, pneumonia (ever) 33.5%, otitis media 11.0%, rhinitis (ever) 54.1%, hay fever 12.2%, eczema (ever) 22.7%, and food allergy 15.7%. Urban children had higher prevalences of most symptoms than suburban children. The prevalence of asthma has increased significantly, almost five-fold, from 2.1% in 1990 to 10.2% in the present study. The prevalence of asthma in boys was higher than in girls in the present study and in all reviewed studies.Asthma, allergy and airway symptoms are common among preschool children in Shanghai. The prevalence of childhood asthma in Shanghai has increased rapidly from 1990 to 2011.


PubMed | University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, R&B Technology Shanghai Company Ltd and Tongji Architectural Design Group Company Ltd TJAD
Type: | Journal: Environmental research | Year: 2016

From April 2011 to April 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China. A total of 13,335 modified ISAAC questionnaires (response rate: 85.3%) were returned by parents or guardians for 4-6 year-old children. Six dampness-related indicators (visible mold spots, visible damp stains, damp bed clothing, water damage, window pane condensation, and moldy odor) were used to evaluate home dampness-related exposures. In the present study, we applied logistic regression model to reveal associations, dose-response relationships, and statistical interaction effects of these dampness-related exposures, with childhood eczema, during lifetime since birth (ever) and in the last 12 months before the questionnaire. The dampness-related indicators were frequently reported in the perinatal and current residences. Prevalences of eczema ever and in the last 12 months were 22.9% and 13.2%, respectively. The dampness-related indicators were robustly associated and dose-response related with increased risk of eczema ever and in the last 12 months in the logistic regression analyses, with adjusted for potential confounders. Specifically, in the perinatal residence, visible mold spots or damp stains could increase 46% (OR, 95% CI: 1.46, 1.29-1.66) odds of childhood eczema (ever); in the current residence, visible mold spots and visible damp stains could increase 34% (1.34, 1.14-1.58) and 38% (1.38, 1.22-1.56) odds of childhood eczema (ever), respectively. Associations were not appreciably different between boys and girls, nor were they different between children with and without parental history of atopy. In conclusion, perinatal and current dampness-related exposures in the residence perhaps are risk factors for childhood eczema.


PubMed | Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center, R&B Technology Shanghai Company Ltd, Tianjin University, Tongji Architectural Design Group Company Ltd TJAD and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2016

Whether ambient air pollution is associated with childhood atopic eczema is controversial. In this paper, we selected 3358 preschool children who had not altered residences since pregnancy from a cross-sectional study during 2011-2012 in Shanghai, China, and obtained parent-reported data regarding childhood atopic eczema using an improved ISAAC questionnaire. We recorded daily concentrations of SO


PubMed | University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, R&B Technology Shanghai Company Ltd and Tongji Architectural Design Group Company Ltd TJAD
Type: | Journal: International archives of occupational and environmental health | Year: 2016

We aim to investigate associations of the childs individual characteristics, building characteristics, home environmental exposures, family lifestyle behaviors, and dietary habits on childhood eczema during lifetime-ever and in the last year before the survey.During April 2011-April 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study and collected 13,335 parents-reported questionnaires of 4-6-year-old children from 72 kindergartens in Shanghai, China. Logistic regression model was used to investigate associations.After adjusted for sex, age, family history of atopy, and questionnaire reporter, the factors which were strongly associated (increased odds >30% and p value <0.05) with lifetime-ever eczema included mother employed during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.33), residence renovated during pregnancy (1.49) and in the childs first year of life (1.31), using laminate (1.58) and solid (1.42) wood as material of floor covering (compared to using cement), residence located in urban district (1.38), and dampness-related exposures in the early residence (mold spots/stains: 1.41; mold odor: 1.41) and in the current residence (water damage: 1.33; damp stains: 1.34; mold spots: 1.32; and windows pane condensation: 1.31). Parental smoking, pet-keeping, and incense-burning had no significant associations with childhood eczema. Similar associations were found for eczema in the last year before the survey. Families with sick children likely changed lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits.Childhood eczema could be influenced by many household environmental and non-environmental factors. Exposures during early lifetime likely have greater impact on childhood eczema than current exposures. Associations of lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits with childhood eczema could be modified by family avoidance behaviors.


PubMed | University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Tianjin University, R&B Technology Shanghai Company Ltd, Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center and Tongji Architectural Design Group Company Ltd TJAD
Type: | Journal: Environment international | Year: 2016

Associations of ambient air pollutants with respiratory health are inconsistent.We analyzed the associations of gestational and early life exposures to air pollutants with doctor-diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis, and pneumonia in children.We selected 3358 preschool children who did not alter residences after birth from a cross-sectional study in 2011-2012 in Shanghai, China. Parents reported childrens respiratory health history, home environment, and family lifestyle behaviors. We collected daily concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter 10m (PM10) during the childs total lifetime (2006-2012) for each district where the children lived. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression models.After adjusting for covariates and the other studied pollutants, we found that exposure to NO2 (increment of 20g/m(3)) during the first year of life was significantly associated with asthma [odds ratio (OR)=1.77; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29-2.43] and allergic rhinitis (OR=1.67; 95% CI: 1.07-2.61). Exposure to NO2 during gestation, the first two and three years, and over total lifetimewas all consistently associated with increased odds of allergic rhinitis. Quartiles of NO2 concentration during different exposure periods showed a slight dose-response relationship with the studied diseases. These diseases had significant associations with pollutant mixtures that included NO2, but had no significant association with exposures to SO2 and PM10 individually or in mixtures.Gestational and early life exposures to ambient NO2 are risk factors for childhood respiratory diseases.


PubMed | University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, R&B Technology Shanghai Company Ltd and Tongji Architectural Design Group Company Ltd TJAD
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of hygiene and environmental health | Year: 2016

The prevalence of children allergic rhinitis has been increasing in China and associated factors still are not clear. In the present paper, we selected 13,335 parent-reported questionnaires of 4-6 years-old children, in a cross-sectional study from April 2011 to April 2012 in Shanghai city, and investigated associations of various factors with parent-reported allergic rhinitis (doctor-diagnosed) and rhinitis symptoms in childhood. After adjusted by age, sex, family history of atopy, and respondent of questionnaire, we find that no siblings, mother in older age during pregnancy, shorter breastfeeding, using antibiotics in the first year, and home dampness-related exposures, had significant associations with increased prevalence of the studied diseases. Location, type, building area, decoration materials and construction period of the residence, also had significant associations with these diseases. Current parental smoking and pet-keeping had no significant associations with the studied diseases. Incense-burning and using mosquito coils had significant associations with reduced risk of allergic rhinitis and with increased risk of rhinitis symptoms. Using air cleaner and cleaning the residence in high frequency had associations with increased risk, but eating fast food and ice cream often had associations with the reduced risk, of the studied diseases. Families with children being diagnosed allergic rhinitis likely change their lifestyle behaviors. In conclusion, childhood rhinitis could be influenced by heredity and many environmental exposures. Avoidance behaviors and reverse causation in parental smoking, pet-keeping, and dietary habits for childhood rhinitis should be carefully considered.

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