Tomsk, Russia

Tomsk Polytechnic University in Tomsk, Russia, is the oldest technical university in Russia east of the Urals. The university was founded in 1896 and opened in 1900 as the Tomsk Technological Institute. In 1923, the school was renamed the Siberian Technological Institute and in 1930, the institute was split into five divisions, three of which remained in Tomsk. In 1934, the three institutes in Tomsk reunited to form a new institute that would be named the Tomsk Polytechnic Institute. The university has more than 22,000 current students and has graduated more than 100,000 technical specialists. As of 2014 the rector was Petr S. Chubik. Wikipedia.


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News Article | May 15, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

Physicists from Tomsk Polytechnic University are creating protective titanium nitride-based coatings for shells of fuel elements (fuel rods) of nuclear reactors. Such shells can significantly reduce hydrogenation of containers in which nuclear fuel is placed, extend their service life and protect reactor from explosion like at the Fukusima radiation disaster. "In reactors nuclear fuel is laid in special "tubes" out of zirconium alloys, to form fuel rods. In the fuel rods, a nuclear reaction takes place. As a result of radiolysis of a reactor coolant - water, and also as a result of interaction of the coolant and zirconium under high temperatures hydrogen is released. Hydrogen is able to accumulate in fuel rods shells causing degradation of their mechanical properties and destruction," clarifies one of the developers, an assistant at the Department of General Physics Egor Kashkarov. According to the young scientist, the danger of interaction of zirconium and water is the higher temperature in the reactor is, the more hydrogen is released. For example, the same happened at the Fukusima-1 station in Japan: due to flooding of pumping equipment the active zone of the reactor warmed up to more than 1,200 °C, a steam-zirconium reaction proceeded swiftly and a large amount of hydrogen was released. The explosion of accumulated hydrogen was one of the biggest radiation accidents in the world. The scientific team from the TPU Department of General Physics is creating protective titanium nitride-based coatings that will be a barrier protecting zirconium fuel rods from water and hydrogen accumulation. "During tests titanium nitride has proved itself well: it has high hardness, wear resistance, heat resistance and inertia. We also found that it protects well from hydrogen penetration into the material, what is critical for nuclear energy. The coatings can reduce hydrogen penetration in zirconium alloy," adds Egor Kashkarov. The coatings on zirconium substrate are applied using two technologies: magnetron sputtering and vacuum arc deposition. The both processes are carried out on a set-up created in the university. The result is a thin film coating - no more than two microns thick. "One of the applications of the elaborating coatings out of titanium nitride is next generation reactors and thermal nuclear reactors where hydrogen impermeable coating is a pressing issue. In the next generation reactors, temperature is supposed to increase up to 400-450 °C to improve fuel burn-up efficiency. Consequently, hydrogenation of fuel rods will be here much faster. Our coatings are able to prevent it," says the developer.


News Article | May 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Physicists from Tomsk Polytechnic University are creating protective titanium nitride-based coatings for shells of fuel elements (fuel rods) of nuclear reactors. Such shells can significantly reduce hydrogenation of containers in which nuclear fuel is placed, extend their service life and protect reactor from explosion like at the Fukusima radiation disaster. "In reactors nuclear fuel is laid in special "tubes" out of zirconium alloys, to form fuel rods. In the fuel rods, a nuclear reaction takes place. As a result of radiolysis of a reactor coolant - water, and also as a result of interaction of the coolant and zirconium under high temperatures hydrogen is released. Hydrogen is able to accumulate in fuel rods shells causing degradation of their mechanical properties and destruction," clarifies one of the developers, an assistant at the Department of General Physics Egor Kashkarov. According to the young scientist, the danger of interaction of zirconium and water is the higher temperature in the reactor is, the more hydrogen is released. For example, the same happened at the Fukusima-1 station in Japan: due to flooding of pumping equipment the active zone of the reactor warmed up to more than 1,200 °C, a steam-zirconium reaction proceeded swiftly and a large amount of hydrogen was released. The explosion of accumulated hydrogen was one of the biggest radiation accidents in the world. The scientific team from the TPU Department of General Physics is creating protective titanium nitride-based coatings that will be a barrier protecting zirconium fuel rods from water and hydrogen accumulation. "During tests titanium nitride has proved itself well: it has high hardness, wear resistance, heat resistance and inertia. We also found that it protects well from hydrogen penetration into the material, what is critical for nuclear energy. The coatings can reduce hydrogen penetration in zirconium alloy," adds Egor Kashkarov. The coatings on zirconium substrate are applied using two technologies: magnetron sputtering and vacuum arc deposition. The both processes are carried out on a set-up created in the university. The result is a thin film coating - no more than two microns thick. "One of the applications of the elaborating coatings out of titanium nitride is next generation reactors and thermal nuclear reactors where hydrogen impermeable coating is a pressing issue. In the next generation reactors, temperature is supposed to increase up to 400-450 °C to improve fuel burn-up efficiency. Consequently, hydrogenation of fuel rods will be here much faster. Our coatings are able to prevent it," says the developer.


News Article | April 19, 2017
Site: www.cemag.us

A silver nanoparticle-based drug developed by Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU) scientists and their Mexican partners has recently been tested in Mexico for the treatment of a lethal and contagious disease in shrimp — a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The study revealed that after administration of the drug, the survival rate of infected shrimp was 80 percent. Further, the drug might significantly help marine farmers in Mexico to fight the virus. “Shrimp form a substantial part of export in Mexico. They are supplied across the world and most of them are sent to the U.S.A. and Europe. White spot syndrome virus is a scourge for Mexican marine farmers. Its epidemic has already lasted for some years, killing millions of individuals. A visible manifestation of the virus is emerging white spots on a shrimp’s shell. An infected individual is [weakened] and dies. Humans are immune to this virus but it causes great losses in the aquaculture industry,” says Professor Alexey Pestryakov, head of the Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry. Previously, several attempts were made to treat this disease. However, there was no effective cure. Then, one marine farm offered to test the TPU development. Argovit made of silver nanoparticles features a versatile destroying effect against viruses, bacteria, and fungi. A university partner, the Vektor-Vita company in Novosibirsk, uses the pharmaceutical to produce veterinary medications for animals and biologically active additives for humans. Scientists from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and the National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology (INIA, Spain) are involved in the development of Argovit-based preparations as well. “Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most widely used nanomaterials in commercial products due to their beneficial antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. In the aquaculture industry, nanotechnology has been poorly applied,” says Alexey Petryakov. At first, the drug was administrated to a few juvenile shrimp infected with WSSV. The results revealed that the survival rate of WSSV-infected shrimp after silver nanoparticle-based drug administration was over 90 percent. Then, the scientists tested a larger group of infected shrimp. They were divided into subgroups, some of which received the drug and others which did not. The results revealed that the survival rate of WSSV-infected shrimps after AgNP administration was 80 percent, whereas the survival rate of untreated organisms was only 10 percent after 96 hours of infection. The scientists published their outcomes in the Chemosphere. At present, Argovit has been tested for 25 diseases. According to the authors, it has already proven its effectiveness in veterinary applications and passed clinical tests in Russia and abroad. “Our medications have all the necessary certificates and are applied in veterinary. Veterinarians use it for the treatment of viral and bacterial diseases in cattle, fur animals and pets,” says Pestryakov. “Existing antiviral drugs affect viruses indirectly, mainly increasing the patient’s immunity, not killing them directly. Argovit is aimed at killing viruses. The immunity increases too. A competitive edge of the drug is its hypoallergenicity and low toxicity in therapeutic doses. In contrast to antibiotics, it does not cause allergic reactions, stomach disorders, and other unpleasant side effects, while it kills bacteria and fungi. Argovit is an aqueous solution, 20 percent of which is a complex of silver nanoparticles with polymer stabilizer in sizes varying from 1 to 70 nanometers. Such medications are much cheaper than antibiotics and have a longer shelf life (up to two years in the refrigerator) in comparison with their counterparts.


News Article | May 30, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A radiopharmaceutical for advanced identification of cancer, labeled with the technetium-99 isotope, is ready for the preclinical-phase trial. A radiopharmaceutical for advanced identification of cancer, labeled with the technetium-99 isotope, is ready for the preclinical-phase trial. Scientists from Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk Research Institute of Oncology and the Institute of Biorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences have been jointly working on the development of the medication. The project is headed by chemists of the Institute of Natural Resources of Tomsk Polytechnic University and the Institute of Physics and Technology. This radiopharmaceutical has a complex structure the basis of which is a protein scaffold DARPin with the attached chelate complex, which binds the protein to the radioactive technetium-99 isotope. TPU scientists developed a non-waste technology for the production of this highly sought isotope in the medical diagnostics. 'There is a so called lock on the cancerous cell in the form of receptors and the protein contained in the medication is the key to the receptors. The key needs to be labeled in case not to be lost among numerous keys. That is the reason why the chelate complexes are essential in this process. The isotope of technetium is entrapped on this marker and is easily tightened with the help of gamma cameras. This structure of the radiopharmaceutical makes it possible to accurately determine the size of the tumor as well as its location. It is especially important in the diagnosis of small-cell cancers when cancer cells are scattered over the affected organ,' says the Head of Department of Organic Substances and Polymers Mekhman Yusubov. In 2017, TPU researchers have patented the technology for obtaining chelate complexes. 'We proposed our way to obtain chelate complexes. We use iodine as one the reagents. In general, the technology for obtaining these complexes using iodine is more effective as the yield of the final product increases and the number of stages for it obtaining is reduced. In addition, the technology is more cost-effective compared to the existing ones due to the application of cheap and environmentally friendly reagents,' Mekhman Yusubov says. According to the scientist, in the future this drug can be used for both diagnosis and treatment of cancer diseases. However, more detailed studies have to be performed. This network research project was supported by the Federal Target Program Development of Pharmaceutical and Medical Industry of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020 and beyond. Preclinical trials are to be completed in 2019.


Patent
Russian Academy of Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute and Tomsk Polytechnic University | Date: 2015-11-19

The object of the present invention is low-dimensional, primarily 2D folded structures of organic and/or inorganic substances and/or their agglomerates, which have folds and faces of irregular shape and exhibit high local electric field strength generated by surface charges on the said folds, faces and edges, and use thereof: as sorbents of organic particles (molecules, bacteria, viruses, proteins, antigens, endotoxins) and inorganic particles (metal ions, colloids); as an agent with wound healing and antibacterial activity; as an agent for tumor cell growth inhibition.


Masterov I.,Tomsk Polytechnic University
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2016

Ostrogradsky's method allows one to construct Hamiltonian formulation for a higher derivative system. An application of this approach to the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator yields the Hamiltonian which is unbounded from below. This leads to the ghost problem in quantum theory. In order to avoid this nasty feature, the technique previously developed in [7] is used to construct an alternative Hamiltonian formulation for the multidimensional Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator of arbitrary even order with distinct frequencies of oscillation. This construction is also generalized to the case of an N = 2 supersymmetric Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator. © 2015 The Author.


Galajinsky A.,Tomsk Polytechnic University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

(n+2)-dimensional Lorentzian spacetime, which admits irreducible Killing tensors of rank up to n, is constructed by applying the Eisenhart lift to the Calogero model. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Galajinsky A.,Tomsk Polytechnic University
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2010

Conformal many-body mechanics in Newton-Hooke spacetime is studied within the framework of the Lagrangian formalism. Global symmetries and Noether charges are given in a form convenient for analyzing the flat space limit. N = 2 superconformal extension is built and a new class on N = 2 models related to simple Lie algebras is presented. A decoupling similarity transformation on N = 2 quantum mechanics in Newton-Hooke spacetime is discussed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Surmenev R.A.,Tomsk Polytechnic University
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2012

The review is focused on the latest achievements in the field of plasma-assisted fabrication of biocompatible CaP-based coatings for medical implants with the emphasis on the coatings composition, structure, mechanical and biological performance. The discussed properties of biocompatible CaP coatings have been recently prepared using the most frequently applied plasma-assisted techniques such as plasma spraying (PS), radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD). The review shows that plasma-assisted fabrication allows us to prepare dense, homogeneous, pore-free and high adherent biocompatible coatings able to prevent the leaching of toxic ions from metal to the surrounding tissues or rough and porous coatings capable of stimulating osteogenesis of a new bone. The main advantages and limitations of the described techniques of CaP-based coatings fabrication are presented as well as the most important challenges and critical issues are highlighted. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Patent
Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Research Institute For Cardiology, Tomsk Polytechnic University and Ltd Liability Company Nanocor | Date: 2016-04-08

The invention relates to the medicine, namely to an agent for reducing the cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood plasma. The agent claimed comprises a nanocomposite that is a carbon-containing nanoparticles coated with the organic alkyl functional groups representing the residuals C4H9, C6H11, C8H15, C10H21, C16H33, C18H35. These groups are deposited by the covalent modification using diazonium salts of the general formula XC6H4N2+Y, where X is the alkyl residual C4H9, C6H11, C8H15, C10H21, C16H33, or C18H35, Y is the anion HSO4, Cl, BF4 or OTs. The invention provides an effective reduction of cholesterol and triglyceride presented in the blood plasma.

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