Jafarey Y.S.,Toledo Zoo |
Berlinski R.A.,Toledo Zoo |
Hanley C.S.,Toledo Zoo |
Garner M.M.,Northwest ZooPath |
Kiupel M.,Michigan State University
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2015
A captive-born, 13-yr-old female orange-spot freshwater stingray, (Potamotrygon motoro), presented with an acute caudodorsal swelling. Ultrasonography revealed an intracoelomic mass of mixed echogenicity containing fluid pockets. The ray was euthanatized and gross postmortem examination confirmed the presence of a fluid-filled coelomic mass in the region of the reproductive tract. The mass was identified histologically as a malignant round cell tumor of the ovary. Although immunohistochemistry for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5), octamer-3/4 (OCT-3/4), and inhibin was attempted, antibodies that had been validated in mammalian species did not cross-react with stingray control tissues and did not label neoplastic cells. The final diagnosis was a presumptive dysgerminoma. © 2015 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.
News Article | November 6, 2015
Shannon Kachel (left), University of Washington doctoral candidate, and Ric Berlinski (right), a veterinarian at Toledo Zoo, radio collar the first snow leopard in Kyrgyzstan More Scientists have captured new images of a snow leopard being collared in Kyrgyzstan. The move marks the first time that one of these elusive creatures has been collared in the remote Central Asian nation. The gorgeous, white-coated creature is a female in the prime of her life, between 6 and 7 years old. She was collared in the Sarychat-Ertash Strict Nature Reserve in eastern Kyrgyzstan, near the border with China. The collaring — which was conducted by Panthera, a global wild cat conservation organization, as well as partner organizations and government agencies — could help researchers understand how the endangered creatures live. [Rare Photos: Snow Leopard Babies in Dens] "Each and every snow leopard we collar gives us invaluable new insights into the conservation of the entire species as well as the high mountain habitats they need to survive," lead researcher Shannon Kachel, a doctoral candidate in environmental and forest sciences at the University of Washington in Seattle, said in a statement. "Each collared animal teaches us new lessons about how snow leopards interact with their habitat and prey, with one another, and with us — lessons which ultimately help us protect this beautiful and elusive species and the landscapes that it depends on." Snow leopards (Panthera uncia) are the shaggy ghosts of the mountains. The camera-shy creatures live throughout the rugged, mountainous reaches of 12 different countries in Asia, yet even many locals who live among these big cats have never seen a trace of them. The majestic Himalayan creatures are perfectly adapted to their snowy climate. They sport thick fur coats that help them brave the frigid temperatures, and wide paws for padding silently through the snow. But herders hoping to protect their flocks have often hunted down the big cats. Poachers seeking their warm fur coats and internal organs, which are used as ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine, have also set their sights on the majestic beasts. As a result, the snow leopard population has declined by 20 percent over the last two decades, according to Panthera. Because the elusive snow beasts are so hard to spot, estimates of the population range from 4,500 to 10,000 adults, and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature considers the snow leopard an endangered species. In recent years, conservationists have stepped up their efforts to learn more about the mountain dwellers by collaring them and tracking their movements; placing camera traps throughout their habitat; estimating the number of their prey, such as blue sheep and Asiatic ibex; and even analyzing the DNA in their poop, according to Panthera. They've also recruited Buddhist monks to help protect the endangered cats Copyright 2015 LiveScience, a Purch company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.
Rainwater K.L.,Wildlife Conservation Society |
Sykes J.M.,Cornell University |
Sapienza J.S.,Toledo Zoo
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2015
A review of avian cataracts at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Bronx Zoo between 1992 and 2011 was conducted. Ninety cataracts in 54 birds from 42 species were identified. Cataracts were found primarily during examination for ocular abnormalities (29/54, 53.7%) or opportunistically (13/54, 24.1%) and were most commonly diagnosed as mature (22/90, 24.4%). Systemic medical conditions diagnosed in these birds included West Nile virus (4/54, 7.4%), head trauma (3/54, 5.6%), plumbism and Salmonella Pullorum (1/54, 1.9%), Marek's disease (1/54, 1.9%), leukocytosis (1/54, 1.9%), and hyperglycemia (1/54, 1.9%). Cataracts were progressive in seven birds of four species. Unilateral enucleation was performed in 2/54 (3.7%) birds, and 12/54 (22.2%) underwent cataract removal (phacoemulsification in 16 eyes and standard extracapsular cataract extraction in 2 eyes). Concurrent ocular abnormalities, such as corneal scarring and lens-induced uveitis, were seen in 2/18 (11.1%) eyes preoperatively in the group undergoing cataract removal, 2/2 (100%) eyes preoperatively in the group undergoing enucleation, and 33/70 (47.1%) of eyes that did not undergo surgery. For birds undergoing cataract removal, complications included successfully treated cardiorespiratory arrest intraoperatively (1/12, 8.3%) as well as postanesthetic complications of acute respiratory distress and tracheal stricture (2/12, 16.7%). The most common postoperative ocular abnormalities included posterior capsular opacity (4/18 eyes, 22.2%) and corneal scarring (2/18 eyes, 11.1%). Lens cortical regrowth and marked posterior lens capsular opacity occurred in one eye of one bird after phacoemulsification, necessitating a second ocular surgery. A successful outcome, as determined by improved postoperative visual acuity, was seen in 10/12 (83.3%) birds undergoing cataract removal, and 5/12 (41.7%) of these birds were alive >3 yr after surgery. The results of this review will aid clinicians in identifying common stages of cataracts, determining eligibility for cataract surgery, and managing postoperative complications in avian patients. © Copyright 2015 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.
News Article | December 22, 2016
She's Colo, the nation's oldest living gorilla, and she turned 60 on Thursday at the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium. Colo was the first gorilla in the world born in a zoo and has surpassed the usual life expectancy of captive gorillas by two decades. Her longevity is putting a spotlight on the medical care, nutrition and up-to-date therapeutic techniques that are helping lengthen zoo animals' lives. "Colo just epitomizes the advances that zoos have made, going all the way back to her birth at Columbus," said Dr. Tom Meehan, vice president for veterinary services at Chicago's Brookfield Zoo and veterinary adviser to a national gorilla species survival plan. The changes also mean more animals living with the normal aches and pains of growing older. Today, zoo veterinarians regularly treat animals for heart and kidney disease, arthritis, dental problems and cancer. Hundreds of people gathered at the zoo Thursday to see Colo, singing "Happy Birthday" moments before the gorilla ambled into an enclosure decorated with multicolored construction paper chains and filled with cakes such as squash and beet and cornbread with mashed potato parsley frosting. Among the first in line was Pam Schlereth of Columbus, who at 63 was just a little girl when her father brought her to see the newborn Colo in a gorilla incubator in 1956. "It's a tribute to the zoo that she's alive at 60 years old," Schlereth said. Colo represents so much to the zoo, Tom Stalf, president of the zoo, told the crowd. "It's all about connecting people and wildlife," he said. Colo is one of several elderly gorillas around the country. The oldest known living male gorilla, Ozzie, is 55 years old and lives at the Atlanta Zoo, which has a geriatric gorilla specialty. At Seattle's Woodland Park Zoo, staff members use acupuncture, massage, laser therapy, and heat and joint supplements to help Emma, a 13-year-old rabbit. At the National Zoo in Washington, Shanthi, a 42-year-old Asian elephant with arthritis, receives osteoarthritis therapy and was recently fitted with specially crafted front foot boots to help her feet heal as medications are applied. In Oakland, California, Tiki, a 27-year-old giraffe and one of the oldest in the nation, gets foot care, massage therapy, acupuncture and chiropractic care, along with traditional veterinary medicine. Gao Gao, a 26-year-old male panda at the San Diego Zoo with a heart condition, periodically undergoes cardiac ultrasounds. "Geriatrics is probably one of our most common medical challenges that we face in a zoo situation," said Dr. Keith Hinshaw, director of animal health at the Philadelphia Zoo. "So pretty much anything that you could imagine would happen with an older person is going to happen eventually with any animal." That's up to and including medication: JJ, a 45-year-old orangutan at the Toledo Zoo, is on the human heart medicines carvedilol and Lisinopril, along with pain and orthopedic medications. He also takes Metamucil. Colo, a western lowland gorilla, holds several other records. On her 56th birthday in 2012, she exceeded the record for longest-lived gorilla. On Thursday, she surpasses the median life expectancy for female gorillas in human care (37.5 years) by more than two decades. Coldilocks, a 36-year-old polar bear at the Philadelphia Zoo and considered the oldest polar bear in the U.S. The bears' typical lifespan in captivity is 23 years. The zoo says treating her early for kidney disease appears to have helped prolong her life. Elly, an eastern black rhino at the San Francisco Zoo estimated to be 46 years old, is the oldest of her species in North America. She has had 14 calves, and her offspring have produced 15 grandchildren, 6 great-grandchildren and 1 great-great-grandchild. Packy, an Asian elephant at the Oregon Zoo, and at 54, the oldest male of his species in North America. The zoo says Packy, born in 1962, became the first elephant to be born in the Western Hemisphere in 44 years. Nikko, a 33-year-old snow monkey at the Minnesota Zoo, the oldest male snow monkey in North America. Little Mama, a chimpanzee living at Lion Country Safari in Loxahatchee, Florida, with an estimated age in her late 70s. She takes allergy medicine, iron supplements and omega 3 multivitamins, and has been trained to accept a nebulizer treatment for coughing. Emerson, a Galapagos tortoise at the Toledo Zoo in Ohio, whose age is estimated at about 100. Michele Frymen, from left, Christy Anderson and Jacob Anderson, all from Columbus, hold up a birthday cake and wave as they get their picture taken during some festivities in the food court as part of the 60th birthday celebration for Colo, the nation's oldest living gorilla, at the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium, Thursday, Dec. 22, 2016 in Columbus, Ohio. Colo was the first gorilla in the world born in a zoo and has surpassed the usual life expectancy of captive gorillas by two decades. Her longevity is putting a spotlight on the medical care, nutrition and up-to-date therapeutic techniques that are helping lengthen zoo animals' lives. (AP Photo/Ty Wright) In this Dec. 16, 2016 file photo, Coldilocks the polar bear looks up from a nap at the Philadelphia Zoo in Philadelphia. Coldilocks, who celebrated her 36th birthday last week, is considered the oldest polar bear in the U.S. The bears' typical lifespan in captivity is 23 years. (AP Photo/Matt Rourke, File) In this March 27, 2012 file photo, Packy, an Asian elephant, is sprayed with water at the Oregon Zoo, in Portland. Packy at 54 is the oldest male of his species in North America. The zoo says Packy, born in 1962, became the first elephant to be born in the Western Hemisphere in 44 years. (Randy L. Rasmussen/The Oregonian via AP, File) Explore further: Oldest zoo gorilla doing well after biopsy before birthday
King R.B.,Northern Illinois University |
Stanford K.M.,Northern Illinois University |
Stanford K.M.,Ohio State University |
Jones P.C.,Northern Illinois University |
Bekker K.,Toledo Zoo
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016
Body size, and, by extension, growth has impacts on physiology, survival, attainment of sexualmaturity, fecundity, generation time, and population dynamics, especially in ectothermanimals that often exhibit extensive growth following attainment of sexual maturity. Frequently, growth is analyzed at the population level, providing useful population mean growth parameters but ignoring individual variation that is also of ecological and evolutionary significance. Our long-Term study of Lake ErieWatersnakes, Nerodia sipedon insularum, provides data sufficient for a detailed analysis of population and individual growth.We describe population mean growth separately for males and females based on size of known age individuals (847 captures of 769males, 748 captures of 684 females) and annual growth increments of individuals of unknown age (1,152 males, 730 females). We characterize individual variation in asymptotic size based on repeated measurements of 69males and 71 females that were each captured in five to nine different years. The most striking result of our analyses is that asymptotic size varies dramatically among individuals, ranging from 631-820 mmsnout-vent length in males and from 835-1125mm in females. Because female fecundity increases with increasing body size, we explore the impact of individual variation in asymptotic size on lifetime reproductive success using a range of realistic estimates of annual survival.When all females commence reproduction at the same age, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with greater asymptotic size regardless of annual survival. But when reproduction is delayed in females with greater asymptotic size, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with lower asymptotic size when annual survival is low. Possible causes of individual variation in asymptotic size, including individual-and cohort-specific variation in size at birth and early growth, warrant further investigation. © 2016 King et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
News Article | February 15, 2017
The Toledo Zoo says its 21-year-old female bear named Nan has been moved to the Brookfield Zoo near Chicago to see if she will breed with the zoo's male bear. Nan moved into her new home this week where she's separated by a fence from her potential mate named Hudson. The Brookfield Zoo says the bears will spend a little time getting to know each other before moving in together. The move was arranged by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and its polar bear species survival program. Keepers at the Toledo Zoo say Nan is genetically important because she was born in the wild and discovered as an orphan cub near Barrow, Alaska. Explore further: Ohio zoo staff cares for newborn polar bear; second cub died
Bowen L.,U.S. Geological Survey |
Miles A.K.,U.S. Geological Survey |
Waters S.,U.S. Geological Survey |
Meyerson R.,Toledo Zoo |
And 2 more authors.
Polar Biology | Year: 2015
Polar bears in the Beaufort (SB) and Chukchi (CS) Seas experience different environments due primarily to a longer history of sea ice loss in the Beaufort Sea. Ecological differences have been identified as a possible reason for the generally poorer body condition and reproduction of Beaufort polar bears compared to those from the Chukchi, but the influence of exposure to other stressors remains unknown. We use molecular technology, quantitative PCR, to identify gene transcription differences among polar bears from the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas as well as captive healthy polar bears. We identified significant transcriptional differences among a priori groups (i.e., captive bears, SB 2012, SB 2013, CS 2013) for ten of the 14 genes of interest (i.e., CaM, HSP70, CCR3, TGFβ, COX2, THRα, T-bet, Gata3, CD69, and IL17); transcription levels of DRβ, IL1β, AHR, and Mx1 did not differ among groups. Multivariate analysis also demonstrated separation among the groups of polar bears. Specifically, we detected transcript profiles consistent with immune function impairment in polar bears from the Beaufort Sea, when compared with Chukchi and captive polar bears. Although there is no strong indication of differential exposure to contaminants or pathogens between CS and SB bears, there are clearly differences in important transcriptional responses between populations. Further investigation is warranted to refine interpretation of potential effects of described stress-related conditions for the SB population. © 2015, US Government.
News Article | March 16, 2016
Earlier, he had growled at the Milwaukee County Zoo's other tigers. While human zookeepers could only guess, his furry striped compatriots knew exactly what he was saying. And it was all captured on a small recorder with a microphone pointed toward the zoo's new male tiger, who arrived in Milwaukee two months ago from the Toledo Zoo. Chuffs, roars, growls and whines - they all mean something in Strannik's vocabulary as well as in the voices of Milwaukee's three female tigers, Amba, Tula and Nuri. The recordings of their sounds will be used by researchers to more accurately count the endangered animal in the wild. "As zookeepers, we want to have an impact on the wild population, but there's not a lot we can do for animals in the wild," said Amanda Ista, a zookeeper in the Milwaukee zoo's Florence Mila Borchert Big Cat Country. "With this project, though, we can have an impact." The Milwaukee zoo is joining other American zoos participating in the Prusten Project, which collects recordings of captive tigers in an effort to determine vocal fingerprints of individual animals. Researchers hope to use the information to build a computer program that will identify specific tigers in the wild for a better census of the majestic but often elusive animals. The idea is to place the same recorders that are being used at the Milwaukee zoo in India and Sumatra to eavesdrop on tigers and figure out how many are still living in the wild. Sort of like a telephone party line in the jungle. Prusten Project executive director Courtney Dunn was an intern at the National Tiger Sanctuary in Saddlebrooke, Mo., in 2011 when she met a very vocal tiger known for her strange sounds. Dunn began to wonder if tiger sounds could help save the species just as the Whalesong Project has helped whales. For her master's thesis, Dunn studied how tiger vocalizations can be used to identify individual animals. By using a software program that turns sounds into visual spectrograms and noting the exact frequency at which a tiger's vocal cords vibrate, Dunn can determine a tiger's gender with a high degree of accuracy. Her research focused on tigers' long calls, a very deep roar that can carry as far as three miles and which is mainly used for mating and marking territory. Dunn learned that female tigers are easier to identify individually because they have a wider variety of vocalizations. "Males sound similar. They're unique in that you can tell individuals apart, but their vocalization frequency ranges are very similar," Dunn said in a phone interview. "Maybe the ladies over the years have chosen partners because of their vocal ranges. It might pinpoint certain characteristics that make them an ideal mate." Recorders cost $600 to $900 each plus shipping, and the nonprofit Prusten Project relies on donations, research grants and fundraising. Dunn, who was recently accepted into a Ph.D. program in quantitative biology at the University of Texas at Arlington, plans to travel to Sumatra later this year or next year to set up recorders in the wild. In the meantime, Dunn and volunteers are listening to recordings made of approximately 50 tigers at 15 zoos in the United States, including Milwaukee, the only zoo in the Midwest that is participating. Other zoos in the U.S. have offered to participate and are waiting until a recorder can be sent. Milwaukee zookeepers learned of the Prusten Project a few years ago and waited to request a recorder until the arrival of Strannik, whose name means pilgrim or wanderer in Russian. The Milwaukee Zoo hasn't had a male tiger for a number of years, and officials are hoping Strannik, who is toward the end of his mating years and has sired three litters, will pair with Amba, who has produced a couple of litters, including her daughters Tula and Nuri, said Katie Kuhn, big cat area supervisor. Kuhn worked at Utah's Hogle Zoo when Strannik was born there 13 years ago. Zookeepers are gradually introducing Strannik to his fellow tigers in Milwaukee. Before they even set eyes on him, the female tigers knew of his arrival. While he was in quarantine, Strannik could be heard roaring from the other side of the zoo. As he sat in an enclosure not accessible to the public last week, he and the human zookeepers could hear Tula and Nuri. They were pounding on the other side of a metal door with their paws. Strannik appeared to take no notice, probably because it was meal time. "He's very talkative. He's actually very laid back as tigers go," said Ista, as she sprinkled scents that Strannik finds attractive - allspice, apple pie spices and cloves - in his compartment. Ista held her hand up and called "open" - prompting Strannik to open his mouth and gulp down his breakfast, the tiger's big pink tongue curling around the ground beef and making a chuffing sound of contentment. Then it was time for Strannik to head into the indoor observation area as families and kids excitedly pointed at the massive cat and snapped his picture with their cellphones. Explore further: Rare Sumatran tiger gives birth to three cubs
Jafarey Y.S.,Toledo Zoo |
Hanley C.S.,Toledo Zoo |
Berlinski R.A.,Toledo Zoo |
Warner C.,Mercy OB Gyn Associates |
Armstrong A.,Mercy OB Gyn Associates
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2015
A 13-yr-old female nulliparous Allen's swamp monkey (Allenopitchecus nigroviridis) presented with intermittent excessive vaginal bleeding, cyclical lethargy, and a history of irregular menstrual cycles. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a subjectively thickened, irregular endometrium, multiple leiomyomata (uterine fibroids), and bilateral anechoic foci on the ovaries. Treatment was initiated with leuprolide acetate i.m. monthly for 6 mo. Recheck ultrasound at 3 mo showed a decrease in leiomyoma diameter and no evidence of active follicles on the ovaries. Eleven months following completion of treatment, clinical signs recurred and the animal was treated with a deslorelin implant. Since implant placement, no vaginal bleeding has been noted. © Copyright 2015 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.
Bodensteiner K.J.,University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point |
Ghiraldi L.L.,Lawrence University |
Miner S.S.,Toledo Zoo
Journal of General Psychology | Year: 2012
Female Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from mothers every other day for 8 hr (long-term separation/LTS), 4 hr (short-term separation/STS), or 0 hr (no separation/NS) from postnatal day 2-20. In adulthood, they were mated and tested for maternal behaviors during two lactations. It was expected that females separated from mothers as pups would show deficits in maternal behavior as adults. Contrary to expectations, LTS showed better nest building and grouped young faster during both lactations. LTS were first to display aggression and displayed more aggression during the second lactation. Notably, while some measures decreased from first to second lactation in NS and STS, LTS maintained levels of maternal care. These results suggest that extended periods of maternal separation may exaggerate some aspects of maternal behavior. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.