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Jatoi A.,Mayo Medical School | Foster N.R.,Mayo Medical School | Egner J.R.,Carle Cancer Center | Burch P.A.,Mayo Medical School | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2010

Whether elderly patients with metastatic esophageal, gastroesophageal, and gastric cancer do as well with chemotherapy as their younger counterparts was investigated in this pooled analysis. In total, 367 patients from 8 consecutive, first-line trials were included: i) etoposide + cisplatin; ii) 5-fluorourucil + leucovorin; iii) 5-fluorouracil + levamisole; iv) irinotecan; v) docetaxel + irinotecan; vi) oxaliplatin + capecitabine; vii) docetaxel + capecitabine; and viii) bortezomib + paclitaxel + carboplatin. One hundred and fifty-four (42%) patients were ≥65 years old (range: 65-86), and 213 younger (range: 20-64). Elderly patients had worse performance scores (2-3): 19 vs. 8% (p<0.0001). Rates of grade 3+ adverse events across all chemotherapy cycles in univariate and multivariate analyses (adjusted for gender, performance score, and stratified by individual study) were higher among elderly patients. Rates of neutropenia, fatigue, infection, and stomatitis in elderly vs. younger patients were 31 vs. 29% (p=0.02 by multivariate analyses); 15 vs. 5% (p=0.01); 9 vs. 4% (p=0.03); 6 vs. 1% (p=0.04). In contrast, duration of chemotherapy, overall survival, and progression-free survival were comparable. Although age should not preclude trial entry, these adverse event rates suggest a need to develop more tolerable regimens for older patients with these malignancies.

Jatoi A.,Mayo Medical School | Nieva J.J.,Montana Cancer Consortium | Qin R.,Mayo Medical School | Loprinzi C.L.,Mayo Medical School | And 7 more authors.
Oncology (Switzerland) | Year: 2012

Background: Effective, non-invasive, palliative strategies for symptomatic malignant ascites are unavailable. This trial explored whether octreotide, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor, a putative mediator of ascites, prolongs the interval to next paracentesis. Methods: After a baseline paracentesis and a test of short-acting agent, patients with symptomatic ascites were randomly assigned to long-acting octreotide (Sandostatin LAR®) depot 30 mg intramuscularly every month versus 0.9% sodium chloride administered similarly. Patients were then monitored for recurrent, symptomatic ascites. Results: Thirty-three patients were enrolled: 16 assigned to the octreotide and 17 to the control arm. The median time to next paracentesis was 28 and 14 days in the octreotide and placebo arm, respectively (p = 0.17). After adjustment for extracted ascites volume and abdominal girth change, no statistically significant difference between the groups was observed (hazard ratio = 0.52, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.21-1.28; p = 0.15, per Cox model). Octreotide-treated patients described less of abdominal bloating (p = 0.01), abdominal discomfort (p = 0.02), and shortness of breath (p = 0.007) at one month, although other quality of life symptoms were comparable between the arms. Long-acting octreotide was reasonably well tolerated. Conclusion: As prescribed in this trial, octreotide did not seem effective in prolonging the time to next paracentesis, although improvements in symptoms suggest that vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition merits further investigation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Moraska A.R.,Mayo Medical School | Atherton P.J.,Metro Minnesota Community Clinical Oncology Program | Szydlo D.W.,Michigan Cancer Research Consortium | Barton D.L.,Carle Cancer Center | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Supportive Oncology | Year: 2010

Hot flashes are a complication of androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. A phase III study showed that use of low-dose gabapentin was well tolerated and moderately decreased the frequency of hot flashes due to androgen deprivation therapy when taken for 4 weeks. The current study, an open-label continuation of the randomized study, examined the efficacy and toxicity of gabapentin when taken for (an additional) 8 weeks. Patients were allowed to start, or continue, gabapentin and to titrate the dose to maximum efficacy, up to 900 mg/d. They were asked to complete a hot flash diary daily and keep weekly logs of toxicity, satisfaction with hot flash control, and quality of life. The moderate reduction in hot flash frequency and severity in the randomized phase of the study appeared to be maintained during this continuation phase. Men originally receiving the placebo or lowest dose of gabapentin (300 mg/d) had improved hot flash control relative to that at the end of the randomized phase. Minimal adverse effects were reported. These findings suggest that low-dose gabapentin is moderately efficacious for at least 12 weeks of hot flash treatment in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer and seems to be well tolerated. (NCT00028572) © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Miller R.C.,Mayo Medical School | Sio T.T.,Mayo Medical School | Schwartz D.J.,Mayo Medical School | Wittich M.A.N.,Mayo Medical School | And 13 more authors.
Supportive Care in Cancer | Year: 2016

Purpose: Radiotherapy-related dermatological toxicities over time have not been well quantified. We examined during and immediately following radiation therapy skin toxicities over time in a randomized study of mometasone furoate vs placebo during breast radiotherapy. Material and methods: Patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy to the breast or chest wall were randomized. Symptoms related to skin toxicity were addressed weekly using provider-reported Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v3.0) and 4 patient-reported outcomes (PRO) surveys. We applied repeated measures and risk analysis methodologies. Results: One hundred seventy-six patients were enrolled. By CTCAE, significant differences favoring mometasone were detected over time in all toxicities except skin striae, atrophy, and infection. Statistically significant differences between arms at baseline but not over time occurred for all Linear Analog Self-Assessment. Statistically significant differences occurred for all symptoms in the temporal profile of symptoms as measured by PRO surveys (all P < .001). Conclusions: The use of longitudinal methods enhanced the ability of PRO tools to detect differences between study arms. Our results strengthened the conclusions of the original report that mometasone reduced acute skin toxicities. PRO surveys can accurately assess patients’ experiences of symptom type and intensity over time and should be included in future clinical trials. Summary: For radiotherapy-related dermatological toxicity, we hypothesized that clinically significant differences over time, if any, can be found by repeated measures. We examined the acute skin toxicities in a randomized study of mometasone vs placebo during breast radiotherapy. For secondary end points, we showed that longitudinal methods enhanced the detection of differences between study arms and strengthened the conclusions from the original report. Frequent patient-reported outcome surveys over time should be included in future clinical trials. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Miller R.C.,Mayo Medical School | Petereit D.G.,Rapid City Regional Oncology Group | Sloan J.A.,Mayo Medical School | Liu H.,Mayo Medical School | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2016

Purpose To provide confirmatory evidence on the use of sulfasalazine to reduce enteritis during pelvic radiation therapy (RT), following 2 prior single-institution trials suggestive that benefit existed. Methods and Materials A multi-institution, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial was designed to assess the efficacy of sulfasalazine versus placebo in the treatment of RT-related enteritis during RT including the posterior pelvis (45.0-53.5 Gy) and conducted through a multicenter national cooperative research alliance. Patients received 1000 mg of sulfasalazine or placebo orally twice daily during and for 4 weeks after RT. The primary endpoint was maximum severity of diarrhea (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0). Toxicity and bowel function were assessed by providers through a self-administered bowel function questionnaire taken weekly during RT and for 6 weeks afterward. Results Eighty-seven patients were enrolled in the trial between April 29, 2011, and May 13, 2013, with evenly distributed baseline factors. At the time of a planned interim toxicity analysis, more patients with grade ≥3 diarrhea received sulfasalazine than received placebo (29% vs 11%, P=.04). A futility analysis showed that trial continuation would be unlikely to yield a positive result, and a research board recommended halting study treatment. Final analysis of the primary endpoint showed no significant difference in maximum diarrhea severity between the sulfasalazine and placebo arms (P=.41). Conclusions Sulfasalazine does not reduce enteritis during pelvic RT and may be associated with a higher risk of adverse events than placebo. This trial illustrates the importance of confirmatory phase 3 trials in the evaluation of symptom-control agents. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

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