Entity

Time filter

Source Type

Tokyo, Japan

Tokyo Metropolitan University is a public university in Japan. It is often referred to as TMU. Tokyo Metropolitan University ranks 239th in the ”Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2014-2015, which was released on October 1, 2014. The ranking among Japan’s 781 universities is 7th, behind the University of Tokyo, Kyoto University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Osaka University, Tohoku University and Nagoya University. Wikipedia.


Miyasaka K.,Tokyo Metropolitan University
Geriatrics & gerontology international | Year: 2010

AIMS: Most of the acetaldehyde, a recognized animal carcinogen, generated during alcohol metabolism is eliminated by liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). More than 40% of Japanese people have the inactive form of ALDH2, and inactive ALDH2 is a risk factor for multiple cancer of the esophagus, as well as head and neck cancer. Possible associations between pancreatic cancer and ALDH2 gene polymorphism, as well as between colon cancer and ALDH2 gene polymorphism, in conjunction with smoking and/or drinking habits, were examined in a Japanese population. METHODS: Patients with pancreatic cancer (n = 187) and with colon cancer (n = 49) were examined. The drinking (5 g ethanol consumption/day) and/or smoking habits as well as ALDH2 gene polymorphism were examined. The age-matched control subjects were recruited in the NILS Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSA). RESULTS: Aging, smoking and inactive ALDH2, but not alcohol, are independent risk factors for pancreatic cancer. The frequency of smoking habits tended to be higher in patients with colon cancer compared with the patients without cancer. However, age, body mass index or the distribution of ALDH2 genotypes did not differ significantly among the patients with colon cancer, colon polyps and others. CONCLUSIONS: Inactive ALDH2 is an independent risk factor for pancreatic cancer, but inactive ALDH2 might not be a risk for colon cancer. Source


Younes M.,Baylor College of Medicine | Honma N.,Tokyo Metropolitan University
Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2011

Context.-A new class of estrogen receptors was discovered in 1996 and named estrogen receptor β (ER-B); the traditional estrogen receptor, which until a little more than 10 years ago was thought of as the only estrogen receptor in existence, is now called estrogen receptor α. Estrogen receptor β has at least 5 isoforms, which may have different functions and have different tissue distribution. The significance of ER-B expression in tumors was first demonstrated in breast cancer, with several studies demonstrating that women with ER-B-positive breast cancers treated with adjuvant tamoxifen have better survival, independent of estrogen receptor a expression. Pathologists need to be more aware of this increasingly important protein, as it will soon find its way into routine clinical practice. Objective.-To provide pathologists with a concise review of ER-B, with special emphasis on current and potential clinical relevance. Data Sources.-A search of the English literature in PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland) for articles with titles including "estrogen receptor beta," with emphasis on "immunohistochemistry. " Abstracts were reviewed, and selected articles were used as the basis for writing this review, mostly based on their relevance to pathology. Conclusions.-Estrogen receptor β and its isoforms have wider tissue distribution, including the gastrointestinal tract, lung, and brain, than the traditional estrogen receptor, now called estrogen receptor α. Estrogen receptor β expression in breast cancer is associated with favorable outcome in women treated with adjuvant tamoxifen, even in tumors negative for estrogen receptor α. The clinical significance of ER-B expression in tumors other than breast is currently under investigation. Source


The rising healthcare costs associated with an aging population have become an urgent fiscal problem. However, evidence of the efficacy of preventive programmes is limited, since almost all studies have involved only small numbers of highly selected participants. This article examines potential physical activity-induced decreases in healthcare expenses, applying a theoretical model to the Nakanojo Study of habitual physical activity and health in an entire elderly community.The Nakanojo Study has shown substantial associations of health with both step count and the duration of moderate effort (intensity >3 metabolic equivalents METs). Participants are classed as 'dependent' (n800) or 'independent' (n4400); the latter category is divided arbitrarily into quartiles, based on physical activity patterns (Q1Q4; n1100 for each quartile). The five groups show a graded prevalence of various morbidities, including dependency, depression, osteoporosis, fractures, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, ischaemic heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, cancer and dementia. Consequently, annual healthcare expenditures (based on 2009 published Japanese costs associated with each of these conditions) differ by about yen (¥)197900 ($US1979) per person between dependent individuals and those in group Q1, ¥20700 ($US207) between Q1 and Q2, ¥14600 ($US146) between Q2 and Q3, and ¥5300 ($US53) between Q3 and Q4. Accepting a causal relationship between physical activity and health, and assuming that an increase in physical activity induces a benefit that is uniform across conditions and diseases, respective morbidity prevalences and associated healthcare costs seem likely to decrease as physical activity increases. Thus, if the physical activity of only 5 of each group could be increased by a single ranking (pedometeraccelerometer scores of 2000 stepsday and 510minday at >3 METs andor an adjusted questionnaire score of 10 MET hoursweek), one might predict average savings across this population of about ¥12600 ($US126) per person, or 3.7, of total medical expenses, including ¥9800 ($US98) of public nursing care insurance costs and an additional ¥2800 ($US28) of national health insurance expenditures.The impact of various changes in the prevalence of physical activity can be simulated using our model. In principle, savings should increase if more people increase their physical activity, andor the magnitude of individual increases in physical activity is greater. Nevertheless, our analysis suggests that if even a small fraction of individuals in the three least active groups were to make a single-rank increase in their habitual physical activity as a result of focused health support and the promotion of physical activity, a significant reduction in medical expenses might be anticipated, justifying investment in preventive programmes. We now propose to test the validity of the present simulations on a national basis, obtaining accurate and objective evidence of change in individual physical activity patterns using an advanced design of pedometeraccelerometer. © 2011 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved. Source


Awata S.,Tokyo Metropolitan University
Psychogeriatrics | Year: 2010

Herein, the Medical Center for Dementia, which was introduced in 2008 as a new national health program in Japan, is reviewed from the perspective of the recent history of the national provision against dementia and the findings of a series of studies on the current status of medical care for dementia. The Medical Center for Dementia was developed to provide special medical services for dementia and connect with other community resources in order to contribute to building a comprehensive support network for demented patients. Specifically, the Medical Center for Dementia provides the following: (i) special medical consultation; (ii) differential diagnosis and early intervention; (iii) medical treatment for the acute stage of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and concurrent medical conditions; (iv) education for general practitioners and other community professionals; (v) network meetings for the establishment of medical-medical and medical-care connection; and (vi) provision of information regarding dementia to the public. Special Medical Consultation Rooms would play an important role in the efficient functioning of the Medical Center for Dementia. In cooperation with municipal governments, the Medical Center for Dementia is also expected to play an important role in policy making and to improve the local status of medical care for people with dementia. © 2010 The Author. Psychogeriatrics © 2010 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society. Source


Suzuki T.,National Institute for Longevity science | Yoshida H.,Tokyo Metropolitan University
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2010

This study aimed to determine whether low bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck independently predicts all-cause mortality in elderly Japanese women. A prospective cohort study of 271 women aged 67-89 years was conducted. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to examine independent associations between BMD and total mortality. During a 12-year follow-up period, the mortality risk (as measured by hazard ratio [HR]) was significantly increased in the three categories of baseline BMD (diagnostic criteria of osteoporosis, tertile of BMD, and quartile of BMD). After adjusting for major potential confounding variables for mortality, significantly increased mortality risks were found in subjects with osteoporosis (HR = 2.17, p = 0.032), in subjects in the lowest tertile (HR = 2.57, p = 0.007), and in subjects in the lowest quartile (HR = 3.13, p = 0.014], respectively. Our findings suggest that preventive strategies should be considered to increase and maintain high BMD at the femoral neck in the elderly women not only to prevent hip fractures but also probably to reduce mortality risk. Introduction: Several longitudinal studies with Caucasian subjects have suggested that osteoporosis is associated with increased mortality. This study aimed to determine whether low bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck independently predicts all-cause mortality in elderly Japanese community-dwelling women. Method: A prospective cohort study of 271 women aged 67-89 years was conducted. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to examine independent associations between BMD at both the femoral neck and the trochanter and total mortality. Results: During a 12-year follow-up period, 81 of 271 women (29.9%) died. An independent and significant relationship was found between baseline BMD at the femoral neck and mortality risk. The mortality risk (as measured by HR) was increased by 2.80-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.55-5.06; p < 0.01) in the subjects with osteoporosis or by 2.94-fold (95% CI 1.64-5.26; p < 0.001) in subjects in the lowest tertile or by 3.61-fold (95% CI 1.77-7.41; p < 0.001) in subjects in the lowest quartile of BMD, respectively. After adjusting for major potential confounding factors for mortality such as age, body mass index, blood pressure, blood variables, medical history, alcohol drinking, and smoking status, those in the subjects with osteoporosis (HR = 2.17 [95% CI 1.07-4.41], p = 0.032), in the lowest tertile (HR = 2.57 [95% CI 1.29-5.15], p = 0.007), or in the lowest quartile (HR = 3.13 [95% CI 1.26-7.73], p = 0.014] had a significantly increased risk of mortality. BMD measurement at the trochanter showed similar but weaker results. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that preventive strategies should be considered to increase and maintain high BMD at the femoral neck in elderly subjects not only to prevent osteoporosis and its associated fractures but also probably to reduce mortality risk. © 2009 International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation. Source

Discover hidden collaborations