Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection

Tokyo, Japan

Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection

Tokyo, Japan
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Nakashima Y.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Sadanaga Y.,Osaka Prefecture University | Saito S.,Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection | Hoshi J.,Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection | Ueno H.,Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2017

Nitrous acid (HONO) plays an important role in the formation of OH radicals, which are involved in photochemical oxidation. HONO concentrations in ambient air at urban sites have previously been measured, but very few studies have been performed in central Tokyo. In this study, HONO concentrations in ambient air in southeast central Tokyo (near Tokyo Bay) in winter were determined by incoherent cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy. The O3, NO, NO2, and SO2 concentrations were simultaneously determined. The NO concentrations were used to classify the parts of the study period into types I (high pollution), II (medium pollution), and III (low pollution). The maximum HONO concentrations in the type I, II, and III periods were 7.1, 4.5, and 3.0 ppbv, respectively. These concentrations were comparable to concentrations previously found in other Asian megacities. The mean HONO concentration varied diurnally, and HONO was depleted between 00:00 and 03:00 each day. The sampling site is surrounded by roads with high traffic loads, but vehicular emissions were estimated to contribute < 10% of the HONO concentrations. Two positive and negative relative humidity dependences of the HONO to NO2 ratio were confirmed, implying the existence of the two different secondary formation process of HONO. The NO2 to HONO conversion rates at night in the type I, II, and III periods were 6.3 × 10− 3, 7.6 × 10− 3, and 4.2 × 10− 3 h− 1, respectively. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Watanabe K.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Komatsu N.,Ibaraki Kasumigaura Environmental Science Center | Kitamura T.,Ibaraki Kasumigaura Environmental Science Center | Ishii Y.,Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

The free-living, cosmopolitan, freshwater betaproteobacterial bacterioplankton genus Polynucleobacter was detected in different years in 11 lakes of varying types and a river using the size-exclusion assay method (SEAM). Of the 350 strains isolated, 228 (65.1%) were affiliated with the Polynucleobacter subclusters PnecC (30.0%) and PnecD (35.1%). Significant positive correlations between fluorescence in situ hybridization and SEAM data were observed in the relative abundance of PnecC and PnecD bacteria to Polynucleobacter communities (PnecC+PnecD). Isolates were mainly PnecC bacteria in the samples with a high specific UV absorbance at 254nm (SUVA254), and a low total hydrolysable neutral carbohydrate and amino acid (THneutralCH+THAA) content of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction, which is known to be correlated with a high humic content. In contrast, the PnecD bacteria were abundant in samples with high chlorophyll a and/or THneutralCH+THAA concentrations, indicative of primary productivity. With few exceptions, differences in the relative abundance of PnecC and PnecD in each sample, determined using a high-sensitivity cultivation-based approach, were due to DOM quality. These results suggest that the major DOM component in the field, which is allochthonously or autochthonously derived, is a key factor for ecological niche separation between PnecC and PnecD subclusters. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Terazono A.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Oguchi M.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Iino S.,Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection | Mogi S.,Bureau of Environment
Waste Management | Year: 2015

To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6-10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using insulation (tape) on waste batteries to prevent fires, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. Our field study of small WEEE showed that batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE on a weight basis. Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, digital cameras, radios, and remote controls, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. Given the safety issues and the rapid changes occurring with mobile phones or other types of small WEEE, discussion is needed among stakeholders to determine how to safely collect and recycle WEEE and waste batteries. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies, Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection and Bureau of Environment
Type: | Journal: Waste management (New York, N.Y.) | Year: 2015

To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6-10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using insulation (tape) on waste batteries to prevent fires, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. Our field study of small WEEE showed that batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE on a weight basis. Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, digital cameras, radios, and remote controls, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. Given the safety issues and the rapid changes occurring with mobile phones or other types of small WEEE, discussion is needed among stakeholders to determine how to safely collect and recycle WEEE and waste batteries.


Tsunematsu N.,Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection | Yokoyama H.,Japan National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention | Honjo T.,Chiba University | Ichihashi A.,Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection | And 2 more authors.
Urban Climate | Year: 2016

This study investigated spatial and temporal changes in amounts of thermal infrared (TIR) energy emitted from urban surfaces in downtown Tokyo, using 2 m spatial resolution data obtained from airborne TIR measurements at midday on the three different hot summer days: August 7, 2007, August 19, 2013, and August 19, 2014. Detailed land use data were also used for analyses of relationship between amounts of TIR energy and land use variations. The results showed significantly large amounts of TIR energy in high density wooden residential areas, whereas amounts of TIR energy in areas with office and commercial buildings were relatively small. As for the areas with office and commercial buildings, we found that amounts of TIR energy in many parts of urban renewal areas had clearly decreased between 2007 and 2013. In the renewal areas, many green surfaces have been provided in public open spaces. This would be one of the main causes of the decreases in amounts of TIR energy. Creation of public open spaces has been promoted by an incentive-based policy that offers an increase in the floor area ratio as a reward for constructing public spaces. These results strongly indicate that some governmental measures like the incentive system enacted for the areas with office and commercial buildings are required to reduce radiant heat in the high density wooden residential areas, because the maximum occurrence frequency of heat strokes tends to be recorded in residential areas and at midday. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Yoshino A.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | Nakashima Y.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | Miyazaki K.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | Kato S.,Tokyo Metroplitan University | And 14 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2012

We have conducted a comprehensive observational study to determine the mixing ratios of atmospheric chemical species and total OH reactivity in central Tokyo, in order to diagnose the air quality during summer and winter 2007 and autumn 2009. Concentrations of over 70 reactive trace species were continuously measured throughout each season. The total OH reactivity was measured directly using a laser-induced pump and probe technique. The observed chemical species exhibited seasonal variations. There was a good correlation between NO and CO in winter, but not in summer. This indicates that during winter, vehicle exhaust provided a significant source of NO in central Tokyo, while photolysis of NO 2 was dominant in summer. Similar values (approximately 30s -1) for the averaged total OH reactivity were observed in both summer and autumn during the daytime. However, VOCs accounted for a larger percentage of the OH reactivity in summer, while NO x was more dominant in autumn. We find that photochemical processes leading to oxidant production via VOCs dominated OH removal in summer, while the production of nitric acid from the reaction between OH and NO 2 was dominant in autumn, by-passing the oxidant production pathways and resulting in reduced oxidant formation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Fukuoka University, Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection, Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies, Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Journal of hazardous materials | Year: 2016

Column percolation tests may be suitable for prediction of chemical leaching from soil and soil materials. However, compared with batch leaching tests, they are time-consuming. It is therefore important to investigate ways to shorten the tests without affecting the quality of results. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of decreasing testing time by increasing flow rate and decreasing equilibration time compared to the conditions specified in ISO/TS 21268-3, with equilibration periods of 48h and flow rate of 12mL/h. We tested three equilibration periods (0, 12-16, and 48h) and two flow rates (12 and 36mL/h) on four different soils and compared the inorganic constituent releases. For soils A and D, we observed similar values for all conditions except for the 0h-36mL/h case. For soil B, we observed no appreciable differences between the tested conditions, while for soil C there were no consistent trends probably due to the difference in ongoing oxidation reactions between soil samples. These results suggest that column percolation tests can be shortened from 20 to 30days to 7-9days by decreasing the equilibration time to 12-16h and increasing the flow rate to 36mL/h for inorganic substances.


Nishikawa M.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Nishikawa M.,Tokyo University of Science | Batdorj D.,Institute of Meteorology | Ukachi M.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | And 5 more authors.
Analytical Methods | Year: 2013

Surface soil was collected from 4 locations in the southern Gobi Desert in Mongolia and the pooled material was subjected to coarse sieving, cyclone classification, refinement and homogenisation, yielding 1.2 kg of a fine dust of particle diameter below 10 μm. For certification, elemental analyses were performed by thirteen independent laboratories and, after statistical assessment of the data, 11 elements, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Mn, Zn, Sr and Ba, were certified. A further 11 elements, Si, P, Sc, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, La, Pb, Th and U, were given reference-only values. This certified reference material (CRM) has been designated NIES no. 30 "Gobi Kosa Dust". We estimate the aerodynamic diameter (median diameter) of the dust to be about 4 μm, which is within the range of median diameters (3-5 μm) of Asian mineral dust (termed kosa in Japanese) that is wind-borne to Japan. The mineral composition of the dust based on the ratio of elemental concentration to Al concentration is very similar to those for eleven kosa dust samples collected in Japan. This new CRM also contains clay minerals and calcite that are characteristic of kosa dust. Carbonate carbon, derived from calcite, was estimated to account for about 50% of the total carbon content (2.16%) of the material. The amount of calcium extracted by 5% acetic acid solution represented about 90% of the total Ca content of the CRM. Assuming that Ca was all in the form of calcium carbonate, the carbonate carbon content was calculated to be 1.1%; this value being in good agreement with direct analysis. NIES no. 30 is considered to be a useful material for quality control purposes as well as for verification of experiments concerned with environmental behaviour of Asian mineral dust. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


PubMed | Sustainable Development Technology, Ehime University, Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies and Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2015

Three oligomeric organophosphorus flame retardants (o-PFRs), eight monomeric PFRs (m-PFRs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were identified and quantified in surface soils and river sediments around the e-waste recycling area in Bui Dau, northern Vietnam. Around the e-waste recycling workshops, 1,3-phenylene bis(diphenyl phosphate) (PBDPP), bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), TBBPA, and PBDEs were dominant among the investigated flame retardants (FRs). The respective concentrations of PBDPP, BPA-BDPP, TPHP, TBBPA and the total PBDEs were 6.6-14000 ng/g-dry, <2-1500 ng/g-dry, 11-3300 ng/g-dry, <5-2900 ng/g-dry, and 67-9200 ng/g-dry in surface soils, and 4.4-78 ng/g-dry, <2-20 ng/g-dry, 7.3-38 ng/g-dry, 6.0-44 ng/g-dry and 100-350 ng/g-dry in river sediments. Near the open burning site of e-waste, tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP), (2-ethylhexyl)diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), TPHP, and the total PBDEs were abundantly with respective concentrations of <2-190 ng/g-dry, <2-69 ng/g-dry, <3-51 ng/g-dry and 1.7-67 ng/g-dry in surface soils. Open storage and burning of e-waste have been determined to be important factors contributing to the emissions of FRs. The environmental occurrence of emerging FRs, especially o-PFRs, indicates that the alternation of FRs addition in electronic products is shifting in response to domestic and international regulations of PBDEs. The emissions of alternatives from open storage and burning of e-waste might become greater than those of PBDEs in the following years. The presence and environmental effects of alternatives should be regarded as a risk factor along with e-waste recycling.


Akasaka I.,Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2010

This study investigated interannual variations in seasonal march of rainfall in the Philippines by revealing onset and withdrawal pentads of rainy seasons from 1961 to 2000. For defining the onset and withdrawal of rainy season, the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was applied. As a result, the onset of summer rainy season, when started in mid-May on the average, was frequently delayed and fluctuated more greatly after the latter half of the 1970s. Such characteristics were not found in the onset of autumn rainy season, which corresponds to the increase in rainfall amount on the east coast. To clarify causes of the long-term change in the onset timing of the summer rainy season, we classified transition patterns of atmospheric circulation related to the onset of the summer rainy season by applying the EOF analysis to spatial anomalies of geopotential height at 850 hPa level. The first two dominant EOF modes showed three important triggers of the onset of the summer rainy season in atmospheric circulation: (1) the northeastwards shift in the subtropical high over the western North Pacific, (2) the evolution of the monsoon trough over the northern South China Sea and (3) the great approach of the easterly wave. Additionally, interannual variations in the time coefficients of EOF1 have a positive tendency on the boundary of the latter half of the 1970s and are significantly correlated with those in the onset of the summer rainy season. That is, it was suggested that the change of the onset timing in the summer rainy season after the latter half of the 1970s was related to a long-term change in transition patterns of atmospheric circulation connected with the onset of the summer rainy season. © 2009 Royal Meteorological Society.

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