Tokyo Metropolitan Agriculture and Forestry Research Center

Tachikawa, Japan

Tokyo Metropolitan Agriculture and Forestry Research Center

Tachikawa, Japan

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Kimura K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Kimura K.,Hosei University | Usugi T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Hoshi H.,Tokyo Metropolitan Agriculture and Forestry Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2016

Plum pox virus (PPV) is transmitted by infected buds and aphids. It is important to analyze the outbreak trends and viruliferous rate of aphids in areas where the occurrence of PPV is reported, so as to develop strategies for disease control. Between April 2011 and December 2012, yellow insect-trapping adhesive plates were placed for 2 days at a time each week in an area where PPV is occurring in Japan. Outbreak trends were analyzed based on the trapped alate aphid samples, and up to 50 of them were tested per week to identify species and determine the rate of viruliferous specimens. Although the number of aphids varied according to survey year, three peaks were noticeable in each year. Based on the sequence data for the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I region, approximately 40 different species of aphid were trapped in both years. Of the five dominant species of aphids identified during the 2 years, Aphis spiraecola was trapped in large numbers. PPV-positive aphids were higher in fall onward, when the total number of trapped aphids decreased, than in spring and summer, when a larger number of aphids was caught. PPV transmission tests using the most abundant species revealed that A. spiraecola, A. craccivora, A. gossypii, and Rhopalosiphum maidis were transmitters, although A. spiraecola is likely of epidemiological significance. © 2016 The American Phytopathological Society.


Tamura T.,Tokyo Metropolitan Agriculture and Forestry Research Center | Nakamura H.,Tokyo Metropolitan Livestock Hygiene Service Center | Sato S.,Aichi Agricultural Research Center | Seki M.,Niigata Agricultural Research Institute | Nishiki H.,Tokyo Metropolitan Agriculture and Forestry Research Center
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science | Year: 2014

This study proposed a modified procedure, using a small balloon catheter (SB catheter, 45 ml), for reducing bladder damage in cows. Holstein cows and the following catheters were prepared: smaller balloon catheter (XSB catheter; 30 ml), Sb catheter and standard balloon catheter (NB catheter; 70 ml, as the commonly used, standard size). In experiment 1, each cow was catheterized. The occurrence of catheter-associated hematuria (greater than 50 RBC/HPF) was lower in the SB catheter group (0.0%, n=7) than in the NB catheter group (71.4%, n=7; P<0.05). In experiment 2, general veterinary parameters, urine pH, body temperature and blood values in cows were not affected before or after insertion of Sb catheters (n=6). The incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) was 3.0% per catheterized day (n=22). In experiment 3, feeding profiles, daily excretion of urinary nitrogen (P<0.05) and rate from nitrogen intake in urine (P<0.01), were higher with use of the SB catheter (n=13) than with the use of the vulva urine cup (n=18), indicating that using the SB catheter can provide accurate nutritional data. From this study, we concluded that when using an SB catheter, the following results occur; reduction in bladder damage without any veterinary risks and accuracy in regard to feeding parameters, suggesting this modified procedure using an SB catheter is a useful means of daily urine collection. © 2014 The Japanese Society of Veterinary Science.


Ohno A.,Toho University | Kataoka S.,Tokyo Metropolitan Agriculture and Forestry Research Center | Ishii Y.,Toho University | Terasaki T.,Tokyo Metropolitan Agriculture and Forestry Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Microbes and Environments | Year: 2013

Antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) have been banned and phased out because their use has been linked to the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens; however, the ban has had a marked impact on livestock production, and feed additive alternatives to AGPs are required. We focused on green tea leaves as potential alternatives to AGPs because they contain significant amounts of polyphenol catechins, which have antivirus and antimicrobial effects. We examined cross-resistance between epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which is the most abundant catechin of green tea leaves, and commercially available antimicrobials in clinically problematic antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, and whether bacteria have the ability to acquire resistance by consecutive passage in sub-inhibitory concentrations of EGCG. EGCG did not display any cross-resistance with reference antimicrobials and the bacteria did not acquire EGCG resistance. Further, we examined the growth-promoting effects of dried green tea leaves on the breeding of a new Japanese breed, Tokyo-X pigs. While the mortality rates of the green tea leaf (GTL) and AGP groups were both 11.1% (one in nine piglets), the mortality rate was 50% for the control group with an additive-free diet (four in eight piglets). The rate of body weight increase in both the GTL and AGP groups was approximately the same. The growthpromoting effects of green tea leaves and AGPs were similar, and there was no possibility that the antimicrobial properties of catechins caused the same problem as AGPs. Thus, it can be concluded that green tea leaves are a safe feed additive alternative to AGPs.


Miyashita C.,Tokyo Metropolitan Agriculture and Forestry Research Center | Mii M.,Chiba University | Aung T.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Ogiwara I.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cross direction and cultivars on interspecific hybridization between Vaccinium corymbosum (4. x) and Vaccinium virgatum (6. x). Totally 99 reciprocal interspecific crosses were made by using ten cultivars of V. corymbosum and five cultivars of V. virgatum. Percent fruit set, number of developed seeds per berry, germination rate and number of seedlings per flower were evaluated. The progeny seedlings were obtained from 65% of all cross combinations, and more than 99% of the seedlings were revealed to be pentaploid hybrids by flow cytometric analysis. In the comparison of crossability between interspecific reciprocal crossing, 4 x× 6. x crosses showed 2.9 times higher rate of mean fruit set (67%) and 3.3 times higher rate of number of seeds per berry (6.2) than the opposite crosses (6 x× 4. x). However, the average germination rate (38%) of the 6 x× 4. x crosses was 1.7 times higher than that of 4 x× 6. x crosses. Consequently, average number of seedlings per flower (0.96) in 4 x× 6. x was 3.8 times higher than that in the opposite crosses. According to the number of seedlings per flower significant difference in the crossability was found among the cultivars in V. corymbosum in the reciprocal crosses with V. virgatum, whereas no such significant difference was observed in V. virgatum. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Nwe Y.Y.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Toyama S.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Akagawa M.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Yamada M.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2012

A questionnaire survey was conducted in Yamanashi Prefecture in the course of adapting a wearable robotic suit, which was originally developed for assisting human care (Yonetake and Toyama, 2005), to agriculture. Among various farm operations, farmers had a heavy workload when grape berry thinning followed by cluster shaping and pruning, and 58% of farmers hoped to buy a wearable agri-robot suit that may support their arms, legs, and back. Using the main Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS), physical workload was evaluated during pruning and berry thinning in vineyards on a slope and flatland; pruning was a heavier workload than berry thinning irrespective of the farm topography and, for both operations, working on the slope was a heavier workload. According to the second OWAS working posture percentages for the relative proportions of the postures of different body parts, workers have to maintain a static posture by raising the arms at or above shoulder level for more than 70% of the total working time in berry thinning. The arm posture in berry thinning was classified as AC3 and corrective measures are necessary as soon as possible. In the OWAS analysis system, although pruning was evaluated to have a higher level of physical stress than berry thinning, farmers felt that it is a lighter workload because it involves various postures, such as walking and sitting, whereas in berry thinning the farmer has to maintain the same posture by raising the arms and farmers especially felt arm fatigue while berry thinning. These results suggested that a mechanical support system is necessary to reduce the workload of grape farmers. Thus, in Japanese grape production, a wearable agri-robot suit focused on a support system for the back, arms and legs with free and rapid movement of the wearer might be an alternative solution to reduce the workload of grape farmers. © 2012.


Hoshi H.,Tokyo Metropolitan Agriculture and Forestry Research Center | Sato Y.,Toyama Prefectural University | Kagiwada S.,Hosei University | Horie H.,Hosei University
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Zinnia, blue torenia, dahurian patrinia, and scoparia were found to be affected by powdery mildews from 2006 to 2008 in Tokyo. Abundant white, powdery colonies were observed to grow on the stems and leaves of each plant species resulting in chlorosis and eventual dieback of infected leaves and stems. Based on the morphological characteristics of the strain from each plant species, the causal agents were determined to belong to the genus Euoidium and pathogenicity to each original host was confirmed through inoculation experiments. This is the first report of Euoidium infection on these four plant species in Japan. © 2012 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer Japan.


Kojima S.,Tokyo Metropolitan Agriculture and Forestry Research Center | Saegusa H.,Chiyoda Corporation | Sakata M.,Tokyo Metropolitan Agriculture and Forestry Research Center
Food Science and Technology Research | Year: 2014

This study investigated functional dipeptide (anserine and carnosine) concentrations and antioxidant activities of Silky Fowl. Fresh meat from Silky Fowl contained 1.6- to 2.3-fold higher carnosine content compared with other chickens ( p < 0.05). The carnosine content of fresh meat from Silky Fowl was higher than the anserine content, in contrast to that of common chicken. Our study showed that the meat extract of Silky Fowl is a good scavenger of the hydroxyl radical. Significant correlations between the total dipeptide content of meat extracts and hydroxyl radical scavenging (IC50 values) activity were additionally revealed by multiple regression analysis (breast: R = 0.684, p < 0.001; thigh: R = 0.729, p < 0.001). Since Silky Fowl is especially rich in carnosine, these findings make this breed potentially useful as a rich dietary source of antioxidant dipeptides. Copyright © 2014, Japanese Society for Food Science and Technology.


Kagiwada S.,Hosei University | Kayano Y.,University of Tokyo | Hoshi H.,Tokyo Metropolitan Agriculture and Forestry Research Center | Kawanishi T.,University of Tokyo | And 4 more authors.
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

In summer 2007, leaf and stem rot of ice plants was found in a hydroponic greenhouse in Japan. The causal agent was a fungus identified as Choanephora cucurbitarum (Berkeley & Ravenel) Thaxter, based on pathogenicity, morphology, mating tests, and sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA ITS region. © 2010 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer.


Maejima K.,University of Tokyo | Hoshi H.,Tokyo Metropolitan Agriculture and Forestry Research Center | Hashimoto M.,University of Tokyo | Himeno M.,University of Tokyo | And 5 more authors.
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

For the first time, plum pox virus (PPV) has been detected in commercial Japanese apricot (Prunus mume) trees in Tokyo, Japan. These trees had ringspot or mottle on leaves, color breaking of petals and, occasionally, mild ringspots and malformation on fruits. The virus was identified based on the morphology of virus particles, serology, and RT-PCR. The amplified nucleotide fragment shared 100% identity with a partial coat protein gene of PPV-D isolates. © 2010 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer.


PubMed | Tokyo Metropolitan Agriculture and Forestry Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of veterinary medical science | Year: 2014

This study proposed a modified procedure, using a small balloon catheter (SB catheter, 45 ml), for reducing bladder damage in cows. Holstein cows and the following catheters were prepared: smaller balloon catheter (XSB catheter; 30 ml), SB catheter and standard balloon catheter (NB catheter; 70 ml, as the commonly used, standard size). In experiment 1, each cow was catheterized. The occurrence of catheter-associated hematuria (greater than 50 RBC/HPF) was lower in the SB catheter group (0.0%, n=7) than in the NB catheter group (71.4%, n=7; P<0.05). In experiment 2, general veterinary parameters, urine pH, body temperature and blood values in cows were not affected before or after insertion of SB catheters (n=6). The incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) was 3.0% per catheterized day (n=22). In experiment 3, feeding profiles, daily excretion of urinary nitrogen (P<0.05) and rate from nitrogen intake in urine (P<0.01), were higher with use of the SB catheter (n=13) than with the use of the vulva urine cup (n=18), indicating that using the SB catheter can provide accurate nutritional data. From this study, we concluded that when using an SB catheter, the following results occur; reduction in bladder damage without any veterinary risks and accuracy in regard to feeding parameters, suggesting this modified procedure using an SB catheter is a useful means of daily urine collection.

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