Shinjuku, Japan
Shinjuku, Japan

Tokyo Medical University is one of the established medical schools in Japan from before World War II. In accordance with the nation’s policy for medical education, this private university has a 6-year medical school curriculum that offers preclinical and clinical studies to confer with a bachelor's degree or graduate degree with which medical students are qualified for the national medical licensing exam. TMU also has its postgraduate school which offers a Ph.D. Wikipedia.


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Patent
Riken and Tokyo Medical University | Date: 2015-01-08

A medical laser light source system including an excitation laser light source apparatus that generates first excitation light having a wavelength greater than or equal to 1.5 m and less than or equal to 2.2 m and second excitation light having a wavelength greater than or equal to 1.5 m and less than or equal to 2.2 m and differing from the first excitation light with respect to at least one of oscillation energy intensity, oscillation pulse width, repeating frequency, and peak power; an optical fiber that is long-distance and propagates the first excitation light and the second excitation light generated by the excitation laser light source apparatus; and a laser device that generates laser light having a wavelength of at least 2.7 m and no greater than 3.2 m, using at least one of the first excitation light and the second excitation light emitted from the optical fiber.


Patent
Tokyo Medical University | Date: 2014-12-26

The present invention provides a novel artificial mimic miRNA utilizing miRNA. An artificial mimic miRNA is a single-stranded nucleic acid including: a X region; and a Y region, the Y region and the X region being linked, wherein the X region is a guide strand sequence of a mature miRNA or a partial sequence of the guide strand sequence of the mature miRNA and consists of a linking side region (X_(B)) and a non-linking side region (X_(F)) to the Y region, the linking side region (X_(B)) is a sequence that does not cause intramolecular annealing within its region, and the Y region is a sequence that intramolecularly anneals to the non-linking side region (X_(F)) of the X region. According to the artificial mimic miRNA of the present invention, the expression of the target gene can be inhibited.


Mruk I.,University of Gdansk | Kobayashi I.,Tokyo Medical University
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2014

One of the simplest classes of genes involved in programmed death is that containing the toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems of prokaryotes. These systems are composed of an intracellular toxin and an antitoxin that neutralizes its effect. These systems, now classified into five types, were initially discovered because some of them allow the stable maintenance of mobile genetic elements in a microbial population through postsegregational killing or the death of cells that have lost these systems. Here, we demonstrate parallels between some TA systems and restriction-modification systems (RM systems). RM systems are composed of a restriction enzyme (toxin) and a modification enzyme (antitoxin) and limit the genetic flux between lineages with different epigenetic identities, as defined by sequence-specific DNA methylation. The similarities between these systems include their postsegregational killing and their effects on global gene expression. Both require the finely regulated expression of a toxin and antitoxin. The antitoxin (modification enzyme) or linked protein may act as a transcriptional regulator. A regulatory antisense RNA recently identified in an RM system can be compared with those RNAs in TA systems. This review is intended to generalize the concept of TA systems in studies of stress responses, programmed death, genetic conflict and epigenetics. © The Author(s) 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.


Patent
Bonac Corporation and Tokyo Medical University | Date: 2016-11-02

The present invention provides a new artificial match-type miRNA utilizing miRNA. A single strand nucleic acid containing X region and Y region, wherein the 3-terminal of the X region and the 5-terminal of the Y region are linked via a linker region of a non-nucleotide structure, the X region contains a guide strand sequence of a mature miRNA, and the Y region contains a sequence completely complementary to the X region is an artificial match-type miRNA. The artificial match-type miRNA can suppress expression of the target gene.


Onji M.,Tokyo Medical University
Nature communications | Year: 2013

Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is an innate immune sensor for microbial DNA that erroneously responds to self DNA in autoimmune disease. To prevent autoimmune responses, Toll-like receptor 9 is excluded from the cell surface and silenced until the N-terminal half of the ectodomain (TLR9N) is cleaved off in the endolysosome. Truncated Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9C) senses ingested microbial DNA, although the precise role of the truncation remains controversial. Here we show that TLR9 is expressed on the surface of splenic dendritic cells. Following the cleavage of TLR9 in the endolysosome, N-terminal half of the ectodomain remains associated with truncated TLR9, forming the complex TLR9N+C. The TLR9-dependent cytokine production by Tlr9(-/-) dendritic cells is rescued by a combination of TLR9N and TLR9C, but not by TLR9C alone. These results demonstrate that the TLR9N+C complex is a bona fide DNA sensor.


Yamada S.,Tokyo Medical University
PLoS pathogens | Year: 2010

Two amino acids (lysine at position 627 or asparagine at position 701) in the polymerase subunit PB2 protein are considered critical for the adaptation of avian influenza A viruses to mammals. However, the recently emerged pandemic H1N1 viruses lack these amino acids. Here, we report that a basic amino acid at position 591 of PB2 can compensate for the lack of lysine at position 627 and confers efficient viral replication to pandemic H1N1 viruses in mammals. Moreover, a basic amino acid at position 591 of PB2 substantially increased the lethality of an avian H5N1 virus in mice. We also present the X-ray crystallographic structure of the C-terminus of a pandemic H1N1 virus PB2 protein. Arginine at position 591 fills the cleft found in H5N1 PB2 proteins in this area, resulting in differences in surface shape and charge for H1N1 PB2 proteins. These differences may affect the protein's interaction with viral and/or cellular factors, and hence its ability to support virus replication in mammals.


Keloid is a dermal fibroproliferative growth that results from dysfunction of the wound healing processes. Through a multistage genome-wide association study using 824 individuals with keloid (cases) and 3,205 unaffected controls in the Japanese population, we identified significant associations of keloid with four SNP loci in three chromosomal regions: 1q41, 3q22.3-23 and 15q21.3. The most significant association with keloid was observed at rs873549 (combined P = 5.89 x 10(-23), odds ratio (OR) = 1.77) on chromosome 1. Associations on chromosome 3 were observed at two separate linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks: rs1511412 in the LD block including FOXL2 with P = 2.31 x 10(-13) (OR = 1.87) and rs940187 in another LD block with P = 1.80 x 10(-13) (OR = 1.98). Association of rs8032158 located in NEDD4 on chromosome 15 yielded P = 5.96 x 10(-13) (OR = 1.51). Our findings provide new insights into the pathophysiology of keloid formation.


Goto Y.,Tokyo Medical University | Kiyono H.,Tokyo Medical University
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2012

Large numbers of environmental antigens, including commensal bacteria and food-derived antigens, constitutively interact with the epithelial layer of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Commensal bacteria peacefully cohabit with the host GI tract and exert multiple beneficial or destructive effects on their host. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) constitute the first physical and immunological protective wall against invasive pathogens and a cohabitation niche for commensal bacteria. As the physiological homeostasis of IECs is maintained by multiple biological processes such as apoptosis, autophagy, and the handling of endoplasmic reticulum stress, the aberrant kinetics of these biological events, which have genetic and environmental causes, leads to the development of host intestinal pathogenesis such as inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, IECs recognize and interact with commensal bacteria and give instructions to mucosal immune cells to initiate an immunological balance between active and quiescent conditions, eventually establishing intestinal homeostasis. The mucosal immune system regulates the homeostasis of gut microbiota by producing immunological molecules such as secretory immunoglobulin A, the production of which is mediated by IECs. IECs therefore play a central role in the creation and maintenance of a physiologically and immunologically stable intestinal environment. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Patent
Tokyo Medical University | Date: 2016-11-02

The present invention provides a novel artificial mimic miRNA utilizing miRNA. An artificial mimic miRNA is a single-stranded nucleic acid including: a X region; and a Y region, the Y region and the X region being linked, wherein the X region is a guide strand sequence of a mature miRNA or a partial sequence of the guide strand sequence of the mature miRNA and consists of a linking side region (X_(B)) and a non-linking side region (X_(F)) to the Y region, the linking side region (X_(B)) is a sequence that does not cause intramolecular annealing within its region, and the Y region is a sequence that intramolecularly anneals to the non-linking side region (X_(F)) of the X region. According to the artificial mimic miRNA of the present invention, the expression of the target gene can be inhibited.


Saito H.,Tokyo Medical University
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2010

MAP kinase (MAPK) modules are conserved three-kinase cascades that serve central roles in intracellular signal transduction in eukaryotic cells. MAPK pathways of different inputs and outputs use overlapping sets of signaling components. In yeast, for example, three MAPK pathways (pheromone response, filamentous growth response, and osmostress adaptation) all use the same Ste11 MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK). How undesirable leakage of signal, or cross-talk, is prevented between these pathways has been a subject of intensive study. This review discusses recent findings from yeast that indicate that there is no single mechanism, but that a combination of four general strategies (docking interactions, scaffold proteins, cross-pathway inhibition, and kinetic insulation) are utilized for the prevention of cross-talk between any two MAPK modules. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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