Chiyoda-ku, Japan
Chiyoda-ku, Japan

Tokyo Kasei Gakuin University is a private university in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan, established in 1963. The predecessor of the school was founded in 1925.Though the two share the same historical roots , this school and Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin Junior College are distinct institutions.In the 1990s, the Tsukuba Gakuin University was a women's university named as a branch of the Tokyo Kasei Gakuin. Wikipedia.

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Nara K.,Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin University | Nihei K.-I.,Utsunomiya University | Ogasawara Y.,Hirosaki University | Koga H.,Calbee Foods Co. | Kato Y.,Hirosaki University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

In the present HPLC-based analysis of the isoflavone profile of groundnut (Apios americana Medik) tubers, we identified a major peak that did not correspond to any known isoflavones. A water extract of groundnut tubers prepared at 4 °C showed the major and genistin peaks, whereas that prepared at 45 °C did not yield these peaks but showed a peak for genistein on HPLC analysis. When the extract was treated with β-glucosidase after the inactivation of endogenous enzymes, the major peak decreased over time and the genistin peak also decreased after a transient increase, changes which were accompanied by the appearance of a genistein peak. The HPLC elution pattern of the β-glucosidase-treated extract was markedly similar to that observed for the extract prepared at 45 °C. The major peak was then isolated and purified through HP-20 and ODS columns, and the chemical structure of the resultant component was analysed and identified as genistein-7-O-genitiobioside. The component was degraded by β-glucosidase to produce genistein, suggesting that the groundnut isoflavone is converted to genistein, similarly to soybean isoflavones, by enterobacterial β-glucosidase, a deglycosylation process which has a significant impact on the absorption efficiency and bioactivity of isoflavones. The genistein-7-O-genitiobioside content of groundnut tubers ranged from 106.2 to 352.5. mg/100. g fresh weight, depending on their cultivation area. Additionally, genistein-7-O-genitiobioside showed 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity in a concentration-dependent manner, implying its potential as an antioxidative component. Soybeans have been recognised as the major or only food source of isoflavones; however, the present study suggests that groundnut tubers can serve as potential functional foods that provide a sufficient amount of isoflavones and significant health benefits. © 2010.

Araki S.,University of Occupational and Environmental Health Japan | Yamamoto Y.,University of Occupational and Environmental Health Japan | Dobashi K.,Showa University | Asayama K.,Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin University | Kusuhara K.,University of Occupational and Environmental Health Japan
Obesity Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2014

Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays important roles in the central regulation of food intake and body weight control. However, little is known about the role of BDNF in childhood obesity. Objective: To investigate the relationship between plasma levels of BDNF and anthropometric factors, metabolic derangements due to obesity, adipocytokine levels and birth weight in obese Japanese children. Subjects and methods: Sixty-six obese Japanese children aged from 5 to 15 years old were enrolled. The age-matched control group consisted of 32 non-obese healthy children. The plasma levels of BDNF and adipocytokines (leptin and adiponectin) were assayed using ELISA techniques. Results: The mean BMI Z-scores were -0.67, +2.15 and +3.39 for the non-obese control children, obese (BMI ≥ 90th percentile, <99th percentile) and morbidly obese (BMI ≥ 99th percentile), respectively. The plasma levels of BDNF were significantly decreased in the morbidly obese children compared with the levels in the obese and non-obese control children (507 ± 33 pg/ml vs. 626 ± 46 pg/ml, 621 ± 35 pg/ml, p < 0.05). Univariate linear regression analysis showed that the plasma level of BDNF was positively correlated with birth weight (r = 0.264, p < 0.05) and inversely correlated with the BMI Z-score (r = -0.314, p < 0.05). Multivariate forward stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that the birth weight and BMI Z-score are independent predictors of the plasma BDNF level. Conclusion: The plasma level of BDNF, which is decreased in morbidly obese children, is associated with birth weight and the BMI Z-score. Our results suggest that BDNF may play important roles in the development and pathophysiology of childhood obesity. © 2012 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity.

Takashima M.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Nara K.,Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin University | Niki E.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Yoshida Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Groundnut (Apios americana Medik) contains a novel isoflavone, genistein-7-O-gentiobioside. In the present study, we examined the biological activities of an alcohol extract of groundnut containing genistein-7-O- gentiobioside as the main component. Although the groundnut extract by itself did not show antioxidative activity, it drove the antioxidative system in cells. Pretreatment of human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells for 24 h with the groundnut extract and soybean isoflavone increased gene expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a major antioxidative stress enzyme. These groundnut extract-treated cells showed antioxidative activity against free radicals derived from a radical initiator. Pretreatment of cells with 100 μg/mL groundnut extract prevented the depletion of glutathione by the radical initiator; however, treatment with 100 μg/mL of soybean isoflavone injured the cell membrane, indicating that glutathione might be released to the extracellular environment. These results suggest that the groundnut extract had isoflavone-like activity. Like soybean, groundnuts are a good source of isoflavones. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Araki S.,University of Occupational and Environmental Health Japan | Dobashi K.,Showa University | Yamamoto Y.,University of Occupational and Environmental Health Japan | Asayama K.,Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin University | Kusuhara K.,University of Occupational and Environmental Health Japan
European Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2010

Oxidative stress is considered to be increased in obese subjects. However, the association of oxidative stress with visceral adiposity and adiponectin level is not fully understood in children. Forty-four obese Japanese children and adolescents, 28 boys and 16 girls, with median age of 9.9 years [5.2-13.8 years], and the 28 age-matched non-obese healthy controls, 15 boys and 13 girls, were enrolled in this study. The median BMI Z scores were +2.21 [1.31-4.38] for the obese subjects and -0.72 [-2.11-1.31] for the control. Plasma concentrations of 8-epi-prostaglandin F2a (isoprostane), a marker of oxidative stress, and adiponectin fractions were assayed using ELISA. 8-epi-PGF 2α levels were significantly higher in the obese group (37.1 [4.7-112.7], median and the range) than in the control (11.5 [4.5-27.3]). In a univariate analysis, concentrations of 8-epi-PGF F2a positively correlated with visceral adipose tissue area measured by computed tomography, waist circumference, serum triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, insulin levels, and the homeostasis of minimal assessment of insulin resistance and inversely correlated with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin. Total-, medium-, or low-molecular weight adiponectin fraction did not show a significant correlation with 8-epi-PGF F2a. Forty of 44 obese children had one or more metabolic complications. The 8-epi-PGF F 2a levels also elevated with increasing numbers of obesity-related complications. These results suggest that oxidative stress is enhanced in relation to visceral fat accumulation and decreasing HMW adiponectin level in childhood obesity. Oxidative stress may be associated with the development of obesity-related complications. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Unno T.,Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin University | Hisada T.,TechnoSuruga Laboratory Company | Takahashi S.,TechnoSuruga Laboratory Company
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

There has been particular interest in the prebiotic-like effects of commonly consumed polyphenols. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of hesperidin (HD) and its aglycone hesperetin (HT), major flavonoids in citrus fruits, on the structure and activity of gut microbiota in rats. Rats ingested an assigned diet (a control diet, a 0.5% HT diet, or a 1.0% HD diet) for 3 weeks. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that the proportion of Clostridium subcluster XIVa in the feces collected at the third week of feeding was significantly reduced by the HT diet: 19.8 ± 4.3% for the control diet versus 5.3 ± 1.5% for the HT diet (P < 0.01). There was a significant difference in the cecal pool of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), the sum of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, between the control diet (212 ± 71 μmol) and the HT diet (310 ± 51 μmol) (P < 0.05), whereas the HD diet exhibited no effects (245 ± 51 μmol). Interestingly, dietary HT resulted in a significant increase in the excretion of starch in the feces. HT, but not HD, might reduce starch digestion, and parts of undigested starch were utilized to produce SCFA by microbial fermentation in the large intestine. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Unno T.,Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin University | Matsumoto Y.,Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin University | Yamamoto Y.,Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin University
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology | Year: 2012

This study was carried out to elucidate the structural advantage of a gallated form of tea catechin on modulating bioavailability of dietary starch in rats. Animal studies demonstrated that the addition of 0.5% (w/w) (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) to the diet brought about a significant increase in the starch content in the feces collected for 2 d at the fourth week of feeding over that with the control diet. Of the gross starch that the rats consumed from their respective diets during the fecal collection period, 0.1% (for control diet) and 1.9% (for EGCG diet) were estimated to be excreted in the feces. However, such a significant increase in the fecal excretion of starch by the EGCG diet was lost by undergoing hydrolysis of EGCG to (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and gallic acid (GA). In vitro investigation also showed that EGCG inhibited porcine pancreatic α-amylase activity in a concentration-dependent fashion, whereas the hydrolyzed preparation (the mixture of EGC and GA) exhibited a lack of the inhibitory activity for α-amylase. The modification of dietary starch digestion by inhibiting intestinal α-amylase activity with EGCG may be responsible at least in part for increasing fecal output of starch in rats. Thus, the attachment of a galloyl moiety to the tea flavan-3-ol skeleton may be of key importance for reducing intestinal digestion of dietary starch in rats.

Miyazaki T.,Mie University | Iwami T.,Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin University | Meyer-Rochow V.B.,Jacobs University Bremen
Polar Biology | Year: 2011

Histological examinations of the topographical distribution and the area of highest density (the area centralis: AC) of presumed retinal ganglion cells found in the retina in 0- to 6-year-old Champsocephalus gunnari revealed differences between younger and older fish. Individuals of up to 2 years of age had the AC in the temporal retina, whereas in 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-year-old fish it was positioned in the ventro-temporal region of the retina. The main visual axis in the pitch plane of C. gunnari was shown to shift from facing forward to an upward-forward direction during growth, corresponding to the habitat change in this species from pelagic to benthic. Moreover, the AC in 0- to 3-year-old fish was near the retinal periphery, but displaced towards the inner retina in 4- to 6-year-old fish. This means that the visual axis in the horizontal plane of the younger fish was directed towards the frontal sector of vision, while in the older fish a slightly more lateral position was favoured. Therefore, younger fish can be expected to possess superior binocular vision when it comes to prey closely in front of them, but in older fish it seems more important to have a wider visual field to detect prey (and possibly predators) within a greater volume of water. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Itoh R.,Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin University
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

Cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase II (cN-II) is an intracellular 5'-nucleotidase characterized by substrate specificity. It preferentially hydrolyzes 6-hydroxypurine nucleotides such as IMP and GMP over AMP or UMP. cN-II is allosterically activated by ATP and inhibited by inorganic phosphate. It also has phosphotransferase activity and transfers phosphate moieties from IMP or GMP to nonphysiological nucleoside analogues used to treat some viral infections or malignancies. The cN-II gene has a strikingly conserved primary structure from humans to nematodes and its activity has been detected in various animals including snails. Its activity is highest in the livers of birds, crocodiles, lizards and snakes. The activity in chicken liver increases 2-fold by feeding a high-protein diet. These results suggest that cN-II participates, through IMP dephosphorylation, in production of uric acid as the main end product of aminonitrogen in these animals. Some studies suggest that cN-II participates in dephosphorylation of IMP accumulated in cells of some tissues to diffusible inosine for reutilization by other tissues. It has also been proposed that cN-II, together with purine nucleoside phosphorylase and hypoxanthine- guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, constitutes the "oxypurine cycle", thus regulating intracellular phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) concentrations. As for intracellular dephosphorylation of AMP, another intracellular 5'- nucleotidase, cN-I, is supposed to participate, because it hydrolyzes AMP more preferentially than IMP or GMP. However, for the tissues, in which the expression of cN-I is very low or undetectable, e.g. liver or brain tissues, results have been obtained that suggest the participation of cN-II in intracellular dephosphorylation of AMP. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Miyazaki T.,Mie University | Iwami T.,Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin University
Polar Biology | Year: 2012

Previous evidence suggested that notothenioid fish had lost red-sensitive (LWS) visual pigment and photoreceptors, but retained ultraviolet-sensitive (SWS1), blue-sensitive (SWS2), and green-sensitive (RH2) pigments. We used RT-PCR and Southern blot to isolate the LWS opsin gene in five notothenioid species. We determined full-coding LWS opsin sequences and genomic sequences. The expected peak absorbance of the LWS opsin, based on the five-sites rule that is primarily responsible for the spectral sensitivities in vertebrates, ranged from 541 to 553 nm. In Antarctic waters, light of this wavelength penetrates to dozens of meters. Thus, we conclude that notothenioids use tetrachromatic color vision in shallower waters, at least during the Antarctic summer. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Unno T.,Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin University | Sakuma M.,Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin University | Mitsuhashi S.,Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin University
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology | Year: 2014

Alterations in gut microbiota composition offer insights that may be relevant for several chronic conditions, including obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of (2)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the modulation of gut microbiota and biomarkers of colonic fermentation end-products in rats. Rats were fed an assigned diet of either a control diet, a 0.3% (w/w) EGCG diet, or a 0.6% (w/w) EGCG diet for 4 wk. Compared to the control group, the addition of 0.6% EGCG to the diet brought about a significant increase in the starch and protein contents in the feces collected in the fourth week of feeding, but the relative weights of abdominal adipose tissues of rats were inversely suppressed. Hostspecific bacterial community composition, as determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) patterns for fecal 16S ribosomal RNA, showed a significant response in the reduced occupation of Clostridiumspp. and an increased trend of Bacteroides by dietary supplementation with EGCG. The 0.6% EGCG diet also influenced the status of Bifidobacteriumand Prevotellato a lesser extent. Interestingly, the cecum of rats fed the 0.6% EGCG diet contained lower levels of acetic and butyric acids, whereas EGCG had little influence on the cecal level of propionic acid. EGCG also reduced the cecal p-cresol concentration in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, dietary EGCG affects the growth of certain species of gut microbiota in rats and is associated with the cecal pattern of short chain fatty acids which could be responsible for regulating energy metabolism in the body.

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