Tokyo International University
Kawagoe, Japan

Tokyo International University is an institution of higher learning with a strong international focus, with a satellite campus—Tokyo International University of America --Willamette University in Salem, Oregon.The university is actually located in the area surrounding Kawagoe City in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, which is not in Tokyo proper, but is part of the Greater Tokyo Area.The one-year program at TIUA and Willamette University enables students to pursue academic goals, while developing intercultural awareness. Programs are designed to offer students opportunities to learn through experience about other people and cultures. As a result, students also gain and share insights about their own traditions and values. An exchange program began between TIU and Willamette in 1965. TIUA was established in 1985. Wikipedia.

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Watanabe T.,Tokyo Medical University | Kawaoka Y.,Tokyo Medical University | Kawaoka Y.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Kawaoka Y.,Tokyo International University
Current Opinion in Virology | Year: 2015

Currently, antiviral drugs that target specific viral protein functions are available for the treatment of influenza; however, concern regarding the emergence of drug-resistant viruses is warranted, as is the urgent need for new antiviral targets, including non-viral targets, such as host cellular factors. Viruses rely on host cellular functions to replicate, and therefore a thorough understanding of the roles of virus-host interactions during influenza virus replication is essential to develop novel anti-influenza drugs that target the host factors involved in virus replication. Here, we review recent studies that used several approaches to identify host factors involved in influenza virus replication. These studies have permitted the construction of an interactome map of virus-host interactions in the influenza virus life cycle, clarifying the entire life cycle of this virus and accelerating the development of new antiviral drugs with a low propensity for the development of resistance. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

OBJECTIVE:: The primary purpose of this study was to assess risk factors for delirium in patients staying in a surgical ward for more than 5 days. The secondary purpose was to assess outcomes in patients with delirium. BACKGROUND:: Delirium is a syndrome characterized by acute fluctuations in mental status. Patients with delirium are at increased risk of adverse inpatient events, higher mortality and morbidity rates, prolonged hospital stays, and increased health care costs. METHODS:: Participants in this study were 2168 patients who had been admitted to the surgical ward of St. Lukeʼs International Hospital for 5 days or more between January 2011 and December 2014. Data on these patients were collected retrospectively from hospital medical records. Firstly, univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for delirium. Secondly, morbidity and mortality associated with delirium were analyzed. RESULTS:: Delirium occurred in 205 of 2168 patients (9.5%). Age, physical restraint, past history of a cerebrovascular disorder, malignancy, intensive care unit stay, pain, and high blood urea nitrogen value were significant risk factors for delirium in the multivariate analysis. Among these, age was the strongest factor, with an odds ratio for delirium of 12.953 in patients 75 years of age or older. The length of hospital stays and the mortality rates were higher in patients with delirium. CONCLUSIONS:: Results showed that age, and also physical restraint, past history of cerebrovascular disorder, malignancy, intensive care unit stay, pain, and high serum blood urea nitrogen were important factors associated with delirium in patients hospitalized for more than 5 days in a surgical ward. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Fukuda M.,Tokyo International University | Kawaguchi Y.,Tokyo International University
Journal of Virology | Year: 2014

Latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is widely expressed in EBV-associated malignancies. We demonstrate that LMP2A has a transformation ability. This study shows that LMP2A-induced transformation in several human nonhematopoietic cell lines was blocked in those cells expressing an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) LMP2A mutant. The Syk inhibitor or Syk-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited LMP2Ainduced transformation. These results indicate that the interaction of the LMP2A ITAM with Syk is a key step for LMP2Amediated transformation. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.

Lee W.-J.,Seoul National University | Hase K.,Keio University | Hase K.,Tokyo International University
Nature Chemical Biology | Year: 2014

Gut microbiota is found in virtually any metazoan, from invertebrates to vertebrates. It has long been believed that gut microbiota, more specifically, the activity of the microbiome and its metabolic products, directly influence a variety of aspects in metazoan physiology. However, the exact molecular relationship among microbe-derived gut metabolites, host signaling pathways, and host physiology remains to be elucidated. Here we review recent discoveries regarding the molecular links between gut metabolites and host physiology in different invertebrate and vertebrate animal models. We describe the different roles of gut microbiome activity and their metabolites in regulating distinct host physiology and the molecular mechanisms by which gut metabolites cause physiological homeostasis via regulating specific host signaling pathways. Future studies in this direction using different animal models will provide the key concepts to understanding the evolutionarily conserved chemical dialogues between gut microbiota and metazoan cells and also human diseases associated with gut microbiota and metabolites. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Chen I.-Y.,Tokyo International University | Ichinohe T.,Tokyo International University
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that induce downstream immune responses to specific pathogens, environmental stimuli, and host cell damage. Components of specific viruses activate different inflammasomes; for example, the influenza A virus M2 protein and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) 2B protein activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family pyrin domain (PYD)-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, whereas viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) activates the retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) inflammasome. Once activated in response to viral infection, inflammasomes induce the activation of caspases and the release of mature forms of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. Here we review the association between viral infection and inflammasome activation. Identifying the mechanisms underlying virus-induced inflammasome activation is important if we are to develop novel therapeutic strategies to target viruses. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Sasakawa C.,Tokyo International University
Proceedings of the Japan Academy Series B: Physical and Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

Bacteria-gut epithelial interplay and the mucosal immune response are the most critical issues in determining the fate of bacterial infection and the severity of diseases. Shigella species (abbreviated here as Shigella), the causative agent of bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), are highly adapted human pathogens that are capable of invading and colonizing the intestinal epithelium, which results in severe inflammatory colitis. Shigella secrete a large and diverse number (more then 50) of effectors via the type III secretion system (TTSS) during infection, some of which are delivered into the surrounding bacterial space and some others into the host cell cytoplasm and nucleus. The delivered effectors mimic and usurp the host cellular functions, and modulate host cell signaling and immune response, thus playing pivotal roles in promoting bacterial infection and circumventing host defense systems. This article overviews the pathogenic characteristics of Shigella, and highlights current topics related to the bacterial infectious stratagem executed by the TTSS-secreted effectors. Though bacterial stratagems and the molecular mechanisms of infection vary greatly among pathogens, the current studies of Shigella provide a paradigm shift in bacterial pathogenesis. © 2010 The Japan Academy.

Tokunaga M.,Tokyo International University
Frontiers of Physics | Year: 2012

In this article, studies on the magnetoelectric effects of multiferroic materials in high magnetic fields, particularly pulsed magnetic fields, are discussed and results for some representative materials are presented. In the discussions on representative materials, the relationship between the crystallographic symmetry and the linear magnetoelectric effect in Cr 2O 3 is introduced. Then drastic changes in polarization caused by magnetic transitions are discussed through a case study of manganites with a perovskite-type structure. In addition, high field studies on the magnetoelectric effects in BiFeO 3, which is an exceptional multiferroic material, are presented and discussed in the framework of the Landau-Ginzburg theory. © 2012 Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Here we describe the application of a recently developed high-resolution microcantilever biosensor resonating at the air-liquid interface for the continuous detection of antigen-antibody and enzyme-substrate interactions. The cantilever at the air-liquid interface demonstrated 50% higher quality factor and a 5.7-fold increase in signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) compared with one immersed in the purified water. First, a label-free detection of a low molecular weight protein (insulin, 5.8 kDa) in physiological concentration was demonstrated. The liquid facing side of the cantilever was functionalized by coating its surface with insulin antibodies, while the opposite side was exposed to air. The meniscus membrane at the micro-slit around the cantilever sustained the liquid in the microchannel. After optimizing the process of surface functionalization, the resonance frequency shift was successfully measured for insulin solutions of 0.4, 2.0, and 6.3 ng ml(-1). To demonstrate additional application of the device for monitoring enzymatic protein degradation, the liquid facing microcantilever surface was coated with human recombinant SOD1 (superoxide dismutase 1) and exposed to various concentrations of proteinase K solution, and the kinetics of the SOD1 digestion was continuously monitored. The results showed that it is a suitable tool for sensitive protein detection and analysis.

Niwa K.,Tokyo International University
Current Opinion in Pediatrics | Year: 2015

Purpose of review At present, 85-90% of those born with congenital heart disease (CHD) grow up to become adults. With few exceptions, reparative surgery is not curative and requires long-term surveillance. Caregivers could be changed from pediatric cardiologists to adult CHD specialists (or cardiologists) during this process. This study will focus on the current practice of transition in CHD. Recent findings Residua and sequelae may progress in severity with age and induce late complications, such as arrhythmias, cardiac failure, thromboembolism, sudden cardiac death, reoperation, cardiac intervention, and arrhythmia ablation. There are other obstacles that further complicate adult CHD, including pregnancy and delivery, noncardiac surgery, psychosocial problems, health insurance coverage, and extracardiac complications, making close follow-up and proper management mandatory. Because of this, several specialized centers have been established to respond to this need, and several studies focusing on transition have been published recently. Summary Provision of comprehensive care by multidisciplinary teams including adult CHD specialists, adult and pediatric cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons, specialized nurses, and other specific disciplines are the fundamental features in care facilities for adult CHD. Training and education should be focused on adult CHD fellows who represent the next generation that will assume responsibility for this patient population. Proper transition from pediatric cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons to adult CHD care team, including adult CHD specialists and/or cardiologists trained in this field, is mandatory. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Neumann G.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Kawaoka Y.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Kawaoka Y.,Tokyo International University
Virology | Year: 2015

Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to 'novel' viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

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