Tokyo, Japan

Tokyo Institute of Technology is a national top-tier research university located in Greater Tokyo Area, Japan. Tokyo Tech is the largest institution for higher education in Japan dedicated to science and technology. Tokyo Tech enrolled 4,850 undergraduates and 5,006 graduate students for 2009–2010. It employs around 1,400 faculty members.Tokyo Tech's main campus is located at Ōokayama on the boundary of Meguro and Ota, with its main entrance facing the Ōokayama Station. Other campuses are located in Nagatsuta and Tamachi. Tokyo Tech is organised into 6 schools, within which there are over 40 departments and research centres.Operating the world-class supercomputer Tsubame 2.0, and taking a breakthrough in high-temperature superconductivity, Tokyo Tech is a major centre for supercomputing technology and condensed matter research in the world.Tokyo Tech is a member of LAOTSE, an international network of leading universities in Europe and Asia exchanging students and senior scholars. In 2011 it celebrated the 130th anniversary of its founding. Wikipedia.


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There is provided a labeling precursor compound represented by the following general formula (2): wherein R_(1 )represents an alkynyl group, an alkynyloxy group, an azide group, an azidoalkyl group, an arylazide group, a monocyclic or condensed polycyclic aryl group or a nitrogen-containing heterocycle; R_(2 )and R_(3 )each independently represent an alkyl group or a hydroxyalkyl group which hydroxy group may be protected with a protecting group, and n is an integer of 1 or 2; R_(6 )represents an alkyl group or CONR_(11)R_(12 )wherein R_(11 )and R_(12 )each independently represent an alkyl group or a monocyclic or condensed polycyclic aryl group; and R_(4), R_(5), R_(7 )and R_(8 )each independently represent a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group or an alkoxy group.


Patent
Japan Science, Technology Agency and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-02-12

The invention related to a material that can stably hold an imide anion (NH^(2)) therein even in the atmosphere or in a solvent, and a method for synthesizing the material and a use of the material. A mayenite-type compound into which imide anions are incorporated at a concentration of 110^(18 )cm^(3 )or more are provided. The mayenite-type compound can be produced by heating a mayenite-type compound including electrons or free oxygen ions in a cage thereof, in liquefied ammonia at 450 to 700 C. and at a pressure of 30 to 100 MPa. The compound has properties such that active imide anions can be easily incorporated into the compound and the active imide anions can be easily released in the form of ammonia from the compound, and the compound has chemical stability.


Patent
Daicel Corporation and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-04-24

The organic heteropolymer of this invention is useful for forming an organic semiconductor and is a copolymeric heteropolymer having a constitutional unit represented by the formula (1) and a constitutional unit represented by the formula (2): wherein M^(1 )and M^(2 )each represent a heteroatom selected from a group 8 element, a group 9 element, a group 10 element, a group 14 element, a group 15 element, and a group 16 element of the Periodic Table, and are different in group; M^(1 )and M^(2 )each have a valence v of 2 to 6; R^(1a )and R^(1b )each represent a halogen atom, an alkyl group, a cycloalkyl group, an aryl group, or a heteroaryl group; R^(2a )and R^(2b )each represent a halogen atom, an alkyl group, a cycloalkyl group, an aryl group, a heteroaryl group, a univalent or bivalent heteroatom selected from a group 16 element and a group 11 element of the Periodic Table, or a metal atom forming a complex with a ligand; m1, m2, n1, and n2 each denote 0 or 1; a ring Ar represents an aromatic ring; R^(3 )represents a straight- or branched-chain alkyl group, a straight- or branched-chain alkoxy group, or a straight- or branched-chain alkylthio group; and p denotes 0 or an integer of 1 to 3.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-05-19

It is an object of the present invention to provide a method for efficiently directing differentiation into insulin-producing cells in a xeno-free culture system. According to the present invention, there is provided a method for directed differentiation into insulin-producing cells, comprising culturing stem cells in the following steps (1) to (5): (1) a step of culturing stem cells in a medium comprising an activator of activin receptor-like kinase-4/-7 and a GSK3 inhibitor and then culturing in a medium comprising an activator of activin receptor-like kinase-4/-7; (2) a step of culturing the cells obtained in step (1) in a medium comprising a hedgehog signaling inhibitor and an FGF; (3) a step of culturing the cells obtained in step (2) in a medium comprising a retinoic acid receptor agonist, a hedgehog signaling inhibitor and a BMP signaling inhibitor; (4) a step of culturing the cells obtained in step (3) in a medium comprising a TGF- type I activin receptor-like kinase-4/-5/-7 inhibitor and a BMP signaling inhibitor; and (5) a step of culturing the cells obtained in step (4) in a medium comprising a phosphodiesterase inhibitor.


Patent
Toppan Printing Co. and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-09-07

A droplet producing device includes an outer tube; and an inner tube that is arranged inside the outer tube and feeds a droplet raw material, in which an inner tube discharge port opens to an inner tube tip portion formed on a downstream in a fluid feed direction, an outer tube discharge port opens to an outer tube tip portion formed on the downstream in the fluid feed direction, and in which a gap is formed between the outer tube and the inner tube.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-03-17

This power converter is provided with: three clusters (CLu, CLv, CLw) in which unit cells are cascade-connected; and power supplies of the same kind which are respectively connected to one end of each of the three clusters. Terminals of the three clusters at the side not connected to the power supplies are respectively connected to other ends of the power supplies connected to the other clusters to form a delta-connection configuration. Three connections of the delta-connection configuration are respectively connected to each of the U, V, and W phases of a three-phase alternating current, and power conversion between the power supplies and the three-phase AC is enabled. If DC power supplies (Vdcu, Vdcv, Vdcw) are employed as the power supplies, power conversion between the DC power supplies and the three-phase AC power supplies can be performed. If in-phase single-phase AC power supplies are employed as the power supplies, power conversion between either the single-phase AC power supplies and the three-phase AC power supplies, or the three-phase AC power supplies can be performed.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-03-12

The purpose of the present invention is to effectively accumulate triacylglycerol in algae cells, the present invention providing a method for introducing a triacylglycerol synthetase gene, a phosphorus starvation-inducible promoter, and a 3 untranslated region into algae.


Patent
Koito Manufacturing Co., Tokyo Institute of Technology and Nagoya University | Date: 2016-08-26

A phosphor is represented by the general formula aM^(I)X.M^(II)_(1-x)M^(I)M^(V)O_(4):(Re)_(x ) where M^(I )is at least one atomic element selected from the group consisting of K, Li, Na, Rb, Cs, Fr, Cu, and Ag, with K being essential; M^(II )is at least one atomic element selected from the group consisting of Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, Mn, Zn, Cd, and Sn; M^(V )is at least one atomic element selected from the group consisting of P, V, Nb, Ta, As, Sb, and Bi; X is at least one halogen element, with F being essential; Re is at least one atomic element selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements, with Eu being essential; and a is in the range 0.6a1.4.


Patent
Shimadzu Corporation and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-04-14

A cell culturing device has: a first culture chamber; a first introduction flow channel and a first discharge flow channel which are connected to the first culture chamber; a second culture chamber connected to a halfway part of the first introduction flow channel via a first porous membrane; and a second introduction flow channel and a second discharge flow channel which are connected to the second culture chamber. The first discharge flow channel is connected to the first culture chamber via a second porous membrane. The first introduction flow channel has a liquid collecting part between the first culture chamber and the second culture chamber.


Patent
Nippon Kayaku Kabushikikaisha and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-01-29

There is provided an optical wavelength conversion element with a good temporal stability and such a high optical wavelength conversion efficiency that the element is viable even under sunlight or similar, low intensity light. Owing to these properties, the element is suited for use in solar cells, photocatalysts, photocatalytic hydrogen and oxygen generating devices, photon upconversion filters, and like articles. The optical wavelength conversion element is visually homogeneous and transparent and produced by dissolving and/or dispersing in an ionic liquid (C) a combination of organic photosensitizing molecules (A) and organic light-emitting molecules (B) that exhibits triplet-triplet annihilation. The organic photosensitizing molecules (A) have either an only one local maximum absorption wavelength or a plurality of local maximum absorption wavelengths, and either the single local maximum absorption wavelength or a maximum one of the plurality of local maximum absorption wavelengths is from 250 nm to 499 nm.


A workflow management apparatus holds a transition condition for each stage to be switched to a next stage in a workflow that controls an operation of an external device over a plurality of stages, and stage information indicating a current stage of the workflow. Where there is a partially ordered relation between the stages, if a first and second stage are incomparable, when a third stage can be executed as a next stage of the first stage, and if the third and second stages are incomparable, when a transition condition for the first stage has been fulfilled and a transition condition for the second stage has not been fulfilled, the workflow management apparatus updates the stage information so as to indicate that both the second stage and the third stage to be executed as a stage following the first stage are set for the workflow.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Nippon Oil Corporation | Date: 2015-04-10

Provided is a film for a transparent screen which can clearly display merchandise information, advertisement, or the like on a transparent partition or the like by projection without compromising the transmission visibility. A film for a transparent screen according to the present invention includes: a resin layer; and inorganic particles at least a portion of which is contained in an aggregated state in the resin layer, wherein primary particles of the inorganic particles have a median diameter of 0.1 to 50 nm and a maximum particle size of 10 to 500 nm, and the content of the inorganic particles is 0.015 to 1.2% by mass with respect to the resin.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2017-01-25

This power converter is provided with: three clusters (CLu, CLv, CLw) in which unit cells are cascade-connected; and power supplies of the same kind which are respectively connected to one end of each of the three clusters. Terminals of the three clusters at the side not connected to the power supplies are respectively connected to other ends of the power supplies connected to the other clusters to form a delta-connection configuration. Three connections of the delta-connection configuration are respectively connected to each of the U, V, and W phases of a three-phase alternating current, and power conversion between the power supplies and the three-phase AC is enabled. If DC power supplies (Vdcu, Vdcv, Vdcw) are employed as the power supplies, power conversion between the DC power supplies and the three-phase AC power supplies can be performed. If in-phase single-phase AC power supplies are employed as the power supplies, power conversion between either the single-phase AC power supplies and the three-phase AC power supplies, or the three-phase AC power supplies can be performed.


There is provided a labeling precursor compound represented by the following general formula (2):_(1) represents an alkynyl group, an alkynyloxy group, an azide group, an azidoalkyl group, an arylazide group, a monocyclic or condensed polycyclic aryl group or a nitrogen-containing heterocycle; R_(2) and R_(3) each independently represent an alkyl group or a hydroxyalkyl group which hydroxy group may be protected with a protecting group, and n is an integer of 1 or 2; R_(6) represents an alkyl group or -CONR_(11)R_(12) wherein R_(11) and R_(12) each independently represent an alkyl group or a monocyclic or condensed polycyclic aryl group; and R_(4), R_(5), R_(7) and R_(8) each independently represent a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group or an alkoxy group.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Nippon Oil Corporation | Date: 2017-02-22

[Problem] Provided is a film for a transparent screen which can clearly display merchandise information, advertisement, or the like on a transparent partition or the like by projection without compromising the transmission visibility. [Solving means] A film for a transparent screen according to the present invention includes: a resin layer; and inorganic particles at least a portion of which is contained in an aggregated state in the resin layer, wherein primary particles of the inorganic particles have a median diameter of 0.1 to 50 nm and a maximum particle size of 10 to 500 nm, and the content of the inorganic particles is 0.015 to 1.2% by mass with respect to the resin.


Patent
Japan Science, Technology Agency and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2017-01-11

The invention related to a material that can stably hold an imide anion (NH_(2)^(-)) therein even in the atmosphere or in a solvent, and a method for synthesizing the material and a use of the material. A mayenite-type compound into which imide anions are incorporated at a concentration of 1 10^(18) cm^(-3) or more are provided. The mayenite-type compound can be produced by heating a mayenite-type compound including electrons or free oxygen ions in a cage thereof, in liquefied ammonia at 450 to 700C and at a pressure of 30 to 100 MPa. The compound has properties such that active imide anions can be easily incorporated into the compound and the active imide anions can be easily released in the form of ammonia from the compound, and the compound has chemical stability.


Patent
Toppan Printing Co. and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2017-01-18

A droplet producing device (1) includes an outer tube (2); and an inner tube (3) that is arranged inside the outer tube (2) and feeds a droplet raw material, in which an inner tube discharge port (3b) opens to an inner tube tip portion (3a) formed on a downstream in a fluid feed direction, an outer tube discharge port (2b) opens to an outer tube tip portion (2a) formed on the downstream in the fluid feed direction, and in which a gap (2c) is formed between the outer tube (2) and the inner tube (3). It is preferable that the inner tube discharge port (3b) be provided inside the outer tube on an upstream of the outer tube discharge port (2b) in the fluid feed direction.


A workflow management apparatus 12 holds a transition condition for each stage to be switched to a next stage in a workflow that controls an operation of an external device over a plurality of stages, and stage information indicating a current stage of the workflow. Where there is a partially ordered relation between the stages, if a first and second stage are incomparable, when a third stage can be executed as a next stage of the first stage, and if the third and second stages are incomparable, when a transition condition for the first stage has been fulfilled and a transition condition for the second stage has not been fulfilled, the workflow management apparatus 12 updates the stage information so as to indicate that both the second stage and the third stage to be executed as a stage following the first stage are set for the workflow.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2017-03-29

It is an object of the present invention to provide a method for efficiently directing differentiation into insulin-producing cells in a xeno-free culture system. According to the present invention, there is provided a method for directed differentiation into insulin-producing cells, comprising culturing stem cells in the following steps (1) to (5): (1) a step of culturing stem cells in a medium comprising an activator of activin receptor-like kinase-4/-7 and a GSK3 inhibitor and then culturing in a medium comprising an activator of activin receptor-like kinase-4/-7; (2) a step of culturing the cells obtained in step (1) in a medium comprising a hedgehog signaling inhibitor and an FGF; (3) a step of culturing the cells obtained in step (2) in a medium comprising a retinoic acid receptor agonist, a hedgehog signaling inhibitor and a BMP signaling inhibitor; (4) a step of culturing the cells obtained in step (3) in a medium comprising a TGF- type I activin receptor-like kinase-4/-5/-7 inhibitor and a BMP signaling inhibitor; and (5) a step of culturing the cells obtained in step (4) in a medium comprising a phosphodiesterase inhibitor.


Patent
Japan Science, Technology Agency and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2017-04-19

A catalyst is provided which is used for continuously synthesizing ammonia using a gas containing hydrogen and nitrogen as a raw material, wherein a transition metal which exhibits catalytic activity is supported by a support, and the support is a two-dimensional electride or a precursor thereof. The two-dimensional electride or the precursor thereof is a metal nitride represented by MxNyHz (M represents one or two or more of Group II metals selected from the group consisting of Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba, and x, y and z are in ranges of 1 x 11, 1 y 8, and 0 z 4 respectively, in which x is an integer, and y and z are not limited to an integer) or M_(3)N_(2) (M is the same as above), or a metal carbide selected from the group consisting of Y_(2)C, Sc_(2)C, Gd_(2)C, Tb_(2)C, Dy_(2)C, Ho_(2)C and Er_(2)C. These catalysts are used for continuously reacting nitrogen with hydrogen, which are raw materials, on the catalyst, wherein the reaction is performed in an ammonia synthesis reaction system under the preferable conditions of a reaction temperature which is equal to or higher than 100C and equal to or lower than 600C, and a reaction pressure which is equal to or higher than 10 kPa and lower than 20 MPa.


Obuchi T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Kabashima Y.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment | Year: 2016

We investigate leave-one-out cross validation (CV) as a determinator of the weight of the penalty term in the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). First, on the basis of the message passing algorithm and a perturbative discussion assuming that the number of observations is sufficiently large, we provide simple formulas for approximately assessing two types of CV errors, which enable us to significantly reduce the necessary cost of computation. These formulas also provide a simple connection of the CV errors to the residual sums of squares between the reconstructed and the given measurements. Second, on the basis of this finding, we analytically evaluate the CV errors when the design matrix is given as a simple random matrix in the large size limit by using the replica method. Finally, these results are compared with those of numerical simulations on finite-size systems and are confirmed to be correct. We also apply the simple formulas of the first type of CV error to an actual dataset of the supernovae. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA Medialab srl.


Takezaki N.,Kagawa University | Nishihara H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Genome Biology and Evolution | Year: 2017

In a previous analysis of the phylogenetic relationships of coelacanths, lungfishes and tetrapods, using cartilaginous fish (CF) as the outgroup, the sister relationship of lungfishes and tetrapods was constructed with high statistical support. However, using as the outgroup ray-finned fish (RF), which are more taxonomically closely related to the three lineages than CF, the sister relationship of coelacanths and tetrapods was most often constructed depending on the methods and the data sets, but the statistical support was generally low except in the cases in which the data set including a small number of species was analyzed. In this study, instead of the fast evolving ray-finned fish, teleost fish (TF), in the previous data sets, by using two slowly evolving RF, gar and bowfin, as the outgroup, we showed that the sister relationship of lungfishes and tetrapods was reconstructed with high statistical support. In our analysis the evolutionary rates of gar and bowfin were similar to each other and one third to one half of TF. The difference of the amino acid frequencies of the two species with other lineages was larger than those of TF. This study provides a strong support for lungfishes as the closest relative of tetrapods and indicates the importance of using an appropriate outgroup with small divergence in phylogenetic construction. © 2016 The Author.


Sato S.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Chemical Physics | Year: 2017

New empirical rate formula for the low temperature reactions is proposed. The formula proposed previously has been simplified by using incomplete gamma function. A few examples of temperature dependence of rate constants for the reactions of ions with dipolar molecules and that for the reaction F+H2→HF+H are demonstrated by using new rate formula. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Takezaki N.,Kagawa University | Nishihara H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Genome biology and evolution | Year: 2016

Determining the phylogenetic relationship of two extant lineages of lobe-finned fish, coelacanths and lungfishes, and tetrapods is important for understanding the origin of tetrapods. We analyzed data sets from two previous studies along with a newly collected data set, each of which had varying numbers of species and genes and varying extent of missing sites. We found that in all the data sets the sister relationship of lungfish and tetrapods was constructed with the use of cartilaginous fish as the outgroup with a high degree of statistical support. In contrast, when ray-finned fish were used as the outgroup, which is taxonomically an immediate outgroup of lobe-finned fish and tetrapods, the sister relationship of coelacanth and tetrapods was supported most strongly, although the statistical support was weaker. Even though it is generally accepted that the closest relative is an appropriate outgroup, our analysis suggested that the large divergence of the ray-finned fish as indicated by their long branch lengths and different amino acid frequencies made them less suitable as an outgroup than cartilaginous fish. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.


Saitoh T.R.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2017

We have developed a software library for chemical evolution simulations of galaxy formation under the simple stellar population (SSP) approximation. In this library, all of the necessary components concerning chemical evolution, such as initial mass functions, stellar lifetimes, yields from Type II and Type Ia supernovae, asymptotic giant branch stars, and neutron star mergers, are compiled from the literature. Various models are pre-implemented in this library so that users can choose their favorite combination of models. Subroutines of this library return released energy and masses of individual elements depending on a given event type. Since the redistribution manner of these quantities depends on the implementation of users' simulation codes, this library leaves it up to the simulation code. As demonstrations, we carry out both one-zone, closed-box simulations and 3D simulations of a collapsing gas and dark matter system using this library. In these simulations, we can easily compare the impact of individual models on the chemical evolution of galaxies, just by changing the control flags and parameters of the library. Since this library only deals with the part of chemical evolution under the SSP approximation, any simulation codes that use the SSP approximation - namely, particle-base and mesh codes, as well as semianalytical models - can use it. This library is named "CELib" after the term "Chemical Evolution Library" and is made available to the community. © 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Ohno K.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Okuzumi S.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2017

A number of transiting exoplanets have featureless transmission spectra that might suggest the presence of clouds at high altitudes. A realistic cloud model is necessary to understand the atmospheric conditions under which such high-altitude clouds can form. In this study, we present a new cloud model that takes into account the microphysics of both condensation and coalescence. Our model provides the vertical profiles of the size and density of cloud and rain particles in an updraft for a given set of physical parameters, including the updraft velocity and the number density of cloud condensation nuclei (CCNs). We test our model by comparing with observations of trade-wind cumuli on Earth and ammonia ice clouds in Jupiter. For trade-wind cumuli, the model including both condensation and coalescence gives predictions that are consistent with observations, while the model including only condensation overestimates the mass density of cloud droplets by up to an order of magnitude. For Jovian ammonia clouds, the condensation-coalescence model simultaneously reproduces the effective particle radius, cloud optical thickness, and cloud geometric thickness inferred from Voyager observations if the updraft velocity and CCN number density are taken to be consistent with the results of moist convection simulations and Galileo probe measurements, respectively. These results suggest that the coalescence of condensate particles is important not only in terrestrial water clouds but also in Jovian ice clouds. Our model will be useful to understand how the dynamics, compositions, and nucleation processes in exoplanetary atmospheres affect the vertical extent and optical thickness of exoplanetary clouds via cloud microphysics. © 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..


Baba J.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Baba J.,Ehime University | Morokuma-Matsui K.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory | Saitoh T.R.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2017

The formation and evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in spiral galaxies have been investigated in the traditional framework of the combined quasi-stationary density wave and galactic shock model. In this study, we investigate the structure and evolution of GMCs in a dynamically evolving spiral arm using a three-dimensional N-body/hydrodynamic simulation of a barred spiral galaxy at parsec-scale resolution. This simulation incorporated self-gravity, molecular hydrogen formation, radiative cooling, heating due to interstellar far-ultraviolet radiation, and stellar feedback by both HII regions and Type II supernovae. In contrast to a simple expectation based on the traditional spiral model, the GMCs exhibited no systematic evolutionary sequence across the spiral arm. Our simulation showed that the GMCs behaved as highly dynamic objects with eventful lives involving collisional build-up, collision-induced star formation, and destruction via stellar feedback. The GMC lifetimes were predicted to be short, only a few tens of millions years. We also found that at least at the resolutions and with the feedback models used in this study, most of the GMCs without HII regions were collapsing, but half of the GMCs with HII regions were expanding owing to the HII-region feedback from stars within them. Our results support the dynamic and feedback-regulated GMC evolution scenario. Although the simulated GMCs were converging rather than virial equilibrium, they followed the observed scaling relationship well.We also analysed the effects of galactic tides and external pressure on GMC evolution and suggested that GMCs cannot be regarded as isolated systems since their evolution in disc galaxies is complicated because of these environmental effects. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.


Ando T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan | Year: 2017

The orbital magnetic susceptibility is calculated in collapsed carbon nanotubes within an effective-mass scheme for two magnetic-field configurations, perpendicular and parallel to the flattened plane. The response is diamagnetic in both directions and is much larger for the perpendicular configuration, with some rare exceptions. In chiral nanotubes, calculated results show small and almost negligible effects of collapsing except for some modification due to change in the effective magnetic field. In nonchiral zigzag and armchair nanotubes, the susceptibility is strongly modified, depending on relative displacement of two layers in the flattened region. ©2017 The Physical Society of Japan.


Kobayashi Y.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Yuki Gosei Kagaku Kyokaishi/Journal of Synthetic Organic Chemistry | Year: 2017

Previously, organocopper reagents that were compatible with allylic substitution of secondary allylic esters were limited in most cases to alkyl reagents, whereas arylcopper species have often resulted in poor results due to less nucleophilic property than that of alkylcopper species. To find a reactive class of allylic esters and arylcopper reagents, we selected allylic picolinates of a (Z)-R1 CH=CHCH(OCOPy)R2 structure, which reacted with arylcopper reagents derived from ArMgBr and CuBr-Me2S, furnishing anti SN2' products in good yields with high regio- and stereoselectivity. Next, allylic substitution was extended successfully to organolithium-based arylcopper reagents. Furthermore, we established allylic substitution with heteroaryl and alkynyl reagents, which are in general less nucleophilic than aryl reagents. Furthermore, allylic substitutions of R1R2 C=CHCH(OCOPy)R3 and cyclohexylidene picolinates furnished corresponding quaternary carbons. The stereochemical outcome in the latter case was explained by a stable chair conformer and the equatorial attack of the reagent to the conformer. Synthetic applications using allylic substitution are described as well.


Yoshizawa M.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Yamashina M.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Chemistry Letters | Year: 2017

In contrast to broad applications of small aromatic rings and π-conjugated wire-like units, the use of large polyaromatic rings in coordination nanostructures has been less developed to date. This review article describes the recent progress of coordinationdriven cages and capsules with multiple polyaromatic panels, such as anthracene, pyrene, and perylene derivatives. In the welldefined cavities, intriguing chemical phenomena can be observed through enhanced interactions with the polyaromatic frameworks. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan.


Hashisaka M.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Nature Physics | Year: 2017

In contrast to a free-electron system, a Tomonaga–Luttinger (TL) liquid in a one-dimensional (1D) electron system hosts charge and spin excitations as independent entities. When an electron is injected into a TL liquid, it transforms into charge- and spin-density wavepackets that propagate at different group velocities and move away from each other. This process, known as spin–charge separation, is the hallmark of TL physics. While spin–charge separation has been probed in momentum- or frequency-domain measurements in various 1D systems, waveforms of separated excitations, which are a direct manifestation of the TL behaviour, have been long awaited to be measured. Here, we present a waveform measurement for the pseudospin–charge separation process in a chiral TL liquid comprising quantum Hall edge channels. The charge- and pseudospin-density waveforms are captured by utilizing a spin-resolved sampling scope that records the spin-up or -down component of the excitations. This experimental technique provides full information for time evolution of the 1D electron system, including not only propagation of TL eigenmodes but also their decay in a practical device. © 2017 Nature Publishing Group


Muromachi Y.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice | Year: 2017

We studied the relationship between experiences of past school travel-mode choice by university students and their intention to purchase a car in future by using the life-oriented approach. We conducted a retrospective questionnaire survey whose respondents were university students of two universities located in the center of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA), two in the suburbs of the TMA, and three in major local cities outside of it. We asked them to consider their experience of past travel mode for going to upper-level elementary, middle, and high school as well as general-purpose travels from their mobility biography. We also asked about possible factors affecting their future intentions, such as their degree of concern about the environmental damage that car use might entail and their daily use of information and communication technology (ICT) tools. Responses from 351 university students were successfully collected. We found that experience of past bicycle use for going to high school affected the intention of future car purchase positively, while rail use for attending high school showed a statistically significant negative correlation. We also modeled the degree of young university students' intention to purchase a car in future by estimating ordered probit model. As a result, we found that experiences of past school travel by bicycle as high school students showed a positive relation, and of general-purpose travel by rail showed negative relation to intentions of purchasing a car in future. The latter implies that the policy measures for promoting a less car-dependent lifestyle by locating schools in the areas that are easily accessible by rail and conducting mobility management programs for molding school students' experiences of rail travel. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.


Tetsu H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Nakamoto T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series | Year: 2016

Radiation is an important process of energy transport, a force, and a basis for synthetic observations, so radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) calculations have occupied an important place in astrophysics. However, although the progress in computational technology is remarkable, their high numerical cost is still a persistent problem. In this work, we compare the following schemes used to solve the nonlinear simultaneous equations of an RHD algorithm with the flux-limited diffusion approximation: the Newton-Raphson (NR) method, operator splitting, and linearization (LIN), from the perspective of the computational cost involved. For operator splitting, in addition to the traditional simple operator splitting (SOS) scheme, we examined the scheme developed by Douglas & Rachford (DROS). We solve three test problems (the thermal relaxation mode, the relaxation and the propagation of linear waves, and radiating shock) using these schemes and then compare their dependence on the time step size. As a result, we find the conditions of the time step size necessary for adopting each scheme. The LIN scheme is superior to other schemes if the ratio of radiation pressure to gas pressure is sufficiently low. On the other hand, DROS can be the most efficient scheme if the ratio is high. Although the NR scheme can be adopted independently of the regime, especially in a problem that involves optically thin regions, the convergence tends to be worse. In all cases, SOS is not practical. © 2016. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Arai S.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Conference Digest - IEEE International Semiconductor Laser Conference | Year: 2016

Lasing properties of in-plane semiconductor membrane lasers required for ultra-low power-consumption and high-speed operation are explained from aspects of output power and direct modulation bandwidth. Recent results on GaInAsP/InP long wavelength membrane lasers are reviewed and remaining issues for this application will be discussed. © 2016 IEICE-ES.


Ono S.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2017

Minimizing L0 gradient, the number of the non-zero gradients of an image, together with a quadratic data-fidelity to an input image has been recognized as a powerful edge-preserving filtering method. However, the L0 gradient minimization has an inherent difficulty: a user-given parameter controlling the degree of flatness does not have a physical meaning since the parameter just balances the relative importance of the L0 gradient term to the quadratic data-fidelity term. As a result, the setting of the parameter is a troublesome work in the L0 gradient minimization. To circumvent the difficulty, we propose a new edge-preserving filtering method with a novel use of the L0 gradient. Our method is formulated as the minimization of the quadratic data-fidelity subject to the hard constraint that the L0 gradient is less than a user-given parameter \alpha . This strategy is much more intuitive than the L0 gradient minimization because the parameter α has a clear meaning: the L0 gradient value of the output image itself, so that one can directly impose a desired degree of flatness by α. We also provide an efficient algorithm based on the so-called alternating direction method of multipliers for computing an approximate solution of the nonconvex problem, where we decompose it into two subproblems and derive closed-form solutions to them. The advantages of our method are demonstrated through extensive experiments. © 1992-2012 IEEE.


Hirose K.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Morard G.,CNRS Institute of Mineralogy, Materials Physics and Cosmochemistry | Sinmyo R.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Umemoto K.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2017

The Earth's core is about ten per cent less dense than pure iron (Fe), suggesting that it contains light elements as well as iron. Modelling of core formation at high pressure (around 40-60 gigapascals) and high temperature (about 3,500 kelvin) in a deep magma ocean predicts that both silicon (Si) and oxygen (O) are among the impurities in the liquid outer core. However, only the binary systems Fe-Si and Fe-O have been studied in detail at high pressures, and little is known about the compositional evolution of the Fe-Si-O ternary alloy under core conditions. Here we performed melting experiments on liquid Fe-Si-O alloy at core pressures in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. Our results demonstrate that the liquidus field of silicon dioxide (SiO2) is unexpectedly wide at the iron-rich portion of the Fe-Si-O ternary, such that an initial Fe-Si-O core crystallizes SiO2 as it cools. If crystallization proceeds on top of the core, the buoyancy released should have been more than sufficient to power core convection and a dynamo, in spite of high thermal conductivity, from as early on as the Hadean eon. SiO2 saturation also sets limits on silicon and oxygen concentrations in the present-day outer core. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.


Osaragi T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Proceedings of the International ISCRAM Conference | Year: 2016

Understanding the characteristics of the spatiotemporal distribution of a population, which varies according to the time of the day and the day of the week (weekday or weekend), is one of the most important issues in the field of urban disaster mitigation planning. However, the existing Person Trip Survey data based on weekdays is not appropriate for estimating the spatiotemporal distribution of population on weekends. In the present study, we proposed a method for converting existing Person Trip Survey data from a weekday base to a weekend base and examined the differences in the spatiotemporal distribution of the population. Using these databases, we attempted to compare the number of deaths due to building collapse estimated for weekdays and weekends for various districts in the Tokyo Metropolitan area.


Park J.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, PACIS 2015 - Proceedings | Year: 2015

This paper explores the actual user-designer interactions in the design process. To address this, I conducted two field studies, in which I observed designers in two leading user-centered design firms over five months, documenting seven user-centered design projects. The observations revealed how designers bring ideas about users into design without physically interacting with users during the design process. Based on this, this study introduces the concept of 'design attitude', by which designers incorporate user ideas into the design process without actual involvement of users in the process. I contribute to the body of knowledge by introducing the concept of "design attitude" as a bridge between theoretical and actual designer-user interactions in the IS design process.


Uchiyama K.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Stochastic Processes and their Applications | Year: 2017

We study the transition probability, say pAn(x,y), of a one-dimensional random walk on the integer lattice killed when entering into a non-empty finite set A. The random walk is assumed to be irreducible and have zero mean and a finite variance σ2. We show that pAn(x,y) behaves like [gA+(x)ĝA+(y)+gA-(x)ĝA-(y)](σ2/2n)pn(y-x) uniformly in the regime characterized by the conditions (divides)x(divides)∨(divides)y(divides)=O(n) and (divides)x(divides)∧(divides)y(divides)=o(n) generally if xy>0 and under a mild additional assumption about the walk if xy<0. Here pn(y-x) is the transition kernel of the random walk (without killing); gA± are the Green functions for the 'exterior' of A with 'pole at ±∞' normalized so that gA±(x)∼2(divides)x(divides)/σ2 as x→±∞; and ĝA± are the corresponding Green functions for the time-reversed walk. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Horie M.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Mechanisms and Machine Science | Year: 2017

In this research, in order to realize the functions equivalent to the functions of the spherical bearing which is frequently used in conventional spatial mechanisms, a polymeric manufactured hinge with Hytrel® (DUPONT Co., Ltd.), which has excellent flexural fatigue resistance, have been proposed. Next, the shape and dimensions of the polymeric manufactured hinge having low stress values at bending deformation have been found by FEM analysis results. In addition, a polymer-made three-degrees-of-freedom(3DOF) spatial parallel manipulator which consists of this polymer-made hinge is designed and developed, and the output displacement characteristics of the manipulator are revealed. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017.


(Tokyo Institute of Technology) Researchers at Tokyo institute of Technology presented a design guide for reducing 30 percent of thermal resistance for three-dimensional stacked devices compared with the conventional ICs using solder bump joint structure.


News Article | May 8, 2017
Site: cen.acs.org

The Japanese amino acid maker Ajinomoto is teaming up with Tokyo Institute of Technology professor Hideo Hosono and other partners to commercialize what they say will be the world’s first small-scale, on-site ammonia synthesis system. Today, essentially all ammonia in commerce is made by the Haber-Bosch process, a century-old catalytic technology that couples hydrogen with nitrogen at high temperature and pressure. The drawback of the Haber-Bosch process is that it is cost-effective only in large, expensive, generally centralized plants. Hosono’s research group has come up with a new catalyst that, according to the partners, enables efficient ammonia synthesis in small facilities under low-temperature and low-pressure conditions. The partners aren’t disclosing the specific catalyst. However, a recent research paper from Hosono and colleagues describes catalyzing ammonia production with ruthenium nanoparticles deposited on a calcium aluminate electride. The Japanese partners have formed a new company, Tsubame BHB, to commercialize the technology. Ajinomoto says it aims to install an ammonia facility by 2021 at one of its amino acid plants, which use fermentation to convert ammonia into products such as glutamic acid. Researchers have long pursued low-cost, environmentally friendly ammonia production. Recently, two teams of academic chemists presented bioelectrochemical routes to ammonia at the ACS annual meeting in San Francisco. Electrochemical and other processes for ammonia production won funding last December from the Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy arm. The Haber-Bosch process is quite efficient and to date has been hard to compete against, notes Trevor Brown, a consultant who runs the website Ammonia Industry. “Proven technologies can be funded; unproven technologies have a far harder time attracting funding,” he says. Nonetheless, several small-scale ammonia projects are advancing, Brown says, and may even open ahead of the Japanese effort. He points to a Siemens project near ­Oxford, England, and a demonstration plant planned by the Swedish firm ­Vattenfall. Both anticipate producing ammonia with hydrogen generated electrochemically from solar or wind power. The ammonia will then be burned as fuel at times when renewable energy comes up short.


News Article | May 5, 2017
Site: www.sciencenews.org

Mars may have had a far-out birthplace. Simulating the assembly of the solar system around 4.56 billion years ago, researchers propose that the Red Planet didn’t form in the inner solar system alongside the other terrestrial planets as previously thought. Mars instead may have formed around where the asteroid belt is now and migrated inward to its present-day orbit, the scientists report in the June 15 Earth and Planetary Science Letters. The proposal better explains why Mars has such a different chemical composition than Earth, says Stephen Mojzsis, a study coauthor and geologist at the University of Colorado Boulder. The new work is an intuitive next step in a years-long rethink of the early solar system, says Kevin Walsh, a planetary scientist at the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colo., who was not involved with the new simulation. “We only became comfortable within the last 10 years with the idea that planets move around, possibly a lot,” he says. “Planets may not have formed where we see them today.” Mars, like Mercury, is a runt of the inner solar system, weighing in at only about a ninth of Earth’s mass. One of the reigning theories of planetary formation, the Grand Tack model, blames Jupiter for the Red Planet’s paltry size. In that scenario, the newly formed Jupiter migrated toward the sun until it reached Mars’ present-day orbit. A gravitational tug from Saturn then reversed Jupiter’s course, sending the gas giant back to the outer solar system (SN: 4/2/16, p. 7). Gravitational effects of Jupiter’s sunward jaunt acted like a snowplow, scientists believe, causing a pileup of material near where Earth’s orbit is today. The bulk of that material formed Venus and Earth, and the scraps created Mercury and Mars. This explanation predicts that all the terrestrial planets formed largely from the same batch of ingredients (SN: 4/15/17, p. 18). But studies of Martian meteorites suggest that the Red Planet contains a different mix of various elements and isotopes, such as oxygen-17 and oxygen-18, compared with Earth. Planetary scientist Ramon Brasser of the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mojzsis and colleagues reran the Grand Tack simulations, keeping an eye on the materials that went into Mars’ creation to see if they could explain the different mix. As with previous studies, the researchers found that the most probable way of creating a solar system with the same planet sizes and positions as seen today is to have Mars form within Earth’s orbit and migrate outward. However, this explanation failed to explain Mars’ strikingly different composition. Another possible scenario, though seen in only about 2 percent of the team’s new simulations, is that Mars formed more than twice as far from the sun as its present-day orbit in the region currently inhabited by the asteroid belt. Then as Jupiter moved sunward, its gravitational pull yanked Mars into the inner solar system. Jupiter’s gravity also diverted planet-making material away from Mars, resulting in the planet’s relatively small mass. With Mars forming so far from the planetary feeding frenzy responsible for the other rocky planets, its composition would be distinct. While this scenario isn’t as likely as Mars forming in the inner solar system, it at least matches the reality of Mars’ makeup, Mojzsis says. Such a distant origin means that the fledgling Mars would have received far less sunlight than originally thought, a challenge to early Mars’ possible habitability. Without a sustained thick atmosphere of heat-trapping greenhouse gases, the planet would have been too cold to sustain liquid water on its surface for long periods of time, Mojzsis argues. Though large meteorite impacts could have temporarily warmed Mars above freezing, the planet wouldn’t have had a consistently warm and wet youth similar to that of the early Earth, he says. Confirming whether Mars really was born that far out in space will require taking a closer look at Venus’ mix of elements and isotopes, which the researchers predict would be similar to Earth’s. Venus’ composition is largely unknown because of a lack of Venusian meteorites found on Earth, and that mystery won’t be unlocked anytime soon: No missions to Venus are planned.


Kamata H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Kumada N.,Nippon Telegraph and Telephone | Hashisaka M.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Muraki K.,Nippon Telegraph and Telephone | Fujisawa T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Nature Nanotechnology | Year: 2014

The model of interacting fermion systems in one dimension known as a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) provides a simple and exactly solvable theoretical framework that predicts various intriguing physical properties. Evidence of a TLL has been observed as power-law behaviour in electronic transport on various types of one-dimensional conductor. However, these measurements, which rely on d.c. transport involving electron tunneling processes, cannot identify the long-awaited hallmark of charge fractionalization, in which an injection of elementary charge e from a non-interacting lead is divided into the non-trivial effective charge e* and the remainder, e-e* (refs 6, 7, 8). Here, we report time-resolved transport measurements on an artificial TLL composed of coupled integer quantum Hall edge channels, in which we successfully identify single charge fractionalization processes. A wave packet of charge q incident from a non-interacting region breaks up into several fractionalized charge wave packets at the edges of the artificial TLL, from which transport eigenmodes can be evaluated directly. These results are informative for elucidating the nature of TLLs and low-energy excitations in the edge channels. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Takezoe H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Gorecka E.,University of Warsaw | Cepic M.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Cepic M.,University of Ljubljana
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2010

This paper reviews nearly 20 years of research related to antiferroelectric liquid crystals and gives a short overview of possible applications. "Antiferroelectric liquid crystals" is the common name for smectic liquid crystals formed of chiral elongated molecules that exhibit a number of smectic (Sm) tilted structures with variation of the strong-tilt azimuthal direction from layer to layer (i.e., nonsynclinic structures). The phases have varying crystallographic unit periodicity from a few (Sm Cα*), four (Sm C FI2 *), three (Sm C FI1 *), and two (Sm CA*) smectic layers and all of the phases possess liquidlike order inside the layer. The review describes the discovery of these phases and various methods used for their identification and to determine their structures and their properties. A theoretical description of these systems is also given; one of the models-the discrete phenomenological model-of antiferroelectric liquid crystals is discussed in detail as this model allows for an explanation of phase structures and observed phase sequences under changes of temperature or external fields that is most consistent with experimental results. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Ida S.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Lin D.N.C.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Lin D.N.C.,Peking University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2010

Radial velocity and transit surveys indicate that solar-type stars bear super-Earths, with masses up to ∼20M⊕ and periods up to a few months, that are more common than those with Jupiter-mass gas giants. In many cases, these super-Earths are members of multiple-planet systems in which their mutual dynamical interaction has influenced their formation and evolution. In this paper, we modify an existing numerical population synthesis scheme to take into account protoplanetary embryos' interaction with their evolving natal gaseous disks, as well as their close scatterings and resonant interaction with each other. We show that it is possible for a group of compact embryos to emerge interior to the ice line, grow, migrate, and congregate into closely packed convoys which stall in the proximity of their host stars. After the disk-gas depletion, they undergo orbit crossing, close scattering, and giant impacts to form multiple rocky Earths or super-Earths in non-resonant orbits around ∼0.1 AU with moderate eccentricities of ∼0.01-0.1. We suggest that most refractory super-Earths with periods in the range of a few days to weeks may have formed through this process. These super-Earths differ from Neptune-like ice giants by their compact sizes and lack of a substantial gaseous envelope. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Kameya Y.,IHI Corporation | Hanamura K.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Solar Energy | Year: 2011

The radiation absorption characteristics of a Ni nanoparticle suspension were investigated by spectroscopic transmission measurement. It was demonstrated that the absorption coefficient of the nanoparticle suspension is much higher than that of the base liquid for visible to near-infrared wavelengths. Radiation characteristics predicted by the Mie theory showed good agreement with the increase of absorption coefficient in wavelengths where the base liquid is transparent. It was also confirmed that a new transmittance measurement technique for a liquid sample using a liquid cell with no spacer was quite useful for evaluating a material possessing an extremely strong absorption band. The proposed measurement method and successive Kramers-Kronig analysis were validated by measuring the optical properties of water. The measurement and prediction process of the thermal radiation properties of nanoparticle suspensions developed here could be used in developing direct absorption solar collectors. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and IHI Corporation | Date: 2010-08-27

An LPP EUV light source includes a vacuum chamber 12 that is maintained in a vacuum environment; a gas jet device 14 that forms a hypersonic steady gas jet 1 of the target substance inside the vacuum chamber so as to be collected; and a laser device 16 that collects and radiates a laser beam 3 to the hypersonic steady gas jet, wherein plasma is produced by exciting the target substance at the light collecting point 2 of the laser beam and EUV light 4 is emitted therefrom.


Patent
NEC Corp and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-04-22

A basis image is converted into a more functional image by image synthesis technology using a number of imaging devices arranged independently of each other. A multocular imaging system is provided with a plurality of imaging parts that can be arranged independently of each other, a similar component search part operable to acquire a basis image outputted from at least one imaging part of the plurality of imaging parts and a reference image outputted from another imaging part of the plurality of imaging parts and to search a similar component included in the reference image for each of components included in the basis image, and an image synthesis part operable to perform a synthesis process on at least one component included in the basis image into a desired image with reference to the similar component extracted by the similar component search part and to output the desired image as a synthesis image.


Patent
Canon Kabushiki Kaisha, Kyoto University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Yamanashi University, Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science, Technology and Sophia University | Date: 2013-08-05

Provided is a piezoelectric material excellent in piezoelectricity. The piezoelectric material includes a perovskite-type complex oxide represented by the following General Formula (1). A(Zn_(x)Ti_((1-x)))_(y)M_((1-y))O_(3)(1) wherein A represents at least one kind of element containing at least a Bi element and selected from a trivalent metal element; M represents at least one kind of element of Fe, Al, Sc, Mn, Y, Ga, and Yb; x represents a numerical value satisfying 0.4x0.6; and y represents a numerical value satisfying 0.1y0.9.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and NEC Corp | Date: 2013-02-07

It is an object of this invention to provide a stress assessment device capable of assessing mental stress without requiring another previous knowledge or imposing a load on an observer or an employee. A stress assessment device (10) of this invention includes: a work behavior acquisition unit (101) for acquiring a work behavior time-series pattern serving as information indicating a work behavior of each employee in temporal units; an eigen-behavior time-series pattern calculation unit (102) for calculating an eigen-behavior time-series pattern serving as information indicating a standard work behavior of each employee by using the work behavior time-series pattern; and a stress state assessment unit (103) for calculating a reconstruction accuracy indicating a degree to which the work behavior time-series pattern of each employee and the eigen-behavior time-series pattern agree with each other and assessing a stress state of the employee based on the calculated reconstruction accuracy.


Patent
IHI Corporation and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2011-10-19

A plasma light source includes a pair of coaxial electrodes 10 facing each other, a radiation environment sustaining device 20 that supplies a plasma medium into the insides of the coaxial electrodes and holds the coaxial electrodes at a temperature and a pressure suitable for plasma generation, and a voltage application device 30 that applies a discharge voltage of an inverted polarity to each of the coaxial electrodes. Tubular discharge 4 is formed between the pair of coaxial electrodes and plasma 3 is confined in an axial direction of the coaxial electrodes.


Patent
NEC Corp and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-10-17

Provided is an information processing system configured to: receive a plurality of images; select a standard image; search, in extracting partial images for complementing a too bright region/too dark region in the standard image from a reference images, using correction images obtained by subjecting each of the images to multivalued processing for each division of luminance components, for regions having matching shapes of respective regions included in the correction image of the standard image and the correction images of the other images; and complement image portions corresponding to the too bright region and/or too dark region in the correction image of the standard image using image portions, which are matching regions and correspond to appropriately bright regions, to thereby generate a synthetic image. Each image is dividable into at least three values: a too bright region, an appropriately bright region, and a too dark region, and has a relationship in which a boundary luminance between the too bright region and the appropriately bright region aligns with a boundary luminance between the appropriately bright region and the too dark region in a darker image having an adjacency relationship therewith.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Sumitomo Electric Industries | Date: 2012-08-29

Provided is a biosensor using magnetic microparticles whereby a biomaterial can be detected at a high sensitivity. The biosensor using magnetic microparticles is provided with a light source (10), a magnetic field generator (20), a light receiver (30) and a detector (40). The light source (10) irradiates a dispersion (1) containing the magnetic microparticles, to which the biomaterial to be detected can bind, with light of a definite wavelength. The magnetic field generator (20) applies to the dispersion a magnetic field capable of changing at least in two directions. The light receiver (30) receives transmitting light from the dispersion (1). The detector (40) detects the presence or absence of the target biomaterial based on the magnitude of a change in the quantity of the transmitting light, which changes in response to a change in the direction of the magnetic field applied by the magnetic field generator (20), received by the light receiver (30).


Patent
IHI Corporation and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2012-07-11

An LPP EUV light source includes a vacuum chamber 12 that is maintained in a vacuum environment; a gas jet device 14 that forms a hypersonic steady gas jet 1 of the target substance inside the vacuum chamber so as to be collected; and a laser device 16 that collects and radiates a laser beam 3 to the hypersonic steady gas jet, wherein plasma is produced by exciting the target substance at the light collecting point 2 of the laser beam and EUV light 4 is emitted therefrom.


A molecular movie: the individual frames show how each individual atom in Pt(dmit)2 molecules moves within a few 100 femtoseconds (fs) while Me4P[Pt(dmit)2]2 is switched from the insulating state to the metallic, conducting state with the aid of laser light. The illustration on the left shows the original structure: grey - platinum, black - carbon, yellow - sulphur. Credit: Science 2015/MPI for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter Chemistry is now ready for the movies: an international team which includes researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg has used a type of molecular camera to follow a fast-moving ballet performed by atoms in molecules as they change their structure. The researchers use a comparatively compact, efficient and low-cost technology for the detailed and slow-motion observation of how the miniscule atoms move at a molecular transition in a complex material. As is the case with all chemical reactions where atoms change position, such structural transformations take place in a few 100 femtoseconds or even faster – a femtosecond is a millionth of a billionth of a second. Although femtochemistry is already using recording technology for chemical processes, this has so far only been possible with large and expensive installations in which only selected research projects can be undertaken. "Just imagine you could observe how atoms move during a chemical process," says chemistry professor Dwayne Miller enthusiastically. The Director, who hails from Canada, and his team at the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter have been working on precisely this problem for many years. With their most recent research, the Hamburg researchers have come an important step closer to their goal. Chemistry today is still predominantly working with still-life pictures. Although it can derive very precise structural images of molecules using more and more refined methods, these provide only motionless reconstructions of the atomic positions which describe the state before and after a chemical reaction, for example. Theoretical models can describe at least the motions of small molecules during a chemical transformation. But as the number of atoms involved grows, the number of degrees of freedom with which the particles can move in reactions skyrockets as well. "These many degrees of freedom in chemistry can drive physicists crazy," jokes Miller, who is well versed in both natural science disciplines. A precise theoretical calculation of many chemical systems therefore overwhelms any supercomputer. As enlightening as a slow-motion video of a magician performing a trick The Hamburg researchers can use their technique to film molecules, however, and thus show the rapid unfolding of an atom ballet in detail. For the researchers, this is as enlightening as a slow-motion video that captures the sleight-of-hand that a magician uses to conjure a rabbit out of a hat. Dwayne Miller and his colleagues have had to overcome enormous experimental challenges in order to develop the movie camera for chemical processes: atoms move extremely rapidly on the timescale of a few tens or even a few hundred femtoseconds – the time light would need to travel across a hair from one side to the other. The second challenge lay in the miniature size of the atom. Researchers must therefore be able to resolve at least one tenth of a nanometre - a nanometre is one billionth of a metre. "If one were to enlarge an apple up to the diameter of the lunar orbit, then one of its atoms would then be as large as the original apple," Stuart Hayes illustrates the problem. The Scottish researcher leads a team in Miller's department that has just succeeded in capturing the video of a chemical atom ballet. Only a small number of research teams had access to the pump-probe technology Recording equipment for fast atomic motion has been around for thirty years or so and was responsible for establishing the field of femtochemistry. In the simplest pump-probe experiment, a "pump" flash of a laser starts the chemical process, a reaction, for example. It is followed by a second "probe" laser flash whose ultra-short femtosecond duration records the current state like a snapshot. By varying the time interval between the two flashes, researchers obtain the individual images of a slow-motion movie. The method using two laser flashes has some disadvantages, however. The wavelength of the light must be very short so that the second laser flash can resolve individual atoms in the image. Normal lasers do not achieve these wavelengths from the extreme ultraviolet right through to the range of hard X-rays. Another difficulty is the required brightness of the second light pulse. "The shorter the exposure time, the brighter the flashes that you need," explains Miller. These two conditions together mean that large, expensive installations, so-called free-electron lasers, are required. Their small number alone means that only relatively few research teams have access and only for a limited amount of time. From a chemistry point of view this is a critical bottle neck, because the magical tricks of many chemical reactions are waiting to be revealed. The idea: femtosecond electron flashes instead of laser pulses So, many years ago, Dwayne Miller had the idea of modifying the pump-probe method. He replaced the second flash of the laser in his "movie camera for molecular motions" with a femtosecond "flash" of electrons. Electrons have the advantage that they can directly image the positions of atoms in a molecule. As quantum particles, they have wave-like properties, just like light quanta. But their wavelengths are so short that they have no problem in detecting and imaging individual atoms even at low kinetic energy. They can be generated fairly easily in compact instruments. "These are real table-top experiments," says Stuart Hayes. "Nevertheless, our electron guns are so bright that they can capture the molecular structure in a single shot," adds Miller. Many of his colleagues had long doubted that this method would work with electrons. The problem is that electrons strongly repel one another because they carry the same electric charge. What starts out as a compact cloud of just a few thousand electrons thus runs the risk of expanding rapidly on the way to the sample. It threatens to illuminate the sample for too long so that the short flash time required for a femtosecond resolution would not be achieved. Miller's group solved this problem by reducing the time-of-flight of the electron cloud, optimizing the number of electrons and using a kind of optics for electrons. A material which can be switched between insulating and metallic state Using this technique, the Hamburg researchers have now investigated a new molecular material: Me4P[Pt(dmit)2]2, which was recently developed at the RIKEN research institute in Japan. This belongs to an interesting family of materials whose electrical properties can be "switched back and forth" between insulation, metallic conduction, and in some cases even superconduction. This switching is brought about by temperature or pressure and is called phase transition. We know of phase transitions in everyday life, for example the change in ice which melts into water as it is heated. Tadahiko Ishikawa and colleagues at Tokyo Institute of Technology had recently observed the following: when Me4P[Pt(dmit)2]2 was exposed to a flash of laser light its optical properties changed in a similar way to the phase transition brought about by a change in temperature. It transforms from an electrical insulator to a metal. The researchers can gain a precise understanding of this photo-switching of the material properties only when they can follow in detail how the individual atoms in the molecules behave. The Hamburg researchers have now succeeded in imaging precisely this motion. "We see the motion of these atoms quite clearly," says Miller, "like stars in the night sky." It turned out that only specific groups of atoms collectively make a small number of coordinated key movements in order to change the properties of the material. Precisely that is the crucial insight for Miller: the thousands of possibilities are reduced to a few simple, basic dance steps of the atomic ballet. Visual observation leads to a better understanding of chemical processes For Miller, the breakthrough to moving images represents a conceptual revolution in chemistry. As researchers make such fundamental visual observations of these atomic patterns of motion, they can understand chemical processes much better. The Professor compares the myriad of possibilities in a chemical reaction involving thousands of atoms with a mountainous landscape. The valleys represent different, stable molecular structures. In order for one structure to transform into another, it must go over the summit region into one of the neighbouring valleys. "The many possibilities then reduce to the path that is most accessible," explains Hayes. These paths correspond to the few basic steps of the molecular dance, as revealed by the movies. "Our most recent molecular film is the culmination of years of work," Miller says enthusiastically: "I could watch it over and over again." Who knows, maybe these recordings will have a similar significance for the development of chemistry as the first films of the Lumière brothers which were the first time to capture our life in moving pictures. Explore further: Best image yet of atoms moving in real time produced (w/ video) More information: T. Ishikawa et al. Direct observation of collective modes coupled to molecular orbital-driven charge transfer, Science (2015). DOI: 10.1126/science.aab3480


News Article | December 7, 2016
Site: www.businesswire.com

MULHOUSE, Frankreich--(BUSINESS WIRE)--CellProthera, ein Unternehmen, das die fortschrittlichste Zelltherapie für die Regeneration des geschädigten Herzmuskels nach einem Myokardinfarkt bietet, hat einen Wechsel in seiner Unternehmensführung vorgenommen und Matthieu de Kalbermatten zum neuen CEO ernannt. Er folgt auf Jean-Claude Jelsch (gegenwärtig Chairman of the Supervisory Board) und übernimmt nun das Management des Biotech-Unternehmens gemeinsam mit dem Chairman Professor Philippe Hénon. Mit einem an der ETH Zürich erworbenen akademischen Grad in Ingenieurwissenschaften hat Matthieu de Kalbermatten darüber hinaus internationale Erfahrungen bei ALSTOM und AREVA gesammelt. Er verfügt über einen M.Sc. Abschluss beim Tokyo Institute of Technology und hat einen MBA Abschluss an der London Business School erworben.


News Article | October 28, 2016
Site: www.techrepublic.com

NTT docomo, Japan's largest mobile phone network provider, in cooperation with the Tokyo Institute of Technology, is currently undertaking research for a new 5G network with the intent of reaching 10 Gbps transmission speeds. Interestingly, their experiment achieved these speeds using a Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO) antenna, a feature common to newer standards, such as HSPA+ and 802.11n. They conducted this test with a 400 MHz block of bandwidth in the 11 GHz spectrum, which is an uncommon frequency to use in mobile phone operations. Super high-frequency bands (5 GHz and higher) are not commonly used for mobile phone communications, due to the difficulty of transmitting those waves around buildings. NTT docomo provided no explanation in their press release about how this limitation will be overcome. NTT docomo's research department first proposed the current standard of mobile communications technology, LTE, in 2004. In June, they announced the deployment of a compact LTE base station in locations where traditional base stations cannot be deployed due to prohibitive size or cost, such as mountainous locations. Currently, NTT docomo service in Japan, branded as Xi LTE, is capable of delivering download speeds up to 100 Mbps. According to a study by PC Magazine, the fastest LTE service in the United States is AT&T, with an average speed of 16.02 Mbps and a maximum speed of 58.25 Mbps. According to a study by Joseph Hanlon at CNET, Australian LTE services on Telstra average 39.97 Mbps. In the United Kingdom, comparable speeds can be found on the fastest LTE service provided by Everything Everywhere (EE), a joint venture between T-Mobile and Orange. While research in advancing mobile communications technology is a laudable endeavor, this particular experiment isn't ready for deployment anytime soon. The device being tested wasn't a handset — it was a "mobile station" (communications truck) moving at 9 km/h (5.5 mph). Accordingly, the power consumption of the components in the truck is likely quite massive, at least in comparison to the painstakingly optimized hardware of the phone in your pocket. For these reasons, it's quite likely that it will be several years — if not a decade — before this technology is used in commercially available consumer mobile phones. Additionally, the design of a network using super high-frequency bands would need a great deal of engineering to overcome the limitations of that technology. Deployment in Japan would be easier if some workaround is devised for broadcasting around buildings, which in particularly urban places such as Tokyo would be a significant encumbrance to such an endeavor. Deployment in the United States has a completely different set of problems, however. In addition to having the problem of engineering around a sprawling metropolis, the United States has a great deal of suburban semi-rural areas with particularly low population densities. Engineering a mobile network using super high-frequency bands would be a gargantuan undertaking. NTT docomo's engineers are likely up to the task, though the question is worth asking: Should a one-size-fits-all solution be used in mobility, or should U.S. carriers stick to technologies that can be deployed with greater ease and at a lower cost for the geographic layout of the United States? What is your hope for the future of mobile connectivity, and how are your connection speeds where you live? Let us know in the discussion thread below.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The field of spintronics focuses on spin transport behavior in magnetic metals, and the major findings in this area have important implications for the field of electronics. This is because conventional electronics primarily considers the electron charge, whereas spintronics allows the electron spin to be exploited. One of the most significant advancements in spintronics has been the introduction of spin degrees of freedom to semiconductors, which are essential components of modern electronic and photonic applications. However, most experiments investigating spin manipulation in semiconductors have been performed under high magnetic fields and at cryogenic temperatures. Recently, Nozomi Nishizawa and Hiro Munekata and colleagues, from the Institute of Innovative Research, Tokyo Institute of Technology, examined the behavior of spin-polarized light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at room temperature and without an external magnetic field. Hence, they achieved the unexpected result of almost purely circularly polarized (CP) electroluminescence (EL). The LEDs used in the study contained an epitaxial double heterostructure (sandwich-like structure) of AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs, a crystalline AlOx tunnel barrier (for electrical stability during operation), and a polycrystalline Fe in-plane spin injector. During operation, spins of a given type were injected into the device. Spin relaxation then caused these spins to disperse and adopt other orthogonal orientations. Radiative recombination subsequently occurred, which was observed in the form of a linearly polarized emission. Experiments on the LED chips showed that a higher current density generated an increase in the emission intensity. Nishizawa and coworkers also noted that the difference between the left- and right-handed EL components increased with the current density. Specifically, the intensity of the left-handed minority component decreased with increased current density, whereas that of the right-handed majority component increased linearly. Therefore, when the current density was sufficiently high (~ 100 A/scm), almost pure CP was achieved. Investigating this behavior in more detail, the researchers found that p-type doping in the active layer allowed the CP observation, which arose from spin-dependent nonlinear processes occurring at a sufficiently high current density. In the future, higher current densities will be applied in order to elucidate the mechanism behind these nonlinear processes and to investigate the possibility of stimulated CP emission in other geometries. Other important avenues of investigation also exist, e.g., potential spin-LED applications in secure optical communications, cancer diagnosis, and optically enhanced nuclei imaging.


News Article | October 29, 2016
Site: www.techrepublic.com

NTT docomo, Japan's largest mobile phone network provider, in cooperation with the Tokyo Institute of Technology, is currently undertaking research for a new 5G network with the intent of reaching 10 Gbps transmission speeds. Interestingly, their experiment achieved these speeds using a Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO) antenna, a feature common to newer standards, such as HSPA+ and 802.11n. They conducted this test with a 400 MHz block of bandwidth in the 11 GHz spectrum, which is an uncommon frequency to use in mobile phone operations. Super high-frequency bands (5 GHz and higher) are not commonly used for mobile phone communications, due to the difficulty of transmitting those waves around buildings. NTT docomo provided no explanation in their press release about how this limitation will be overcome. NTT docomo's research department first proposed the current standard of mobile communications technology, LTE, in 2004. In June, they announced the deployment of a compact LTE base station in locations where traditional base stations cannot be deployed due to prohibitive size or cost, such as mountainous locations. Currently, NTT docomo service in Japan, branded as Xi LTE, is capable of delivering download speeds up to 100 Mbps. According to a study by PC Magazine, the fastest LTE service in the United States is AT&T, with an average speed of 16.02 Mbps and a maximum speed of 58.25 Mbps. According to a study by Joseph Hanlon at CNET, Australian LTE services on Telstra average 39.97 Mbps. In the United Kingdom, comparable speeds can be found on the fastest LTE service provided by Everything Everywhere (EE), a joint venture between T-Mobile and Orange. While research in advancing mobile communications technology is a laudable endeavor, this particular experiment isn't ready for deployment anytime soon. The device being tested wasn't a handset — it was a "mobile station" (communications truck) moving at 9 km/h (5.5 mph). Accordingly, the power consumption of the components in the truck is likely quite massive, at least in comparison to the painstakingly optimized hardware of the phone in your pocket. For these reasons, it's quite likely that it will be several years — if not a decade — before this technology is used in commercially available consumer mobile phones. Additionally, the design of a network using super high-frequency bands would need a great deal of engineering to overcome the limitations of that technology. Deployment in Japan would be easier if some workaround is devised for broadcasting around buildings, which in particularly urban places such as Tokyo would be a significant encumbrance to such an endeavor. Deployment in the United States has a completely different set of problems, however. In addition to having the problem of engineering around a sprawling metropolis, the United States has a great deal of suburban semi-rural areas with particularly low population densities. Engineering a mobile network using super high-frequency bands would be a gargantuan undertaking. NTT docomo's engineers are likely up to the task, though the question is worth asking: Should a one-size-fits-all solution be used in mobility, or should U.S. carriers stick to technologies that can be deployed with greater ease and at a lower cost for the geographic layout of the United States? What is your hope for the future of mobile connectivity, and how are your connection speeds where you live? Let us know in the discussion thread below.


The 3,500 people who swallow button batteries each year may soon have the option to chase the tiny hazards with origami robots, programmed to push them to the exits. While most people pass button cell battery with no consequence, there's still a high risk that the foreign object could get lodged in the stomach walls and react with stomach acid to produce hydroxide — and hydroxide burns through tissue. Shuhei Miyashita, a postdoc at CSAIL at the time, convinced his colleague Daniela Rus that button battery retrieval and internal wound treatment were both compelling use cases for the origami robot, which they'd been working on in collaboration with other researchers from MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, the University of Sheffield, and the Tokyo Institute of Technology. "Shuhei bought a piece of ham, and he put the battery on the ham," said Rus, MIT professor and CSAIL director. "Within half an hour, the battery was fully submerged in the ham. So that made me realize that, yes, this is important. If you have a battery in your body, you really want it out as soon as possible." The team's origami robot is an iteration of previous research done with the concept. However, the latest origami robot differs from its predecessor because it uses biocompatible material — and that material is dried pig intestine, the same type used as casing for sausage. Like the previous origami robot, the latest one uses a "stick slip" motion to move around the stomach after they've been ingested and have unfolded. The "stick slip" motion leverages the robot's rigidity and friction to stick to a surface, while using its flexibility to "slip" forward. The robot uses "stick slip" about 80 percent of the time it's moving forward, and propels itself through water the other 20 percent of the time, according to Miyashita. Right now, the robot is directed to its target via an external magnetic field, but that could change soon. "Next we would like to do in vivo experiments. We would also like to add sensors to the robot and redesign the robot so that it's able to control itself without the need of external magnetic field," said Rus in the video below. © 2016 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


News Article | February 24, 2017
Site: www.gizmag.com

Diamonds used to squeeze a sample to ultrahigh pressures corresponding to those of the Earth's core (Credit: Tokyo Institute of Technology) For centuries, scientists have wondered why Earth has a magnetic field. It's still a mystery, but by using super-high pressures and temperatures to duplicate conditions at the Earth's core, scientists at the Earth-Life Science Institute at the Tokyo Institute of Technology have discovered that there may be quartz crystals there that help explain how the Earth gets the power to generate its field. As any elementary geology textbook will show, the Earth's interior is a huge ball of molten iron 3,000 km (1,800 mi) down from the surface surrounded by hot plastic rock. The core and the mantle are extremely hot, with temperatures of 3,500 K (5,800° F, 3,200° C) and pressures of 40 to 60 gigapascals (390,000 to 590,000 atmospheres). Scientists believe that the dynamics of this molten core, and the conductive materials within it, generate the Earth's magnetic field, but exactly how is still a mystery. One aspect of this mystery is what Peter Olson of Johns Hopkins University dubbed "the New Core Heat Paradox." Although it's been found that core rotates slightly faster than the Earth itself, it only circulates at a rate of a few centimeters per year. That might not seem like much, but in geological terms that's almost like the core is churning like a blender. In 2013, Kei Hirose of the Tokyo Institute of Technology stated that his research had found that convection, with hot buoyant rocks carrying heat from the core to the surface, would have had to have cooled the Earth's core by 1,000° C (1,830° F) over the past 4.5 billion years in order to power the Earth's magnetic field. The problem is that this requires a solid core, but that core is only about a billion years old, while the magnetic field is much older, hence the paradox. Another problem is that the composition of the core isn't certain. It's 10 percent less dense than pure iron, so there must be lighter elements, like silicon and oxygen, present. In addition, not much is known about what proportions these lighter elements are in and what sort of compounds they form under such extreme high pressure. To learn more, the Tokyo Tech team placed dust-sized samples in a diamond anvil, where two diamonds are pressed together at the tips to create massive pressures. Meanwhile, lasers were focused on the sample to heat it to core temperatures. Similar experiments have been conducted in the past using two elements, but this time the scientists combined silicon, iron and oxygen in the anvil. Surprisingly, the iron, silicon, oxygen mixture caused the silicon and oxygen to combine and crystallize to form quartz as it cools, as electron microscope analysis confirmed. This is important because the team says that if the quartz formed at the top of the core, the process would power the core convection to make the core act like a dynamo and power the magnetic field without the interior needing to cool dramatically – eliminating the paradox. Another thing about the new mechanism is that it helps to explain details of the formation of the Earth and other bodies in the Solar System because, as crystallization continues, the silicon and oxygen will eventually run out and change the composition of the core. "Even if you have silicon present, you can't make silicon dioxide crystals without also having some oxygen available," says ELSI scientist George Helffrich. "But this gives us clues about the original concentration of oxygen and silicon in the core, because only some silicon:oxygen ratios are compatible with this model."


News Article | November 18, 2015
Site: phys.org

Normally, the volume of a substance will contract when heavier isotopes replace lighter ones – the so-called 'normal' volume isotope effect (VIE). However, at ambient pressure, ice Ih—that can be obtained by cooling water down to zero degrees Celsius at ambient pressure—and XI (the hydrogen (H) ordered version of ice Ih) expands in volume when hydrogen atoms are substituted with deuterium. On the other hand, the normal VIE has been theoretically predicted in ice VIII and VII (H-disordered version of ice VIII) at ambient pressure and zero degrees Kelvin (K). Even in ice, a very simple substance, different types of VIE occur in different phases and reasons for this have not been clarified so far. To clarify the VIE changes that occur in the above ice phases, Koichiro Umemoto at the Earth-Life Science Institute (ELSI) of Tokyo Institute of Technology and Renata M. Wentzcovitch at the University of Minnesota, together with co-workers across Japan, USA and Italy, investigated the pressure dependence of VIEs in ice XI and VIII using first principles calculations. The team predicted computationally that, in ice VIII at 300 K, the VIE is normal below ~14 GPa and turns to anomalous one at higher pressure. In fact, ice VIII exhibited three different VIEs dependent on pressure, including a second anomalous type with zero-point-motion volume contraction. The pressure dependence of phonon modes corresponding to the stretching of O-H bonds within the molecule was found to be the key to the nature of VIE. An X-ray diffraction experiment at the beam line BL10XU of SPring-8 showed the predicted pressure-induced transitions in VIE for ice VII, an H-disordered version of ice VIII, and supported the theory. By comparing the results of ice VIII and VII, it was revealed that the qualitative nature of VIE in ice is independent on hydrogen ordering. Furthermore, calculations revealed that ice XI, an H-ordered version of ice Ih where the anomalous VIE was reported at ambient pressure, undergoes a transition in VIE from normal to anomalous. However, the transition pressure was calculated to be negative (~-1GPa). Consequently, the anomalous VIE was observed in ice Ih. In short, the anomalous VIE in ice Ih and XI can be explained by the mechanism found in ice VII and VIII in a unified way. The results may be applicable to liquid water under pressure, as well as other H-bonded materials. The different phases of water and ice Frozen water, or H2O, is known to exist in 17 different phases, representing a whole family of types of ice with different molecular geometries. At ambient pressure on Earth, ice takes its hexagonal form (ice Ih), and contains a small percentage of deuterium atoms – a heavier isotope of hydrogen (H) that has a neutron as well as a proton in its nucleus. Other ice phases occur according to the temperature and pressure under which they are formed. These include ordered and disordered H structures, with various different densities. In this study, Umemoto and his team focused on ice-XI (the H-ordered form of ice Ih), and H-ordered ice-VIII, alongside its H-disordered form, ice-VII. Normally when a heavier isotope replaces a lighter one, the result is that the substance shrinks in volume. The presence of isotopes therefore impacts on the volume of a substance – the so-called volume isotope effect, or VIE. Ice Ih represents an anomaly in VIE because water expands when it freezes at 0°C at ambient pressure on Earth, in spite of the presence of deuterium. Umemoto and his team wished to expand on current understanding of ice phases and changing VIE, hypothesizing that pressure would have an impact on the way the molecules interacted, and therefore the volume they would encompass. In both ordered and disordered hydrogen structures in ice, oxygen (O) molecules form two strong bonds with two close H molecules, and two weak bonds with two more distant H molecules. Umemoto's team have shown that it is the stretching and resulting distances between these weak bonds that are key to VIE changes. The team used first principles quasi-harmonic calculations. These are theoretical calculations which apply atomic behavior to predict what might occur under a certain set of circumstances. In this case, the calculations were used to determine the molecular interactions and structures of different ice phases under different pressures. Their predictions were then backed up by x-ray diffraction measurements of ice-VIII. Umemoto and his team were able to pinpoint the pressure and temperature at which the ice-VIII VIE changed from normal (contraction) to anomalous (expansion). This study sheds light on the behavior of ice molecules under high pressures, and how weak O-H bond-length impacts on VIE. The findings may have implications for other solid phases of H2O, liquid water under high pressure, and other H-bonded materials. Explore further: Is salt the key to unlocking the interiors of Neptune and Uranus? More information: Nature of the Volume Isotope Effect in Ice Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 173005 – Published 22 October 2015. dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.173005


News Article | December 5, 2016
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

The flashy Breakthrough Awards ceremony, organized by billionaires and hosted by some A-list celebrities, made two dozen scientists a bit wealthier Sunday night. Eight prizes, more lucrative than even the Nobels, were awarded to 12 elite scientists for work ranging from astrophysics to DNA and cell biology. Six physicists and four mathematicians at the beginnings of their career reaped New Horizons awards, and two teenagers won Breakthrough Junior Challenge distinctions. “Science is universal,” said Yuri Milner, the Russian billionaire who founded the Breakthroughs, in a statement Sunday. “Tonight it brought together some of the world’s greatest actors, sportsmen, musicians, academics, entrepreneurs, astronauts and, last but not least, scientists, to celebrate what the human mind can achieve.” The Special Breakthrough Prize was awarded in May. The three founders of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), which made a watershed breakthrough in observing gravitational waves last year, split $1 million: Ronald W.P. Drever and Kip S. Thorne, both emeritus professors at Caltech and Rainer Weiss, an emeritus professor from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The remaining $2 million will be split between the 1,012 contributors to the experiment. The split is nearly $2,000 for each of the scientists. The Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences was split between five people from separate fields. Stephen J. Elledge of Harvard Medical School was included for his investigations into DNA’s natural repair process. Harry F. Noller of the University of California – Santa Cruz was honored for his discovery of some of the function of the ribosome, a kind of protein factor in the cell that translates form to function. Roeland Nusse of Stanford University was recognized for his discovery of the Wnt signaling pathway, which has been shown as a major waypoint for the development of some cancers. Yoshinori Ohsumi of the Tokyo Institute of Technology, fresh off a Nobel win in October, won for his discoveries in understanding autophagy, the process in which cells break down and recycle cellular material. Huda Yahya Zoghbi was included for her look into the genetics and workings of spinocerebellar ataxia and Rett syndrome. The Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics was split by Joseph Polchinski, of the University of California – Santa Barbara, and Andrew Strominger and Cumrun Vafa, both of Harvard. All three won for their contributions to string theory, quantum gravity, and particularly how string theory applies to black holes. The Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics was given to the only sole winner. Jean Bourgain of the Institute of Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J., was acknowledged for transforming the state of partial differential equations, high-dimensional geometry, number theory, and other analytical pursuits. Three New Horizons in Physics prizes (each $100,000) were split between Asimina Arvanitaki, Peter W. Graham, Surjeet Rajendran, Simone Giombi, Xi Yin, and Frans Pretorius. Three New Horizons in Mathematics prizes (each $100,000) were split between Mohammed Abouzaid, Hugo Deuminil-Copin, Benjamin Elias, and Geordie Williamson. The Breakthrough Junior Challenge was won by two teenagers from Peru and Singapore. The total awarded to all was more than $25 million. After an awards ceremony that was hosted by Morgan Freeman, some of the honorees appeared still shocked by the recognition during panels. “It is a little bit unreal,” Nusse said. “I would say the experience has been surreal,” said Deanna See, 17, from Singapore. “The goal was to celebrate intellectual achievement – and these amazing people who make it happen,” added Milner. Founded in 2012, the Breakthrough Prizes have awarded nearly $200 million total.


Scientists at the Earth-Life Science Institute at the Tokyo Institute of Technology report in Nature (22 February 2017) unexpected discoveries about the Earth’s core. The findings include insights into the source of energy driving the Earth’s magnetic field, factors governing the cooling of the core and its chemical composition, and conditions that existed during the formation of the Earth. The Earth’s core consists mostly of a huge ball of liquid metal lying at 3000 km beneath its surface, surrounded by a mantle of hot rock. Notably, at such great depths, both the core and mantle are subject to extremely high pressures and temperatures. Furthermore, research indicates that the slow creeping flow of hot buoyant rocks—moving several centimeters per year—carries heat away from the core to the surface, resulting in a very gradual cooling of the core over geological time. However, the degree to which the Earth’s core has cooled since its formation is an area of intense debate amongst Earth scientists. In 2013 Kei Hirose, now Director of the Earth-Life Science Institute (ELSI) at the Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), reported that the Earth’s core may have cooled by as much as 1000˚C since its formation 4.5 billion years ago. This large amount of cooling would be necessary to sustain the geomagnetic field, unless there was another as yet undiscovered source of energy. These results were a major surprise to the deep Earth community, and created what Peter Olson of Johns Hopkins University referred to as, “the New Core Heat Paradox”, in an article published in Science. Core cooling and energy sources for the geomagnetic field were not the only difficult issues faced by the team. Another unresolved matter was uncertainty about the chemical composition of the core. “The core is mostly iron and some nickel, but also contains about 10% of light alloys such as silicon, oxygen, sulfur, carbon, hydrogen, and other compounds,” Hirose, lead author of the new study to be published in the journal Nature [1]. “We think that many alloys are simultaneously present, but we don’t know the proportion of each candidate element.” Now, in this latest research carried out in Hirose’s lab at ELSI, the scientists used precision cut diamonds to squeeze tiny dust-sized samples to the same pressures that exist at the Earth’s core. The high temperatures at the interior of the Earth were created by heating samples with a laser beam. By performing experiments with a range of probable alloy compositions under a variety of conditions, Hirose’s and colleagues are trying to identify the unique behavior of different alloy combinations that match the distinct environment that exists at the Earth’s core. The search of alloys began to yield useful results when Hirose and his collaborators began mixing more than one alloy. “In the past, most research on iron alloys in the core has focused only on the iron and a single alloy,” says Hirose. “But in these experiments we decided to combine two different alloys containing silicon and oxygen, which we strongly believe exist in the core.” The researchers were surprised to find that when they examined the samples in an electron microscope, the small amounts of silicon and oxygen in the starting sample had combined together to form silicon dioxide crystals—the same composition as the mineral quartz found at the surface of the Earth. "This result proved important for understanding the energetics and evolution of the core," says John Hernlund of ELSI, a co-author of the study. “We were excited because our calculations showed that crystallization of silicon dioxide crystals from the core could provide an immense new energy source for powering the Earth’s magnetic field.” The additional boost it provides is plenty enough to solve Olson’s paradox. The team has also explored the implications of these results for the formation of the Earth and conditions in the early Solar System. Crystallization changes the composition of the core by removing dissolved silicon and oxygen gradually over time. Eventually the process of crystallization will stop when then core runs out of its ancient inventory of either silicon or oxygen. "Even if you have silicon present, you can’t make silicon dioxide crystals without also having some oxygen available,” says ELSI scientist George Helffrich, who modeled the crystallization process for this study. “But this gives us clues about the original concentration of oxygen and silicon in the core, because only some silicon:oxygen ratios are compatible with this model.” Kei Hirose1, Guillaume Morard2, Ryosuke Sinmyo1, Koichio Umemoto1, John Hernlund1, George Helffrich1 & Stéphane Labrosse3. Crystallization of silicon dioxide and compositional evolution of the Earth’s core. Nature, published on-line 22 February, 2017 1. Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan. 2. Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, UMR CNRS 7590, Sorbonne Universités—Université Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, IRD, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France. 3. Université de Lyon, École normale supérieure de Lyon, Université Lyon-1, CNRS, UMR 5276 LGL-TPE, F-69364 Lyon, France. About Tokyo Institute of Technology Tokyo Institute of Technology stands at the forefront of research and higher education as the leading university for science and technology in Japan. Tokyo Tech researchers excel in a variety of fields, such as material science, biology, computer science and physics. Founded in 1881, Tokyo Tech has grown to host 10,000 undergraduate and graduate students who become principled leaders of their fields and some of the most sought-after scientists and engineers at top companies. Embodying the Japanese philosophy of “monotsukuri,” meaning technical ingenuity and innovation, the Tokyo Tech community strives to make significant contributions to society through high-impact research. Website: http://www.titech.ac.jp/english/ About ELSI Launched 4 years ago, ELSI is one of Japan’s ambitious World Premiere International research centers, whose aim is to achieve progress in broadly inter-disciplinary scientific areas by inspiring the world’s greatest minds to come to Japan and work on the most challenging as a collaborative effort. ELSI’s primary aim is to address the co-origin and co-evolution of the Earth and life. Hirose’s team also included ELSI researchers Ryosuke Simyo and Koichiro Umemoto, in addition to French colleagues Professor Stéphane Labrosse (Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon) and Dr. Guillaume Morard (Institut de minéralogie, de physique des matériaux et de cosmochimie). Both Labrosse and Morard are frequent visitors to ELSI, including their collaboration on this project


News Article | February 22, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The Earth's core consists mostly of a huge ball of liquid metal lying at 3000 km beneath its surface, surrounded by a mantle of hot rock. Notably, at such great depths, both the core and mantle are subject to extremely high pressures and temperatures. Furthermore, research indicates that the slow creeping flow of hot buoyant rocks--moving several centimeters per year--carries heat away from the core to the surface, resulting in a very gradual cooling of the core over geological time. However, the degree to which the Earth's core has cooled since its formation is an area of intense debate amongst Earth scientists. In 2013 Kei Hirose, now Director of the Earth-Life Science Institute (ELSI) at the Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), reported that the Earth's core may have cooled by as much as 1000?C since its formation 4.5 billion years ago. This large amount of cooling would be necessary to sustain the geomagnetic field, unless there was another as yet undiscovered source of energy. These results were a major surprise to the deep Earth community, and created what Peter Olson of Johns Hopkins University referred to as, "the New Core Heat Paradox", in an article published in Science. Core cooling and energy sources for the geomagnetic field were not the only difficult issues faced by the team. Another unresolved matter was uncertainty about the chemical composition of the core. "The core is mostly iron and some nickel, but also contains about 10% of light alloys such as silicon, oxygen, sulfur, carbon, hydrogen, and other compounds," Hirose, lead author of the new study to be published in the journal Nature [1]. "We think that many alloys are simultaneously present, but we don't know the proportion of each candidate element." Now, in this latest research carried out in Hirose's lab at ELSI, the scientists used precision cut diamonds to squeeze tiny dust-sized samples to the same pressures that exist at the Earth's core (Fig. 1). The high temperatures at the interior of the Earth were created by heating samples with a laser beam. By performing experiments with a range of probable alloy compositions under a variety of conditions, Hirose's and colleagues are trying to identify the unique behavior of different alloy combinations that match the distinct environment that exists at the Earth's core. The search of alloys began to yield useful results when Hirose and his collaborators began mixing more than one alloy. "In the past, most research on iron alloys in the core has focused only on the iron and a single alloy," says Hirose. "But in these experiments we decided to combine two different alloys containing silicon and oxygen, which we strongly believe exist in the core." The researchers were surprised to find that when they examined the samples in an electron microscope, the small amounts of silicon and oxygen in the starting sample had combined together to form silicon dioxide crystals (Fig. 2)--the same composition as the mineral quartz found at the surface of the Earth. "This result proved important for understanding the energetics and evolution of the core," says John Hernlund of ELSI, a co-author of the study. "We were excited because our calculations showed that crystallization of silicon dioxide crystals from the core could provide an immense new energy source for powering the Earth's magnetic field." The additional boost it provides is plenty enough to solve Olson's paradox. The team has also explored the implications of these results for the formation of the Earth and conditions in the early Solar System. Crystallization changes the composition of the core by removing dissolved silicon and oxygen gradually over time. Eventually the process of crystallization will stop when then core runs out of its ancient inventory of either silicon or oxygen. "Even if you have silicon present, you can't make silicon dioxide crystals without also having some oxygen available" says ELSI scientist George Helffrich, who modeled the crystallization process for this study. "But this gives us clues about the original concentration of oxygen and silicon in the core, because only some silicon:oxygen ratios are compatible with this model."


News Article | October 31, 2016
Site: phys.org

The lead author of the paper is HYODO Ryuki (Kobe University, Graduate School of Science), and co-authors are Professor Sébastien Charnoz (Institute de Physique du Globe/Université Paris Diderot), Professor OHTSUKI Keiji (Kobe University, Graduate School of Science), and Project Associate Professor GENDA Hidenori (Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology). The giant planets in our solar system have very diverse rings. Observations show that Saturn's rings are made of more than 95% icy particles, while the rings of Uranus and Neptune are darker and may have higher rock content. Since the rings of Saturn were first observed in the 17th century, investigation of the rings has expanded from earth-based telescopes to spacecraft such as Voyagers and Cassini. However, the origin of the rings was still unclear and the mechanisms that lead to the diverse ring systems were unknown. The present study focused on the period called the Late Heavy Bombardment that is believed to have occurred 4 billion years ago in our solar system, when the giant planets underwent orbital migration. It is thought that several thousand Pluto-sized (one fifth of Earth's size) objects from the Kuiper belt existed in the outer solar system beyond Neptune. First the researchers calculated the probability that these large objects passed close enough to the giant planets to be destroyed by their tidal force during the Late Heavy Bombardment. Results showed that Saturn, Uranus and Neptune experienced close encounters with these large celestial objects multiple times. Next the group used computer simulations to investigate disruption of these Kuiper belt objects by tidal force when they passed the vicinity of the giant planets (see Figure 2a). The results of the simulations varied depending on the initial conditions, such as the rotation of the passing objects and their minimum approach distance to the planet. However they discovered that in many cases fragments comprising 0.1-10% of the initial mass of the passing objects were captured into orbits around the planet (see Figures 2a, b). The combined mass of these captured fragments was found to be sufficient to explain the mass of the current rings around Saturn and Uranus. In other words, these planetary rings were formed when sufficiently large objects passed very close to giants and were destroyed. The researchers also simulated the long-term evolution of the captured fragments using supercomputers at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. From these simulations they found that captured fragments with an initial size of several kilometers are expected to undergo high-speed collisions repeatedly and are gradually shattered into small pieces. Such collisions between fragments are also expected to circularize their orbits and lead to the formation of the rings observed today (see Figures 2b, c). This model can also explain the compositional difference between the rings of Saturn and Uranus. Compared to Saturn, Uranus (and also Neptune) has higher density (the mean density of Uranus is 1.27g cm-3, and 1.64g cm-3 for Neptune, while that of Saturn is 0.69g cm-3). This means that in the cases of Uranus (and Neptune), objects can pass within close vicinity of the planet, where they experience extremely strong tidal forces. (Saturn has a lower density and a large diameter-to-mass ratio, so if objects pass very close they will collide with the planet itself). As a result, if Kuiper belt objects have layered structures such as a rocky core with an icy mantle and pass within close vicinity of Uranus or Neptune, in addition to the icy mantle, even the rocky core will be destroyed and captured, forming rings that include rocky composition. However if they pass by Saturn, only the icy mantle will be destroyed, forming icy rings. This explains the different ring compositions. These findings illustrate that the rings of giant planets are natural by-products of the formation process of the planets in our solar system. This implies that giant planets discovered around other stars likely have rings formed by a similar process. Discovery of a ring system around an exoplanet has been recently reported, and further discoveries of rings and satellites around exoplanets will advance our understanding of their origin. More information: Ryuki Hyodo et al, Ring formation around giant planets by tidal disruption of a single passing large Kuiper belt object, Icarus (2016). DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2016.09.012


News Article | November 23, 2016
Site: www.businesswire.com

SALT LAKE CITY--(BUSINESS WIRE)--SC16, the 28th annual international conference of high performance computing, networking, storage and analysis, celebrated the contributions of researchers and scientists - from those just starting their careers to those whose contributions have made lasting impacts. The conference drew more than 11,100 registered attendees and featured a technical program spanning six days. The exhibit hall featured 349 exhibitors from industry, academia and research organizations from around the world. “There has never been a more important time for high performance computing, networking and data analysis,” said SC16 General Chair John West from the Texas Advanced Computing Center. “But it is also an acute time for growing our workforce and expanding diversity in the industry. SC16 was the perfect blend of research, technological advancement, career recognition and improving the ways in which we attract and retain that next generation of scientists.” According to Trey Breckenridge, SC16 Exhibits Chair from Mississippi State University, the SC16 Exhibition was the largest in the history of the conference. The overall size of the exhibition was 150,000 net square feet (breaking the 2015 record of 141,430). The 349 industry and research-focused exhibits included 44 first-timers and 120 organizations from 25 countries outside the United States. During the conference, Salt Lake City also became the hub for the world’s fastest computer network: SCinet, SC16’s custom-built network which delivered 3.15 terabits per second in bandwidth. The network featured 56 miles of fiber deployed throughout the convention center and $32 million in loaned equipment. It was all made possible by 200 volunteers representing global organizations spanning academia, government and industry. For the third year, SC featured an opening “HPC Matters” plenary that this year focused on Precision Medicine, which examined what the future holds in this regard and how advances are only possible through the power of high performance computing and big data. Leading voices from the frontlines of clinical care, medical research, HPC system evolution, pharmaceutical R&D and public policy shared diverse perspectives on the future of precision medicine and how it will impact society. The Technical Program again offered the highest quality original HPC research. The SC workshops set a record with more than 2,500 attendees. There were 14 Best Paper Finalists and six Gordon Bell Finalists. These submissions represent the best of the best in a wide variety of research topics in HPC. “These awards are very important for the SC Conference Series. They celebrate the best and the brightest in high performance computing,” said Satoshi Matsuoka, SC16 Awards Chair from Tokyo Institute of Technology. “These awards are not just plaques or certificates. They define excellence. They set the bar for the years to come and are powerful inspiration for both early career and senior researchers.” Following is the list of Technical Program awards presented at SC16: SC16 received 442 paper submissions, of which 81 were accepted (18.3 percent acceptance rate). Of those, 13 were selected as finalists for the Best Paper (six) and Best Student Paper (seven) awards. The Best Paper Award went to “Daino: A High-Level Framework for Parallel and Efficient AMR on GPUs” by Mohamed Wahib Attia and Naoya Maruyama, RIKEN; and Takayuki Aoki, Tokyo Institute of Technology. The Best Student Paper Award went to “Flexfly: Enabling a Reconfigurable Dragonfly Through Silicon Photonics” by Ke Wen, Payman Samadi, Sebastien Rumley, Christine P. Chen, Yiwen Shen, Meisam Bahadori, and Karen Bergman, Columbia University and Jeremiah Wilke, Sandia National Laboratories. The ACM Gordon Bell Prize is awarded for outstanding team achievement in high performance computing and tracks the progress of parallel computing. This year, the prize was awarded to a 12-member Chinese team for their research project, “10M-Core Scalable Fully-Implicit Solver for Nonhydrostatic Atmospheric Dynamics.” The winning team presented a solver (method for calculating) atmospheric dynamics. In the abstract of their presentation, the winning team writes, “On the road to the seamless weather-climate prediction, a major obstacle is the difficulty of dealing with various spatial and temporal scales. The atmosphere contains time-dependent multi-scale dynamics that support a variety of wave motions.” To simulate the vast number of variables inherent in a weather system developing in the atmosphere, the winning group presents a highly scalable fully implicit solver for three-dimensional nonhydrostatic atmospheric simulations governed by fully compressible Euler equations. Euler equations are a set of equations frequently used to understand fluid dynamics (liquids and gasses in motion). Winning team members are Chao Yang, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Wei Xue, Weimin Zheng, Guangwen Yang, Ping Xu, and Haohuan Fu, Tsinghua University; Hongtao You, National Research Center of Parallel Computer Engineering and Technology; Xinliang Wang, Beijing Normal University; Yulong Ao and Fangfang Liu, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lin Gan, Tsinghua University; Lanning Wang, Beijing Normal University. This year, SC received 172 detailed poster submissions that went through a rigorous review process. In the end, 112 posters were accepted and five finalists were selected for the Best Poster Award. As part of its research poster activities, SC16 also hosted the ACM Student Research Competition for both undergraduate and graduate students. In all 63 submissions were received, 26 Student Research Competition posters were accepted – 14 in the graduate category and 12 in the undergraduate category. The Best Poster Award went to “A Fast Implicit Solver with Low Memory Footprint and High Scalability for Comprehensive Earthquake Simulation System” with Kohei Fujita from RIKEN as the lead author. First Place: “Touring Dataland? Automated Recommendations for the Big Data Traveler” by Willian Agnew and Michael Fischer, Advisors: Kyle Chard and Ian Foster. Second Place: “Analysis of Variable Selection Methods on Scientific Cluster Measurement Data” by Jonathan Wang, Advisors: Wucherl Yoo and Alex Sim. Third Place: “Discovering Energy Usage Patterns on Scientific Clusters” by Matthew Bae, Advisors: Wucherl Yoo, Alex Sim and Kesheng Wu. First Place: “Job Startup at Exascale: Challenges and Solutions” by Sourav Chakroborty, Advisor: Dhabaleswar K. Panda. Second Place: “Performance Modeling and Engineering with Kerncraft,” by Julian Hammer, Advisors: Georg Hager and Gerhard Wellein. Third Place: “Design and Evaluation of Topology-Aware Scatter and AllGather Algorithms for Dragonfly Networks” by Nathanael Cheriere, Advisor: Matthieu Dorier. The Scientific Visualization and Data Analytics Award featured six finalists. The award went to “Visualization and Analysis of Threats from Asteroid Ocean Impacts” with John Patchett as the lead author. The Student Cluster Competition returned for its 10th year. The competition which debuted at SC07 in Reno and has since been replicated in Europe, Asia and Africa, is a real-time, non-stop, 48-hour challenge in which teams of six undergraduates assemble a small cluster at SC16 and race to complete a real-world workload across a series of scientific applications, demonstrate knowledge of system architecture and application performance, and impress HPC industry judges. The students partner with vendors to design and build a cutting-edge cluster from commercially available components, not to exceed a 3120-watt power limit and work with application experts to tune and run the competition codes. For the first-time ever, the team that won top honors also won the award for achieving highest performance for the Linpack benchmark application. The team “SwanGeese” is from the University of Science and Technology of China. In traditional Chinese culture, the rare Swan Goose stands for teamwork, perseverance and bravery. This is the university’s third appearance in the competition. Also, an ACM SIGHPC Certificate of Appreciation is presented to the authors of a recent SC paper to be used for the SC16 Student Cluster Competition Reproducibility Initiative. The selected paper was “A Parallel Connectivity Algorithm for de Bruijn Graphs in Metagenomic Applications” by Patrick Flick, Chirag Jain, Tony Pan and Srinivas Aluru from Georgia Institute of Technology. The George Michael Memorial HPC Fellowship honors exceptional Ph.D. students. The first recipient is Johann Rudi from the Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences at the University of Texas at Austin for his project, “Extreme-Scale Implicit Solver for Nonlinear, Multiscale, and Heterogeneous Stokes Flow in the Earth’s Mantle.” The second recipient is Axel Huebl from Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf at the Technical University of Dresden for his project, “Scalable, Many-core Particle-in-cell Algorithms to Stimulate Next Generation Particle Accelerators and Corresponding Large-scale Data Analytics.” The SC Conference Series also serves as the venue for recognizing leaders in the HPC community for their contributions during their careers. Here are the career awards presented at SC16: The IEEE-CS Seymour Cray Computer Engineering Award recognizes innovative contributions to high performance computing systems that best exemplify the creative spirit demonstrated by Seymour Cray. The 2016 IEEE-CS Seymour Cray Computer Engineering Award was presented to William J. Camp of Los Alamos National Laboratory “for visionary leadership of the Red Storm project, and for decades of leadership of the HPC community.” Camp previously served as Intel’s Chief Supercomputing Architect and directed Intel’s Exascale R&D efforts. Established in memory of Ken Kennedy, the founder of Rice University's nationally ranked computer science program and one of the world's foremost experts on high-performance computing, the ACM/IEEE-CS Ken Kennedy Award recognizes outstanding contributions to programmability or productivity in high-performance computing together with significant community service or mentoring contributions. The 2016 Ken Kennedy Award was presented to William D. Gropp “for highly influential contributions to the programmability of high-performance parallel and distributed computers, and extraordinary service to the profession.” Gropp Is the Acting Director of the National Center for Supercomputing Applications and Director, Parallel Computing Institute, Thomas M. Siebel Chair in Computer Science at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. The IEEE-CS Sidney Fernbach Memorial Award is awarded for outstanding contributions in the application of high performance computers using innovative approaches. The 2016 IEEE-CS Sidney Fernbach Memorial Award was presented to Vipin Kumar “for foundational work on understanding scalability, and highly scalable algorithms for graph positioning, sparse linear systems and data mining.” Kumar is a Regents Professor at the University of Minnesota. The Supercomputing Conference Test of Time Award recognizes an outstanding paper that has appeared at the SC conference and has deeply influenced the HPC discipline. It is a mark of historical impact and recognition that the paper has changed HPC trends. The winning paper is “Automatically Tuned Linear Algebra Software” by Clint Whaley from University of Tennessee and Jack Dongarra from University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. IEEE TCSC Award for Excellence in Scalable Computing for Early Career Researchers: The IEEE TCHPC Award for Excellence in Scalable Computing for Early Career Researchers recognizes individuals who have made outstanding and potentially long-lasting contributions to the field within five years of receiving their Ph.D. The 2016 awards were presented to Kyle Chard, Computation Institute , University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory; Sunita Chandrassekaran, University of Delaware; and Seyong Lee, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. SC17 will be held next November 12-17 in Denver, Colorado. For more details, go to http://sc17.supercomputing.org/. SC16, sponsored by the IEEE Computer Society and ACM (Association for Computing Machinery), offers a complete technical education program and exhibition to showcase the many ways high performance computing, networking, storage and analysis lead to advances in scientific discovery, research, education and commerce. This premier international conference includes a globally attended technical program, workshops, tutorials, a world-class exhibit area, demonstrations and opportunities for hands-on learning. For more information on SC16, visit: http://sc16.supercomputing.org.


News Article | October 3, 2016
Site: cen.acs.org

The 2016 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to Yoshinori Ohsumi, 71, a cell biologist at the Tokyo Institute of Technology “for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy.” Autophagy is the process by which cells capture large dysfunctional proteins, aging organelles, and invading pathogens in vesicles and then send them to the lysosome for degradation, said Juleen Zierath, Chair of the Nobel Committee for Physiology or Medicine in announcing the prize. “Without autophagy our cells won’t survive.” Dysfunction of the autophagy process is life-threatening from birth through old age. For example, autophagy is disrupted in Alzheimer’s disease, when toxic protein aggregates are not properly discarded. As a consequence drugmakers have continued to eye the pathway as a therapeutic target. Although researchers had known since the 1960s that cells cleaned up their large cellular garbage by enclosing it in vesicle sacks and sending it to the lysosome for degradation, in the 1990s, when Ohsumi began his work, nobody knew how the system worked, and what machinery was involved, Zierath says. At the time, “people were not that keen to study how cells got rid of their trash—it was not considered sexy,” says Anne Bertolotti, who studies autophagy at MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, in Cambridge, and who hosted a visit from Ohsumi just a few weeks ago. Ohsumi first noticed that you could induce baker’s yeast cells to produce autophagy vesicles under low nutrient conditions. This observation gave scientists the first method for controlling and studying the process, Bertolotti says. Then, “in a heroic effort, Ohsumi studied mutant yeast under the light microscope, one cell at a time, to figure out which genes were involved,” she adds. Over the years Ohsumi continued to tease apart the mechanisms of autophagy and to show that similar machinery existed in more complicated organisms, including humans. Notably, he showed that the lysosome wasn’t just a waste dump, it was a recycling plant, Zierath adds. In some cases, discarded components are actually broken down in the lysosome and reused to make new proteins. “Ohsumi is the father of this field,” Bertolotti says. “It is a really well-deserved prize.” Ohsumi was in the lab when he received the famous phone call. "I was surprised," he told Adam Smith, chief scientific officer at Nobel Media. Since his original discoveries, autophagy has become a large research field, Ohsumi added. But “even now we have more questions than when I started.”


News Article | October 31, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

A team of researchers has presented a new model for the origin of Saturn's rings based on results of computer simulations. The results of the simulations are also applicable to rings of other giant planets and explain the compositional differences between the rings of Saturn and Uranus. The findings were published on October 6 in the online version of Icarus. The lead author of the paper is HYODO Ryuki (Kobe University, Graduate School of Science), and co-authors are Professor Sébastien Charnoz (Institute de Physique du Globe/Université Paris Diderot), Professor OHTSUKI Keiji (Kobe University, Graduate School of Science), and Project Associate Professor GENDA Hidenori (Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology). The giant planets in our solar system have very diverse rings. Observations show that Saturn's rings are made of more than 95% icy particles, while the rings of Uranus and Neptune are darker and may have higher rock content. Since the rings of Saturn were first observed in the 17th century, investigation of the rings has expanded from earth-based telescopes to spacecraft such as Voyagers and Cassini. However, the origin of the rings was still unclear and the mechanisms that lead to the diverse ring systems were unknown. The present study focused on the period called the Late Heavy Bombardment that is believed to have occurred 4 billion years ago in our solar system, when the giant planets underwent orbital migration. It is thought that several thousand Pluto-sized (one fifth of Earth's size) objects from the Kuiper belt existed in the outer solar system beyond Neptune. First the researchers calculated the probability that these large objects passed close enough to the giant planets to be destroyed by their tidal force during the Late Heavy Bombardment. Results showed that Saturn, Uranus and Neptune experienced close encounters with these large celestial objects multiple times. Next the group used computer simulations to investigate disruption of these Kuiper belt objects by tidal force when they passed the vicinity of the giant planets. The results of the simulations varied depending on the initial conditions, such as the rotation of the passing objects and their minimum approach distance to the planet. However they discovered that in many cases fragments comprising 0.1-10% of the initial mass of the passing objects were captured into orbits around the planet. The combined mass of these captured fragments was found to be sufficient to explain the mass of the current rings around Saturn and Uranus. In other words, these planetary rings were formed when sufficiently large objects passed very close to giants and were destroyed. The researchers also simulated the long-term evolution of the captured fragments using supercomputers at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. From these simulations they found that captured fragments with an initial size of several kilometers are expected to undergo high-speed collisions repeatedly and are gradually shattered into small pieces. Such collisions between fragments are also expected to circularize their orbits and lead to the formation of the rings observed today. This model can also explain the compositional difference between the rings of Saturn and Uranus. Compared to Saturn, Uranus (and also Neptune) has higher density (the mean density of Uranus is 1.27g cm-3, and 1.64g cm-3 for Neptune, while that of Saturn is 0.69g cm-3). This means that in the cases of Uranus (and Neptune), objects can pass within close vicinity of the planet, where they experience extremely strong tidal forces. (Saturn has a lower density and a large diameter-to-mass ratio, so if objects pass very close they will collide with the planet itself). As a result, if Kuiper belt objects have layered structures such as a rocky core with an icy mantle and pass within close vicinity of Uranus or Neptune, in addition to the icy mantle, even the rocky core will be destroyed and captured, forming rings that include rocky composition. However if they pass by Saturn, only the icy mantle will be destroyed, forming icy rings. This explains the different ring compositions. These findings illustrate that the rings of giant planets are natural by-products of the formation process of the planets in our solar system. This implies that giant planets discovered around other stars likely have rings formed by a similar process. Discovery of a ring system around an exoplanet has been recently reported, and further discoveries of rings and satellites around exoplanets will advance our understanding of their origin. (1) Late Heavy Bombardment: a period of orbital instability that occurred in our solar system approximately 4 billion years ago. It is thought that during this period there were many small bodies that did not ultimately become planets that existed in orbit beyond Neptune. As a result of gravitational interactions with the giant planets, the orbits of these small bodies became unstable, and many of them entered the solar system and collided with planets that had already formed. It is thought that most of the craters on the surface of the moon were formed during this period. (2) Kuiper belt objects: A large number of small bodies made of ice and rock that exist beyond the orbit of Neptune.


News Article | November 1, 2016
Site: www.rdmag.com

A team of researchers have presented a new model for the origin of Saturn's rings based on results of computer simulations. The results of the simulations are also applicable to rings of other giant planets and explain the compositional differences between the rings of Saturn and Uranus. The findings were published on October 6 in the online version of Icarus. The lead author of the paper is HYODO Ryuki (Kobe University, Graduate School of Science), and co-authors are Professor Sébastien Charnoz (Institute de Physique du Globe/Université Paris Diderot), Professor OHTSUKI Keiji (Kobe University, Graduate School of Science), and Project Associate Professor GENDA Hidenori (Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology). The giant planets in our solar system have very diverse rings. Observations show that Saturn's rings are made of more than 95% icy particles, while the rings of Uranus and Neptune are darker and may have higher rock content. Since the rings of Saturn were first observed in the 17th century, investigation of the rings has expanded from earth-based telescopes to spacecraft such as Voyagers and Cassini. However, the origin of the rings was still unclear and the mechanisms that lead to the diverse ring systems were unknown. The present study focused on the period called the Late Heavy Bombardment that is believed to have occurred 4 billion years ago in our solar system, when the giant planets underwent orbital migration. It is thought that several thousand Pluto-sized (one fifth of Earth's size) objects from the Kuiper belt existed in the outer solar system beyond Neptune. First the researchers calculated the probability that these large objects passed close enough to the giant planets to be destroyed by their tidal force during the Late Heavy Bombardment. Results showed that Saturn, Uranus and Neptune experienced close encounters with these large celestial objects multiple times. Next the group used computer simulations to investigate disruption of these Kuiper belt objects by tidal force when they passed the vicinity of the giant planets (see Figure 2a). The results of the simulations varied depending on the initial conditions, such as the rotation of the passing objects and their minimum approach distance to the planet. However they discovered that in many cases fragments comprising 0.1-10% of the initial mass of the passing objects were captured into orbits around the planet (see Figures 2a, b). The combined mass of these captured fragments was found to be sufficient to explain the mass of the current rings around Saturn and Uranus. In other words, these planetary rings were formed when sufficiently large objects passed very close to giants and were destroyed. The researchers also simulated the long-term evolution of the captured fragments using supercomputers at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. From these simulations they found that captured fragments with an initial size of several kilometers are expected to undergo high-speed collisions repeatedly and are gradually shattered into small pieces. Such collisions between fragments are also expected to circularize their orbits and lead to the formation of the rings observed today (see Figures 2b, c). This model can also explain the compositional difference between the rings of Saturn and Uranus. Compared to Saturn, Uranus (and also Neptune) has higher density (the mean density of Uranus is 1.27g cm-3, and 1.64g cm-3 for Neptune, while that of Saturn is 0.69g cm-3). This means that in the cases of Uranus (and Neptune), objects can pass within close vicinity of the planet, where they experience extremely strong tidal forces. (Saturn has a lower density and a large diameter-to-mass ratio, so if objects pass very close they will collide with the planet itself). As a result, if Kuiper belt objects have layered structures such as a rocky core with an icy mantle and pass within close vicinity of Uranus or Neptune, in addition to the icy mantle, even the rocky core will be destroyed and captured, forming rings that include rocky composition. However if they pass by Saturn, only the icy mantle will be destroyed, forming icy rings. This explains the different ring compositions. These findings illustrate that the rings of giant planets are natural by-products of the formation process of the planets in our solar system. This implies that giant planets discovered around other stars likely have rings formed by a similar process. Discovery of a ring system around an exoplanet has been recently reported, and further discoveries of rings and satellites around exoplanets will advance our understanding of their origin.


News Article | October 31, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A team of researchers has presented a new model for the origin of Saturn's rings based on results of computer simulations. The results of the simulations are also applicable to rings of other giant planets and explain the compositional differences between the rings of Saturn and Uranus. The findings were published on October 6 in the online version of Icarus. The lead author of the paper is HYODO Ryuki (Kobe University, Graduate School of Science), and co-authors are Professor Sébastien Charnoz (Institute de Physique du Globe/Université Paris Diderot), Professor OHTSUKI Keiji (Kobe University, Graduate School of Science), and Project Associate Professor GENDA Hidenori (Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology). The giant planets in our solar system have very diverse rings. Observations show that Saturn's rings are made of more than 95% icy particles, while the rings of Uranus and Neptune are darker and may have higher rock content. Since the rings of Saturn were first observed in the 17th century, investigation of the rings has expanded from earth-based telescopes to spacecraft such as Voyagers and Cassini. However, the origin of the rings was still unclear and the mechanisms that lead to the diverse ring systems were unknown. The present study focused on the period called the Late Heavy Bombardment that is believed to have occurred 4 billion years ago in our solar system, when the giant planets underwent orbital migration. It is thought that several thousand Pluto-sized (one fifth of Earth's size) objects from the Kuiper belt existed in the outer solar system beyond Neptune. First the researchers calculated the probability that these large objects passed close enough to the giant planets to be destroyed by their tidal force during the Late Heavy Bombardment. Results showed that Saturn, Uranus and Neptune experienced close encounters with these large celestial objects multiple times. Next the group used computer simulations to investigate disruption of these Kuiper belt objects by tidal force when they passed the vicinity of the giant planets (see Figure 2a). The results of the simulations varied depending on the initial conditions, such as the rotation of the passing objects and their minimum approach distance to the planet. However they discovered that in many cases fragments comprising 0.1-10% of the initial mass of the passing objects were captured into orbits around the planet (see Figures 2a, b). The combined mass of these captured fragments was found to be sufficient to explain the mass of the current rings around Saturn and Uranus. In other words, these planetary rings were formed when sufficiently large objects passed very close to giants and were destroyed. The researchers also simulated the long-term evolution of the captured fragments using supercomputers at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. From these simulations they found that captured fragments with an initial size of several kilometers are expected to undergo high-speed collisions repeatedly and are gradually shattered into small pieces. Such collisions between fragments are also expected to circularize their orbits and lead to the formation of the rings observed today (see Figures 2b, c). This model can also explain the compositional difference between the rings of Saturn and Uranus. Compared to Saturn, Uranus (and also Neptune) has higher density (the mean density of Uranus is 1.27g cm-3, and 1.64g cm-3 for Neptune, while that of Saturn is 0.69g cm-3). This means that in the cases of Uranus (and Neptune), objects can pass within close vicinity of the planet, where they experience extremely strong tidal forces. (Saturn has a lower density and a large diameter-to-mass ratio, so if objects pass very close they will collide with the planet itself). As a result, if Kuiper belt objects have layered structures such as a rocky core with an icy mantle and pass within close vicinity of Uranus or Neptune, in addition to the icy mantle, even the rocky core will be destroyed and captured, forming rings that include rocky composition. However if they pass by Saturn, only the icy mantle will be destroyed, forming icy rings. This explains the different ring compositions. These findings illustrate that the rings of giant planets are natural by-products of the formation process of the planets in our solar system. This implies that giant planets discovered around other stars likely have rings formed by a similar process. Discovery of a ring system around an exoplanet has been recently reported, and further discoveries of rings and satellites around exoplanets will advance our understanding of their origin. (1) Late Heavy Bombardment: a period of orbital instability that occurred in our solar system approximately 4 billion years ago. It is thought that during this period there were many small bodies that did not ultimately become planets that existed in orbit beyond Neptune. As a result of gravitational interactions with the giant planets, the orbits of these small bodies became unstable, and many of them entered the solar system and collided with planets that had already formed. It is thought that most of the craters on the surface of the moon were formed during this period. A large number of small bodies made of ice and rock that exist beyond the orbit of Neptune.


Geophysicists at the Earth-Life Science Institute (ELSI) at the Tokyo Institute of Technology report in Nature Geophysics (online 27 Feb 2017) a new model for the existence of a deep mantle conveyor belt system that may have operated inside the Earth since its formation about 4.5 billion years ago. Most earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain building, sea-floor spreading, and other major geological activities on Earth are driven by so called plate tectonics, where large sections of the Earth’s crust move as coherent blocks — or plates — that crash together, pull apart, slide on top of each other, and pass one another at their boundaries. Beneath the plates lies the 3000 km thick rocky mantle, composed of hot pliable rock that slowly deforms and churns under the immense pressures and temperatures of the deep interior. This churning motion, or mantle convection, acts to remove heat from the Earth’s interior, similar to the circulation in a slowly boiling pot of stew. Mantle convection ultimately drives the motion of tectonic plates. In turn, the plates also stir the mantle, where they are subducted because of sliding on top of each other, and sink through the mantle to great depths. Scientists have long wondered whether the Earth’s mantle is well mixed by this stirring and the churning convective motions (mantle convection), or if the lower part of the mantle is different in composition than the upper part. That some plates are subducted to the very base of the mantle, travelling 3000 km in about 200 million years, has been traditionally taken as evidence for a well-stirred and mixed mantle stew. The poorly-mixed Earth’s mantle stew In this research, the scientists took a new approach by considering whether the chemical composition of mantle rocks affects the churning convective motion. Some rocks deform and flow more readily than others, behaving like water as opposed to high viscosity liquids such as honey. For example, pouring water into a pot of stew results in the water mixing with the stew even without much stirring. Needless to say, it would take much more time for honey to mix with stew. Notably, if dumplings are put into stew, then both components will never mix. Even though dumplings are generally deformable; the boiling stew just flows around the dumplings because it is much more deformable, or less viscous, than dumplings. Now, in the Earth, lower mantle-rocks behave more like stew than dumplings (or more like water than honey) depending on their chemical composition. If rocks in the lower mantle are relatively enriched in silica (or SiO2, which is also the main component of sand), they are more viscous and behave more like dumplings compared to silica-depleted rocks, which are weaker and behave more like the stew itself. This is intriguing because many meteorites that are considered the building blocks of Earth have a higher silica content than rocks in the upper part of Earth’s mantle. To make up the balance of silica-depletion in most mantle rocks that have been probed, at least some rocks in the lower mantle should be relatively silica-rich. So, the Earth’s mantle might be a bit like a well-mixed, silica-depleted stew with some poorly-mixed silica-rich dumplings near its base. To study the churning motion of the mantle stew, Maxim Ballmer and his colleagues at ELSI added a strong silica-rich layer into numerical simulations of mantle convection. They found that, after a major overturn of the initially imposed layering, the mantle became organized into large roll-like convection cells, where weak silica-depleted rocks fill the upper mantle and circulate around strong silica-rich blocks in the lower mantle along a giant conveyor belt (Fig.1). Giant blocks of ancient rocks hidden beneath Africa and the Pacific? In the simulations, this pattern of churning convection remained stable for many billions of years, and longer than the age of the Earth. The strong silica-rich blocks in the lower mantle are probably more than 1000 km in diameter and 10,000s km long, making up approximately 15% of the mantle’s mass. Ballmer and his colleagues think that they are hidden far below Africa and the Pacific, shaped like giant sausages or donuts. The existence of such strong domains can explain why some of the subducted plates do not sink toward the base of the mantle, but rather pond at intermediate depths, where they encounter the strong sausages or donuts. The long-term stability of these domains can further account for the geochemical diversity of deep-sourced lavas at the Earth’s surface. While some lavas are related to melting of mantle rocks that have been recycled from the near-surface crust and circulated through the mantle, others trace evidence of ancient domains that have avoided circulation and recycling since the earliest days of our planet. The survival of ancient rocks in the convicting mantle has been a long-standing puzzle to many scientists, but may now be resolved as a consequence of inefficient mixing between strong silica-enriched rocks and the much weaker silica-depleted mantle. Maxim D. Ballmer1,2*, Christine Houser2, John W. Hernlund1, Renata M.Wentzcovitch1,3,4 and Kei Hirose1. Persistence of strong silica-enriched domains in the Earth’s lower mantle. Nature Geoscience, online 27 Feb. 2017. 3Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, USA. 4Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, New York, USA. About Tokyo Institute of Technology Tokyo Institute of Technology stands at the forefront of research and higher education as the leading university for science and technology in Japan. Tokyo Tech researchers excel in a variety of fields, such as material science, biology, computer science and physics. Founded in 1881, Tokyo Tech has grown to host 10,000 undergraduate and graduate students who become principled leaders of their fields and some of the most sought-after scientists and engineers at top companies. Embodying the Japanese philosophy of “monotsukuri,” meaning technical ingenuity and innovation, the Tokyo Tech community strives to make significant contributions to society through high-impact research. Website: http://www.titech.ac.jp/english/


Nanotechnology - What You Should Know Top Scientific Minds You Probably Never Heard Of The Breakthrough Prizes 2017 were given away at an Oscars-like function in the NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View on Sunday, Dec. 4, to honor outstanding research in life sciences, mathematics and fundamental physics. Attended by the Who's Who of the technology industry and scientific honchos, the award function was hosted by actor Morgan Freeman. At the ceremony, a total of $25 million was awarded to the winners. The event had Grammy winner Alicia Keys rendering live pop entertainment. "There has never been a more important time to support science," said Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg, one of the patrons of the foundation. For conceiving the gala event in science, credit goes to Yuri Milner, the Russian billionaire and investor, and his wife, Julia, who instituted the debut award in 2012 to reward theoretical physicists for outstanding scientific achievements. Since then, the number of disciplines for awards expanded with more sponsors stepping in to support the cause. Among the new patrons are Google's Sergey Brin, Mark Zuckerberg of Facebook, biotech firm 23andMe's Anne Wojcicki and Jack Ma and his wife Cathy Zhang of Alibaba. The 2017 Breakthrough Prizes ceremony also marked the organization's fifth anniversary. Since 2012, the Breakthrough Prize has disbursed close to $200 million in honoring paradigm-shifting research in science. The awardees this year in life sciences, fundamental physics and mathematics are the following. These winners get individual $3 million in prizes. - Stephen J. Elledge, Professor of Genetics and Medicine in the Department of Genetics at Harvard Medical School, for probing the role of damage detection proteins in yielding mutated DNA replication and increasing cancer risk. - Harry F. Noller, Director, Center for Molecular Biology at the University of California. His work investigates the central role of RNA in the ribosome and origin of life. - Roeland Nusse, Professor at Stanford University. He explored the Wnt gene pathway and its implications in cancer. - Yoshinori Ohsumi, Honorary Professor, Institute of Innovative Research at Tokyo Institute of Technology. The work included the investigation of autophagy by which cells recycle their components to create nutrients. - Huda Yahya Zoghbi, Professor of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine. The work was the discovery of biological underpinnings of spinocerebellar ataxia. The following three recipients shared a single $3 million award for their advances in string theory, quantum field theory and quantum gravity. - Joseph Polchinski, Professor of Physics at the University of California, Santa Barbara The following three winners shared a single $1 million prize, while $2 million was divided among 1,012 members of their research team. - Ronald Drever, Professor at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena - Kip Thorne, Feynman Professor of Physics at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena - Rainer Weiss, Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Jean Bourgain, Professor, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, for contributions to high-dimensional geometry and other theoretical areas. One of the highlights of the awarding ceremony was the speeches by female students Antonella Masini, 18 (Peru) and Deanna See, 17 (Singapore). They were the winners of the Breakthrough Junior Challenge and got $250,000 for their inspiring science videos that promoted creative thinking on life sciences, physics and mathematics. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


2017 Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences Awarded to Stephen J. Elledge, Harry F. Noller, Roeland Nusse, Yoshinori Ohsumi, and Huda Yahya Zoghbi 2017 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics Awarded to Joseph Polchinski, Andrew Strominger, and Cumrun Vafa New Horizons in Physics Prize awarded to Asimina Arvanitaki, Peter W. Graham, and Surjeet Rajendran; Simone Giombi and Xi Yin; and Frans Pretorius New Horizons in Mathematics Prize awarded to Mohammad Abouzaid, Hugo Duminil-Copin, and Benjamin Elias and Geordie Williamson Second Annual, International Breakthrough Junior Challenge Won by Female Students Antonella Masini, 18 (Peru) and Deanna See, 17 (Singapore) 2016 Special Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics, awarded in May to founders and team members of LIGO, awarded to Kip Thorne, Rainer Weiss and family of Ronald Drever Laureates to be honored at glittering awards gala hosted by Morgan Freeman, with live performance by Alicia Keys and presentations from Daniel Ek (CEO of Spotify), Jeremy Irons, Mark and Scott Kelly, Hiroshi Mikitani (CEO of Rakuten), Sienna Miller, Bryce Dallas Howard, Vin Diesel, Kevin Durant, Dev Patel, Sundar Pichai (CEO of Google), Alex Rodriguez, Will.i.am, Susan Wojcicki (CEO of YouTube) and the founders of the Breakthrough Prize SAN FRANCISCO, Dec. 5, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- The Breakthrough Prize and founders Sergey Brin and Anne Wojcicki, Yuri and Julia Milner, and Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan, tonight announced the recipients of the 2017 Breakthrough Prizes, marking the organization's fifth anniversary recognizing top achievements in Life Sciences, Fundamental Physics and Mathematics. A combined total of $25 million was awarded at the gala ceremony in Silicon Valley, hosted by Morgan Freeman. Each of the Breakthrough Prizes is worth $3 million, the largest individual monetary prize in science. This year, a total of seven of these prizes were awarded to nine individuals, along with a $3 million Special Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics, which was split between three founders and more than a thousand members of the LIGO team. In addition, three $100,000 New Horizons in Physics Prizes were awarded to six early-career physicists, and a further three $100,000 New Horizons in Mathematics Prizes were awarded to four young mathematicians. And this year there were two winners of the Breakthrough Junior Challenge, each receiving up to $400,000 in educational prizes for them, their teacher and their school. Since its inception in 2012, the Breakthrough Prize has awarded close to $200 million to honor paradigm-shifting research in the fields of fundamental physics, life sciences, and mathematics. "There has never been a more important time to support science," said Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg. "The 2017 Breakthrough Prize laureates represent the leaders in scientific research in physics, math and life sciences. Their breakthroughs will unlock new possibilities and help make the world a better place for everyone." The 2017 Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences was awarded to Stephen J. Elledge (Harvard Medical School); Harry F. Noller (University of California, Santa Cruz); Roeland Nusse (Stanford University); Yoshinori Ohsumi (Tokyo Institute of Technology); Huda Yahya Zoghbi (Baylor College of Medicine). The 2017 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics was awarded to Joseph Polchinski (University of California, Santa Barbara); Andrew Strominger (Harvard University); and Cumrun Vafa (Harvard University). The three honorees joined the recipients of the previously announced Special Prize in Fundamental Physics, released in May 2016. Ronald Drever (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena), Kip Thorne (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) and Rainer Weiss (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), were recognized in May for their detection of gravitational waves, opening new horizons in astronomy and physics. The three winners of the Special Prize will share a $1 million prize, and 1,012 LIGO team members will share $2 million. The 2017 Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics was awarded to Jean Bourgain (Institute for Advanced Study). This year's ceremony will mark the fifth anniversary of the organization, and laureates will take to the stage tonight at an exclusive gala co-hosted by founders Sergey Brin and Anne Wojcicki, Yuri and Julia Milner, Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan, and Vanity Fair editor Graydon Carter. Academy Award®-winning actor Morgan Freeman will host the show, which will feature a performance by 15-time Grammy Award® winner Alicia Keys, and celebrity presenters Jeremy Irons, Mark and Scott Kelly, Hiroshi Mikitani (CEO of Rakuten), Sienna Miller, Bryce Dallas Howard, Vin Diesel, Kevin Durant, Dev Patel, Sundar Pichai (CEO of Google), Alex Rodriguez, Will.i.am, Susan Wojcicki (CEO of YouTube), as well as the founders of the Breakthrough Prize. The theme of the evening will be "the universal reach of ideas." "Science is universal," said Yuri Milner. "Tonight it brought together some of the world's greatest actors, sportsmen, musicians, academics, entrepreneurs, astronauts and, last but not least, scientists, to celebrate what the human mind can achieve. And it brought in a live audience from across the planet." One of the highlights will be the speeches by the two female students who won the Breakthrough Junior Challenge, Antonella Masini, 18 (Peru) and Deanna See, 17 (Singapore). The Breakthrough Junior Challenge is a global science video competition designed to inspire creative thinking about fundamental concepts in the life sciences, physics, or mathematics. In recognition of their winning submissions, both students received up to $400,000 in educational prizes, including a scholarship worth up to $250,000, $50,000 for an inspiring teacher, and a state-of-the-art science lab valued at $100,000. Entries from 146 countries were received in the 2016 installment of the global competition, which kicked off on September 1, 2016. The Breakthrough Junior Challenge is funded by Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan, and Yuri and Julia Milner, through the Breakthrough Prize Foundation, based on a grant from Mark Zuckerberg's fund at the Silicon Valley Community Foundation, and a grant from the Milner Global Foundation. "The Breakthrough Junior Challenge encourages students to better understand the worlds of science and mathematics and to have some fun along the way," said Breakthrough Prize co-founder Dr. Priscilla Chan. "Antonella and Deanna both have bright futures in science and I am so excited to honor their work. They are also incredible storytellers, whose ability to capture these complex ideas in accessible and exciting ways is truly inspiring. I cannot wait to see how they will change the world." In addition, six New Horizons prizes – an annual prize of $100,000 each, recognizing the achievements of early-career physicists and mathematicians – were awarded. The New Horizons in Physics Prize was awarded to: The New Horizons in Mathematics Prize was awarded to: The ceremony will be directed and produced, for the fourth time, by Don Mischer alongside executive producers Charlie Haykel and Juliane Hare of Don Mischer Productions. Broadcast live in its entirety on NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC at 10/9c on Sunday, Dec. 4, an edited one-hour version of the ceremony will also air on FOX on Sunday, Dec. 18, at 7:00-8:00 PM ET/PT and globally on NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC in 171 countries and 45 languages. The Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences honors transformative advances towards understanding living systems and extending human life, with one prize dedicated to work that contributes to the understanding of neurological diseases. Each of the five Life Science winners received a $3 million prize. Stephen J. Elledge, Gregor Mendel Professor of Genetics and Medicine in the Department of Genetics at Harvard Medical School and in the Division of Genetics at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, for elucidating how eukaryotic cells sense and respond to damage in their DNA and providing insights into the development and treatment of cancer. Harry F. Noller, Director of the Center for Molecular Biology of RNA, Robert L. Sinsheimer Professor of Molecular Biology and Professor Emeritus of MCD Biology at the University of California, Santa Cruz, for discovering the centrality of RNA in forming the active centers of the ribosome, the fundamental machinery of protein synthesis in all cells, thereby connecting modern biology to the origin of life and also explaining how many natural antibiotics disrupt protein synthesis. Roeland Nusse, Professor of Developmental Biology at Stanford University and Investigator at Howard Hughes Medical Institute, for pioneering research on the Wnt pathway, one of the crucial intercellular signaling systems in development, cancer and stem cell biology. Yoshinori Ohsumi, Honorary Professor, Institute of Innovative Research at Tokyo Institute of Technology for elucidating autophagy, the recycling system that cells use to generate nutrients from their own inessential or damaged components. Huda Yahya Zoghbi, Professor in the Departments of Pediatrics, Molecular and Human Genetics, Neurology and Neuroscience at Baylor College of Medicine, Investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Director of the Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute (NRI) at Texas Children's Hospital, for discoveries of the genetic causes and biochemical mechanisms of spinocerebellar ataxia and Rett syndrome, findings that have provided insight into the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and neurological diseases. The Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics recognizes major insights into the deepest questions of the universe. The three winners, sharing the $3 million prize, are: Joseph Polchinski, Professor in the Department of Physics and Member of the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics at the University of California, Santa Barbara; Andrew Strominger, Director of the Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature at Harvard University; and, Cumrun Vafa, Donner Professor of Science in the Department of Physics at Harvard University, All three received the Prize for transformative advances in quantum field theory, string theory, and quantum gravity. The Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics honors the world's best mathematicians who have contributed to major advances in the field. Jean Bourgain, IBM von Neumann Professor in the School of Mathematics at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey, for multiple transformative contributions to analysis, combinatorics, partial differential equations, high-dimensional geometry and number theory. The New Horizons in Physics Prize is awarded to promising early-career researchers who have already produced important work in fundamental physics. The New Horizons in Mathematics Prize is awarded to promising early-career researchers who have already produced important work in mathematics. The second annual Breakthrough Junior Challenge recognizes two winners this year - Antonella Masini, 18, from Peru, and Deanna See, 17, from Singapore. Antonella and Deanna will each receive up to $400,000 in educational prizes. Antonella's video, submitted in the physics category, focused on quantum entanglement. Deanna's life sciences video, titled "Superbugs! And Our Race against Resistance," tackled antibiotic resistance. Images and select video from the 2017 Breakthrough Prize Gala -red carpet and ceremony- can be downloaded for media use at: For the fifth year, the Breakthrough Prizes will recognize the world's top scientists. Each prize is $3 million and awarded in the fields of Life Sciences (up to five per year), Fundamental Physics (up to one per year) and Mathematics (up to one per year). In addition, up to three New Horizons in Physics and up to three New Horizons in Mathematics Prizes are given out to junior researchers each year. Laureates attend a televised awards ceremony designed to celebrate their achievements and inspire the next generation of scientists. As part of the ceremony schedule, they also engage in a program of lectures and discussions. The Breakthrough Prizes were founded by Sergey Brin and Anne Wojcicki, Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan, and Yuri and Julia Milner. Selection Committees composed of previous Breakthrough Prize laureates choose the winners. Information on the Breakthrough Prizes is available at www.breakthroughprize.org.


-       Breakthrough Prize celebra su 5 aniversario con los principales logros en ciencias y otorga premios por 25 millones de dólares en una ceremonia de gala celebrada en Silicon Valley New Horizons in Physics Prize otorgado a Asimina Arvanitaki, Peter W. Graham y Surjeet Rajendran; Simone Giombi y Xi Yin y Frans Pretorius New Horizons in Mathematics Prize otorgado a Mohammad Abouzaid, Hugo Duminil-Copin y Benjamin Elias y Geordie Williamson La segunda edición anual del International Breakthrough Junior Challenge se ha otorgado a las estudiantes femeninas Antonella Masini, 18 (Perú) y Deanna See, 17 (Singapur) 2016 Special Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics, otorgado en mayo a los fundadores y miembros del equipo de LIGO, otorgado a Kip Thorne, Rainer Weiss y la familia de Ronald Drever Los premiados serán galardonados en la resplandeciente gala de premios hospedada por medio Morgan Freeman, con actuaciones en directo de Alicia Keys y presentaciones a cabo de Daniel Ek (consejero delegado de Spotify), Jeremy Irons, Mark y Scott Kelly, Hiroshi Mikitani (consejero delegado de Rakuten), Sienna Miller, Bryce Dallas Howard, Vin Diesel, Kevin Durant, Dev Patel, Sundar Pichai (consejero delegado de Google), Alex Rodriguez, Will.i.am, Susan Wojcicki (consejera delegada de YouTube) y los fundadores del Breakthrough Prize SAN FRANCISCO, 9 de diciembre de 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- El Breakthrough Prize y los fundadores Sergey Brin y Anne Wojcicki, Yuri y Julia Milner, y Mark Zuckerberg y Priscilla Chan, anunciaron anoche a los receptores de los 2017 Breakthrough Prizes, marcando así el 5 aniversario de la organización que reconoce los logros principales en Ciencias de la Vida, Física Fundamental y Matemáticas. Una cifra combinada total de 25 millones de dólares se otorgó en la ceremonia de gala en Silicon Valley, hospedada por medio de Morgan Freeman. Cada uno de los Breakthrough Prizes tiene un valor de 3 millones de dólares, el premio en metálico individual más grande dentro de la ciencia. Este año, se han otorgado un total de siete premios a nueve personas, junto con un Special Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics de 3 millones de dólares, que se dividió entre los tres fundadores y más de 1.000 miembros del equipo LIGO. Además, se otorgaron tres New Horizons in Physics Prizes de 100.000 dólares para seis físicos en sus inicios de carrera, y otros tres New Horizons in Mathematics Prizes de 100.000 dólares otorgados a cuatro jóvenes matemáticos. Y este año, hubo dos ganadores del Breakthrough Junior Challenge, recibiendo cada uno de ellos hasta 400.000 dólares en premios de formación para ellos, su profesor y su escuela. Desde su creación en el año 2012, el Breakthrough Prize ha otorgado cerca de 200 millones de dólares para honrar el avance de la investigación del paradigma en los campos de la física fundamental, ciencias de la vida y matemáticas. "Nunca ha habido un momento más importante en el que apoyar la ciencia", destacó el fundador de Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg. "Los premiados con el 2017 Breakthrough Prize representan a los líderes en los campos de la investigación científica en física, matemáticas y ciencias de la vida. Sus descubrimientos desvelarán nuevas posibilidades y ayudarán a conseguir que el mundo sea un lugar mejor para todos". El 2017 Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences fue otorgado a Stephen J. Elledge (Harvard Medical School); Harry F. Noller (University of California, Santa Cruz); Roeland Nusse (Stanford University); Yoshinori Ohsumi (Tokyo Institute of Technology); Huda Yahya Zoghbi (Baylor College of Medicine). El 2017 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics fue otorgado a Joseph Polchinski (University of California, Santa Barbara); Andrew Strominger (Harvard University) y Cumrun Vafa (Harvard University). Los tres premiados se unieron a los receptores del Special Prize in Fundamental Physics anunciados anteriormente, lanzado en mayo de 2016. Ronald Drever (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena), Kip Thorne (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) y Rainer Weiss (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), fueron reconocidos en mayo por su detección de las olas gravitacionales, abriendo con ello nuevos horizontes en astronomía y física. Los tres ganadores del Special Prize compartirán un premio de 1 millón de dólares, y los 1.012 miembros del equipo LIGO compartirán 2 millones de dólares. El 2017 Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics fue otorgado a Jean Bourgain (Institute for Advanced Study). La ceremonia de este año marcará el 5 aniversario de la organización, y los premiados tomarán el escenario esta noche durante una gala exclusiva celebrada de forma conjunta con los fundadores Sergey Brin y Anne Wojcicki, Yuri y Julia Milner, Mark Zuckerberg y Priscilla Chan, además del editor de Vanity Fair, Graydon Carter. El actor ganador del Academy Award®, Morgan Freeman, hospedará el show, que contará con la actuación de la ganadora de 15 Grammy Award®, Alicia Keys, y los famosos presetadores Jeremy Irons, Mark y Scott Kelly, Hiroshi Mikitani (consejero delegado de Rakuten), Sienna Miller, Bryce Dallas Howard, Vin Diesel, Kevin Durant, Dev Patel, Sundar Pichai (consejero delegado de Google), Alex Rodriguez, Will.i.am, Susan Wojcicki (consejera delegada de YouTube), además de los fundadores del Breakthrough Prize. El tema de la noche será "the universal reach of ideas". "La ciencia es universal", destacó Yuri Milner. "Esta noche ha reunido a algunos de los mejores actores, deportistas, músicos, académicos, empresarios, astronautas y finalmente pero no por ello menos importante, científicos, para celebrar lo que la mente humana puede conseguir. Y lo ha hecho por medio de un evento en directo emitido en todo el planeta". Uno de estos puntos álgidos serán los discursos de dos estudiantes femeninas que han ganado el Breakthrough Junior Challenge, Antonella Masini, 18 (Perú) y Deanna See, 17 (Singapur). El Breakthrough Junior Challenge es una competición de video de ciencias de nivel mundial diseñado para inspirar el pensamiento creativo acerca de los conceptos fundamentales en las ciencias de la vida, física o matemáticas. Como reconocimiento a sus envíos ganadores, ambas estudiantes recibieron hasta 400.000 dólares en premios de formación, incluyendo una beca con un valor de 250.000 dólares, 50.000 dólares para un profesor inspirador y un laboratorio de última tecnología valorado en 100.000 dólares. Las participaciones procedentes de 146 países fueron recibidas en la entrega de 2016 de la competición final, que se puso en marcha el 1 de septiembre de 2016. El Breakthrough Junior Challenge cuenta con los fondos Mark Zuckerberg y Priscilla Chan, y Yuri y Julia Milner, a través de la Breakthrough Prize Foundation, basándose en una beca del fondo de Mark Zuckerberg en la Silicon Valley Community Foundation, además de una beca de la Milner Global Foundation. "El Breakthrough Junior Challenge insta a los estudiantes a comprender mejor los mundos de la ciencia y las matemáticas y divertirse durante ese viaje", destacó la cofundadora del Breakthrough Prize, la doctora Priscilla Chan. "Antonella y Deanna cuentan ambas con un futuro brillante en ciencias, y estoy emocionada de honrar su trabajo. Se trata además de dos increíbles contadoras de historias, cuya capacidad para capturar estas ideas complejas de forma accesible y emocionante es realmente inspiradora. No encuentro el momento de ver cómo van a cambiar el mundo". Además, se han otorgado seis premios New Horizons – un premio anual de 100.000 dólares cada uno, que reconocen los logros de los médicos de carrera primaria y matemáticos. El New Horizons in Physics Prize fue otorgado a: El New Horizons in Mathematics Prize fue otorgado a: La ceremonia estará dirigida y producida, por cuarta ocasión, por medio de Don Mischer junto a los productores ejecutivos Charlie Haykel y Juliane Hare de Don Mischer Productions. La emisión en directo corre a cargo de NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC a las 10/9c del domingo 4 de diciembre, con una versión editada de una hora de la ceremonia emitida además por medio de FOX el domingo 18 de diciembre a las 7:00-8:00 PM ET/PT y a nivel mundial en NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC en 171 países y 45 idiomas. El Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences honora los avances transformadores hacia el conocimiento de los sistemas de vida y ampliación de la vida humana, con un premio dedicado al trabajo que contribuye al conocimiento de cara a las enfermedades neurológicas. Cada uno de los cinco ganadores de Life Science recibió un premio de 3 millones de dólares. Stephen J. Elledge, profesor Gregor Mendel de Genética y Medicina del Departamento de Genética de la Harvard Medical School y de la División de Genética del Brigham and Women's Hospital e investigador del Howard Hughes Medical Institute, por esclarecer cómo las células eucariotas sienten y responden a los daños en su ADN y proporcionar visiones sobre el desarrollo y tratamiento del cáncer. Harry F. Noller, director del Center for Molecular Biology of RNA, profesor Robert L. Sinsheimer de Biología Molecular y Profesor Emérito de Biología MCD de la University of California, Santa Cruz, por descubrir la centralidad del ARN en la formación de centros activos del ribosoma, la maquinaria fundamental de síntesis de proteína en todas las células, conectando con ello la biología moderna al origen de la vida y explicando además cómo muchos de los antibióticos naturales interrumpen la síntesis de proteínas. Roeland Nusse, profesor de Biología de Desarrollo de la Stanford University e investigador del Howard Hughes Medical Institute, por ser pionero en la investigación de la ruta Wnt, uno de los sistemas de señalización intercelular más importantes en la biología de desarrollo, cáncer y células madre. Yoshinori Ohsumi, profesor honorario del Institute of Innovative Research del Tokyo Institute of Technology por descubrir la autofagia, sistema de reciclaje que usan las células para generar nutrientes por sí mismas en componentes esenciales o dañados. Huda Yahya Zoghbi, profesor de los Departamentos de Pediatría, Molecular y genetic Humana, Neurología y Neurociencias del Baylor College of Medicine, investigador del Howard Hughes Medical Institute y director del Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute (NRI) del Texas Children's Hospital, por sus descubrimientos de las causas genéticas y mecanismos bioquímicos de la ataxia espinocerebral y síndrome Rett, descubrimientos que han proporcionado visión dentro de la patogénesis de las enfermedades neurodegenerativas y neurológicas. El Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics reconoce las mayores visiones dentro de las preguntas más profundas acerca del universo. Los tres ganadores, que comparten el premio de 3 millones de dólares, son: Joseph Polchinski, profesor del Departamento de Física y Miembro del Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics de la University of California, Santa Bárbara; Andrew Strominger, director del Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature de la Harvard University; y, Cumrun Vafa, profesor donner de Ciencias del Departamento de Física de la Harvard University, Los tres recibieron el premio por los avances transformadores en la teoría del campo cuántico, teoría de cuerdas y gravedad cuántica. El Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics honra a los mejores matemáticos del mundo, que han contribuido de cara a los avances más importantes en el campo. Jean Bourgain, profesor IBM von Neumann en la Escuela de Matemáticas del Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, Nueva Jersey, por sus múltiples contribuciones de transformación para el análisis, combinatoria, ecuaciones diferenciales parciales, geometría de alta dimensión y teoría de números. El New Horizons in Physics Prize se otorga a los investigadores prometedores que empiezan sus carreras que yah an producido un trabajo importante en la física fundamental. El New Horizons in Mathematics Prize se concede a los investigadores prometedores en el principio de sus carreras que ya han producido importantes trabajos en matemáticas. La segunda edición anual del Breakthrough Junior Challenge reconoce a dos ganadores este año - Antonella Masini, 18, de Perú, y Deanna See, 17, de Singapur. Antonella y Deanna recibirán cada una hasta 400.000 dólares en premios de formación. El video de Antonella, enviado en la categoría de física, se centra en la implicación cuántica. El video de las ciencias de la vida de Deanna, titulado "Superbugs! And Our Race against Resistance", hace frente a la resistencia a los antibióticos. Las imágenes y video seleccionado de la 2017 Breakthrough Prize Gala – alfombra roja y ceremonia – se pueden descargar para su uso de medios a través de: Por quinto año, los premios Breakthrough Prize darán su reconocimiento a los mejores científicos del mundo. Cada premio tiene una dotación de 3 millones de dólares y se presenta en las áreas de Ciencias de la Vida (hasta cinco por año), Física Fundamental (máximo uno por año) y Matemáticas (máximo uno por año). Además, cada año se entregan hasta tres premios New Horizons de Física y hasta tres New Horizons de Matemáticas a jóvenes investigadores. Los ganadores asisten a una ceremonia de entrega de premios que se emite por televisor pensada para celebrar sus logros e inspirar a la nueva generación de científicos. Como parte de la programación de la ceremonia, también entran en un programa de ponencias y debates. Los premios al descubrimiento fueron fundados por Sergey Brin y Anne Wojcicki, Mark Zuckerberg y Priscilla Chan, y Yuri y Julia Milner. Los comités de selección están compuestos por ganadores anteriores de los premios Breakthrough Prize y quienes eligen a los ganadores. Información acerca de los Breakthrough Prizes disponible a través de www.breakthroughprize.org.


News Article | December 5, 2016
Site: www.newscientist.com

At the fifth annual Breakthrough Prize ceremony last night, 12 scientists received a total of $25 million in science prizes for fundamental contributions to human knowledge. The ceremony, held at NASA’s Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California, featured all the glitz and glam of the Oscars: a red carpet, musical guests such as Alicia Keys and will.i.am, and Morgan Freeman as host. “This project is really mostly about public outreach,” says billionaire internet investor Yuri Milner, who co-founded the prize. “That’s why we have a televised ceremony and everything around it, because the founders want to send a signal that fundamental science is important.” The Breakthrough Prize was founded in 2012 and is financed by Silicon Valley billionaires such as Milner, Google’s Sergey Brin and Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg. One of the prizes was already announced earlier this year. The physicists behind the LIGO experiment, which revealed the first detection of Einstein’s long-sought gravitational waves in February, will share the $3 million Breakthrough Prize in fundamental physics. Of that, $1 million will be split between three of LIGO’s founders: Ronald Drever and Kip Thorne at the California Institute of Technology, and Rainer Weiss at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The other $2 million will be equally split between 1012 contributors to the experiment. Another $3 million prize in fundamental physics will be split between three physicists. Joseph Polchinski at the University of California, Santa Barbara, was recognised for his theories of what happens at the event horizons of black holes, and Andrew Strominger and Cumrun Vafa at Harvard University were honoured for contributions to quantum gravity and string theory. The Breakthrough Prize in mathematics – another $3 million – went to Jean Bourgain at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, for his contributions to analysis, combinatorics, partial differential equations, high-dimensional geometry and number theory. Five prizes of $3 million each went to researchers in the life sciences. Stephen Elledge at Harvard Medical School and the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, received a prize for insights into how cells sense and respond to damage in their DNA, and how that relates to the development and treatment of cancer. Harry Noller at the University of California, Santa Cruz, was recognised for discovering how central RNA is in the fundamental machinery of protein synthesis in all cells, connecting modern biology to the origin of life and explaining how many natural antibiotics work. Roeland Nusse at Stanford University and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute was honoured for pioneering work on the Wnt pathway, which encourages cells to divide and is one of the crucial intercellular signalling systems in developmental, cancer and stem cell biology. Yoshinori Ohsumi at Tokyo Institute of Technology in Japan received a prize for his discovery of the mechanisms behind autophagy, a fundamental process in which cells degrade, recycle and repair themselves. Ohsumi also received the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. The fifth life-sciences prize went to Huda Yahya Zoghbi at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, for her discoveries related to the genetic causes and biochemical mechanisms of neurodegenerative and neurological diseases, including Rett syndrome and spinocerebellar ataxia. The final $1 million in prize money will go to six “New Horizons” winners for early-career achievements in physics and maths, and one Breakthrough Junior Prize for a teenager’s original science video. After five years of pushing for scientists to be treated like celebrities, Milner thinks the project is off to a good start. “If a few kids in a high school will get inspired by those incredible people, I think this effort is worth pursuing,” he says. “I think it’s really about the priorities of society: where we should put more resources in, and where the smartest people should go. If we can reach even half the audience of the Super Bowl globally, that would be amazing. But that’s a high bar.”


Wakunami K.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Yamaguchi M.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Javidi B.,University of Connecticut
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

We present a high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) holographic display using a set of elemental images obtained by passive sensing integral imaging (II). Hologram calculations using a high-density ray-sampling plane are achieved from the elemental images captured by II. In II display, ray sampling by lenslet array and light diffraction limits the achievable resolution. Our approach can improve the resolution since target objects are captured in focus and then light-ray information is interpolated and resampled with higher density on ray-sampling plane located near the object to be converted into the wavefront. Numerical experimental results show that the 3D scene, composed of plural objects at different depths from the display, can be reconstructed with order of magnitude higher resolution by the proposed technique. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Ishii H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Tempo R.,CNR Institute of Electronics, Computer and Telecommunication Engineering
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2010

In the search engine of Google, the PageRank algorithm plays a crucial role in ranking the search results. The algorithm quantifies the importance of each web page based on the link structure of the web. We first provide an overview of the original problem setup. Then, we propose several distributed randomized schemes for the computation of the PageRank, where the pages can locally update their values by communicating to those connected by links. The main objective of the paper is to show that these schemes asymptotically converge in the mean-square sense to the true PageRank values. A detailed discussion on the close relations to the multi-agent consensus problems is also given. © 2010 IEEE.


Hagiya M.,University of Tokyo | Konagaya A.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Kobayashi S.,University of Electro - Communications | Saito H.,Kyoto University | Murata S.,Tohoku University
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2014

ConspectusWhat we can call a molecular robot is a set of molecular devices such as sensors, logic gates, and actuators integrated into a consistent system. The molecular robot is supposed to react autonomously to its environment by receiving molecular signals and making decisions by molecular computation. Building such a system has long been a dream of scientists; however, despite extensive efforts, systems having all three functions (sensing, computation, and actuation) have not been realized yet.This Account introduces an ongoing research project that focuses on the development of molecular robotics funded by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan). This 5 year project started in July 2012 and is titled "Development of Molecular Robots Equipped with Sensors and Intelligence".The major issues in the field of molecular robotics all correspond to a feedback (i.e., plan-do-see) cycle of a robotic system. More specifically, these issues are (1) developing molecular sensors capable of handling a wide array of signals, (2) developing amplification methods of signals to drive molecular computing devices, (3) accelerating molecular computing, (4) developing actuators that are controllable by molecular computers, and (5) providing bodies of molecular robots encapsulating the above molecular devices, which implement the conformational changes and locomotion of the robots.In this Account, the latest contributions to the project are reported. There are four research teams in the project that specialize on sensing, intelligence, amoeba-like actuation, and slime-like actuation, respectively. The molecular sensor team is focusing on the development of molecular sensors that can handle a variety of signals. This team is also investigating methods to amplify signals from the molecular sensors. The molecular intelligence team is developing molecular computers and is currently focusing on a new photochemical technology for accelerating DNA-based computations. They also introduce novel computational models behind various kinds of molecular computers necessary for designing such computers. The amoeba robot team aims at constructing amoeba-like robots. The team is trying to incorporate motor proteins, including kinesin and microtubules (MTs), for use as actuators implemented in a liposomal compartment as a robot body. They are also developing a methodology to link DNA-based computation and molecular motor control. The slime robot team focuses on the development of slime-like robots. The team is evaluating various gels, including DNA gel and BZ gel, for use as actuators, as well as the body material to disperse various molecular devices in it. They also try to control the gel actuators by DNA signals coming from molecular computers. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Liu X.-H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Wang Q.,Jülich Research Center | Zhao Q.,CAS Institute of High Energy Physics
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2016

We find that several thresholds can contribute to the enhancements of the newly observed heavy pentaquark candidates Pc+(4380) and Pc+(4450) via the anomalous triangle singularity (ATS) transitions in the specific kinematics of Λb→J/ψK-p. Apart from the observed two peaks we find that another peaks around 4.5 GeV can also be produced by the ATS. We also show that the σc(*) can be produced at leading order in Λb decay. This process is different from the triangle diagram and its threshold enhancement only appears as CUSP effects if there is no pole structure or the ATS involved. The threshold interaction associated with the presence of the ATS turns out to be a general phenomenon and plays a crucial role in the understanding of candidates for exotic states. © 2016 The Authors.


Theodoridis S.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Slavakis K.,University of Peloponnese | Yamada I.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine | Year: 2011

This article presents a general tool for convexly constrained parameter/function estimation both for classification and regression tasks, in a time-adaptive setting and in (infinite dimensional) Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces (RKHS). The mathematical framework is that of the set theoretic estimation formulation and the classical projections onto convex sets (POCS) theory. However, in contrast to the classical POCS methodology, which assumes a finite number of convex sets, our method builds upon our recent extension of the theory, which considers an infinite number of convex sets. Such a context is necessary to cope with the adaptive setting rationale, where data arrive sequentially. © 2010 IEEE.


Wang Q.,Jülich Research Center | Liu X.-H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Zhao Q.,CAS Institute of High Energy Physics
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We propose to study the pentaquark candidates of Pc+(4380) and Pc+(4450) in J/ψ photoproduction and look for further experimental evidence for their nature. Since the photoproduction process does not satisfy the so-called "anomalous triangle singularity" condition their presence in J/ψ photoproduction would conclude that they should be genuine states and provide further evidence for their existence. © 2015 American Physical Society.


A method for producing a mold includes: applying a block copolymer solution made of first and second polymers on a base member; performing a first annealing process at a temperature higher than Tg of the block copolymer after drying the coating film; forming a concavity and convexity structure on the base member by removing the second polymer by an etching process; performing a second annealing process of the concavity and convexity structure at a temperature higher than Tg of the first polymer; forming a seed layer on the structure; laminating or stacking a metal layer on the seed layer by an electroforming; and peeling off the metal layer from the base member. The second annealing process enables satisfactory transfer of a concavity and convexity structure on the base member onto the metal layer.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Nippon Steel & Sumikin Chemical Co. | Date: 2015-04-01

A nano-composite 10 is described, including a matrix resin 1, metal fine-particles 3 immobilized in the matrix resin 1, a binding species 7 immobilized on a part or all of the metal fine-particles 3, and metal fine-particles 9 indirectly immobilized on the metal fine-particles 3 via the binding species 7. Each of at least a part of the metal fine-particles 3 has a portion embedded in the matrix resin 1, and a portion (exposed portion 3a) exposed outside of the matrix resin 1, while the binding species 7 is immobilized on the exposed portions.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Basf | Date: 2010-03-03

A process for the preparation of an isomorphously substituted layered silicate comprising (1) providing a mixture containing silica or a precursor thereof, at least one structure directing agent (SDA) allowing for the crystallization of the layered silicate, and water; (2) heating the mixture obtained according to (1) under hydrothermal conditions; (3) adding at least one source at least one element suitable for isomorphous substitution; (4) heating the mixture obtained according to (3) under hydrothermal conditions.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Basf | Date: 2012-04-03

The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a zeolitic material having a BEA framework structure comprising the steps of: (i) providing one or more zeolitic materials having a BEA framework structure, wherein the BEA framework structure comprises YO_(2 )and X_(2)O_(3), wherein Y is a tetravalent element, and X is a trivalent element; (ii) subjecting the one or more zeolitic materials provided in step (i) to a procedure for removing at least a portion of X, preferably tetrahedrally coordinated X, from the BEA framework structure; wherein the Y:X molar ratios of the one or more zeolitic materials provided in step (i) are respectively comprised in the range of from 1 to 50.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Basf | Date: 2012-04-03

The present invention relates to a process for the alkylation of an organic compound comprising: (a) providing a catalyst comprising one or more zeolitic materials having a BEA framework structure, wherein the BEA framework structure comprises YO_(2 )and optionally comprises X_(2)O_(3), wherein Y is a tetravalent element, and X is a trivalent element, (b) contacting the catalyst with one or more alkylatable organic compounds in the presence of one or more alkylating agents in one or more reactors for obtaining one or more alkylated organic compounds, wherein the one or more zeolitic materials is obtainable from a synthetic process which does not employ an organotemplate as structure directing agent.


A method for producing a mold includes: applying a block copolymer solution made of first and second polymers on a base member; performing a first annealing process at a temperature higher than Tg of the block copolymer after drying the coating film; forming a concavity and convexity structure on the base member by removing the second polymer by an etching process; performing a second annealing process of the concavity and convexity structure at a temperature higher than Tg of the first polymer; forming a seed layer on the structure; laminating or stacking a metal layer on the seed layer by an electroforming; and peeling off the metal layer from the base member. The second annealing process enables satisfactory transfer of a concavity and convexity structure on the base member onto the metal layer.


Patent
Nippon Oil Corporation and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-07-27

A method for producing a mold includes: applying a block copolymer solution 30 made of first and second polymers on a base member 10; performing a first annealing process at a temperature higher than a glass transition temperature of the block copolymer after drying the coating film; forming a concavity and convexity structure 36 on the base member by removing the second polymer by an etching process; performing a second annealing process of the concavity and convexity structure 36 at a temperature higher than a glass transition temperature of the first polymer; forming a seed layer 40 on the concavity and convexity structure; laminating or stacking a metal layer 50 on the seed layer 40 by an electroforming; and peeling off the metal layer 50 from the base member. The second annealing process enables satisfactory transfer of a concavity and convexity structure 70 on the base member onto the metal layer. Accordingly, there is provided a mold for minute pattern transfer, which is suitable for producing an optical component such as a diffraction grating.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Basf | Date: 2011-06-17

Described is a process for the production of a zeolitic material having an LEV-type framework structure comprising YO_(2 )and optionally comprising X_(2)O_(3), wherein said process comprises


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Basf | Date: 2010-03-03

The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a silicate compound, comprising (1) providing at least one layered silicate; and (2) mixing said layered silicate with water and at least one silicon containing compound according to formula R_(4-m)Si[(SiR_(2))_(n)R]_(m )wherein at least one residue R is a leaving group and none of the residues R contains Si; m is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4; and n is an integer greater than or equal to 0.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Basf | Date: 2012-09-14

The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a zeolitic material having a CHA framework structure, said zeolitic material comprising zeolite crystals having a core-shell structure, wherein said process comprises the steps of


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Basf | Date: 2011-06-17

Described is a process for the production of a zeolitic material having an LEV-type framework structure comprising YO_(2 )and optionally comprising X_(2)O_(3), wherein said process comprises: (1) preparing a mixture comprising one or more sources for YO_(2), one or more solvents, and optionally comprising seed crystals; and (2) crystallizing the mixture obtained in step (1); wherein Y is a tetravalent element, and X is a trivalent element, wherein the zeolitic material optionally comprises one or more alkali metals M,wherein the molar ratio of the total amount of the one or more solvents to the total amount of the one or more sources for YO_(2 )based on YO_(2 )is 9.5 or less, andwherein for crystallization temperatures of 175 C. or higher in step (2), the duration of crystallization at those temperatures is less than 14 d, as well as to a zeolitic material, preferably being obtainable or obtained according to the inventive process, said zeolitic material having an LEV-type framework structure comprising YO_(2 )and X_(2)O_(3),wherein the zeolitic material optionally comprises one or more alkali metals M, and wherein the zeolitic material displays an Y:X atomic ratio of from 1 to 9.4.


The present invention relates to a process for the production of a zeolitic material having a BEA-type framework structure comprising YO_(2 )and X2O_(3), wherein said process comprises the steps of (1) preparing a mixture comprising one or more sources for YO_(2 )and one or more sources for X2O_(3); (2) crystallizing the mixture obtained in step (1); (3) subjecting the zeolitic material having a BEA-type framework structure obtained in step (2) to an ion-exchange procedure with Cu; and (4) subjecting the Cu ion-exchanged zeolitic material obtained in step (3) to an ion-exchange procedure with Fe; wherein Y is a tetravalent element, and X is a trivalent element, wherein the mixture provided in step (1) and crystallized in step (2) further comprises seed crystals comprising one or more zeolitic materials having a BEA-type framework structure, and wherein the mixture provided in step (1) and crystallized in step (2) does not contain an organotemplate as a structure-directing agent, as well as to the zeolitic material having a BEA frame work structure per se, and to its use, in particular in a method for the treatment of NO_(x )by selective catalytic reduction (SCR).


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Nippon Oil Corporation | Date: 2010-09-13

A microlens for an organic EL element, which is used by being disposed on a light-emitting surface of the organic EL element, said microlens comprising a cured resin layer having concavities and convexities formed on a surface thereof, wherein when a Fourier-transformed image is obtained by performing two-dimensional fast Fourier transform processing on a concavity and convexity analysis image obtained by analyzing a shape of the concavities and convexities by use of an atomic force microscope, the Fourier-transformed image shows a circular or annular pattern substantially centered at an origin at which an absolute value of wavenumber is 0 m^(1), and the circular or annular pattern is present within a region where an absolute value of wavenumber is within a range of 1 m^(1 )or less.


A transparent electroconductive substrate for a solar cell, comprising:


Patent
Nippon Oil Corporation and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-01-09

Atransparentelectroconductivesubstrateforasolar cell, comprising:a transparent supporting substrate;a transparent electroconductive layer; anda cured resin layer placed between the transparent supporting substrate and the transparent electroconductive layer, whereinconcavities and convexities are formed on a surface of the cured resin layer, the surface facing the transparent electroconductive layer, andwhen a Fourier-transformed image is obtained by performing two-dimensional fast Fourier transform processing on a concavity and convexity analysis image obtained by analyzing a shape of the concavities and convexities by use of an atomic force microscope, the Fourier-transformed image shows a circular or annular pattern substantially centered at an origin at which an absolute value of wavenumber is 0 m^(-1), and the circular or annular pattern is present within a region where an absolute value of wavenumber is within a range from 0.5 to 10 m^(-1).


Patent
Mitsubishi Group and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2010-11-17

A hot-forged TiAl-based alloy having excellent oxidation resistance and high strength at high temperatures, and a process for producing such an alloy. A TiAl-based alloy comprising Al: (40+a) atomic % and Nb: b atomic %, with the remainder being Ti and unavoidable impurities, wherein a and b satisfy formulas (1) and (2) below. Also, a TiAl-based alloy comprising Al: (40+a) atomic % and Nb: b atomic %, and further comprising one or more elements selected from the group consisting of V: c atomic %, Cr: d atomic % and Mo: e atomic %, with the remainder being Ti and unavoidable impurities, wherein a to e satisfy formulas (3) to (9) shown below.


A method for producing a mold includes: applying a block copolymer solution 30 made of first and second polymers on a base member 10; performing a first annealing process at a temperature higher than a glass transition temperature of the block copolymer after drying the coating film; forming a concavity and convexity structure 36 on the base member by removing the second polymer by an etching process; performing a second annealing process of the concavity and convexity structure 36 at a temperature higher than a glass transition temperature of the first polymer; forming a seed layer 40 on the concavity and convexity structure; laminating or stacking a metal layer 50 on the seed layer 40 by an electroforming; and peeling off the metal layer 50 from the base member. The second annealing process enables satisfactory transfer of a concavity and convexity structure 70 on the base member onto the metal layer. Accordingly, there is provided a mold for minute pattern transfer, which is suitable for producing an optical component such as a diffraction grating.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Nippon Steel & Sumikin Chemical Co. | Date: 2013-04-10

A nano-composite 10 is described, including a matrix resin 1, metal fine-particles 3 immobilized in the matrix resin 1, a binding species 7 immobilized on a part or all of the metal fine-particles 3, and metal fine-particles 9 indirectly immobilized on the metal fine-particles 3 via the binding species 7. Each of at least a part of the metal fine-particles 3 has a portion embedded in the matrix resin 1, and a portion (exposed portion 3a) exposed outside of the matrix resin 1, while the binding species 7 is immobilized on the exposed portions.


The method for producing a sulfonic acid group-containing carbonaceous material of the present invention comprises the step of carbonizing and sulfonating a polymer having a structural unit derived from resorcinol by heating in an inert gas atmosphere to obtain a sulfonic acid group-containing carbonaceous material. A catalyst comprising the resulting sulfonic acid group-containing carbonaceous material is useful for producing a target substance with high efficiency in various reactions in hydrophobic media such as alkylation reaction and polymerization reaction of olefins.


A diffraction grating comprising:a transparent supporting substrate; anda cured resin layer which is stacked on the transparent supporting substrate and which has concavities and convexities formed on a surface thereof, whereinwhen a Fourier-transformed image is obtained by performing two-dimensional fast Fourier transform processing on a concavity and convexity analysis image obtained by analyzing a shape of the concavities and convexities formed on the surface of the cured resin layer by use of an atomic force microscope, the Fourier-transformed image shows a circular or annular pattern substantially centered at an origin at which an absolute value of wavenumber is 0 m^(-1), and the circular or annular pattern is present within a region where an absolute value of wavenumber is within a range of 10 m^(-1) or less.


Patent
Nippon Oil Corporation and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2012-01-31

The present invention provides a diacetylene derivative represented by the following formula (A) which exhibits liquid crystallinity by itself and has a large refractive index anisotropy or does not exhibit liquid crystallinity by itself but exhibits a large refractive index anisotropy when added to a liquid crystalline compound: R1-Sp1-(Ar1)_(p)-(Ar3)_(q)-(Phe)_(r)-CCCC-(Phe)_(r)-(Ar4)_(q)-(Ar2)_(p)-Sp2-R2(A) (wherein R1 and R2 are a hydrogen, halogen, cyano, isothiocyanate, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl or reactive group, SP1 and SP2 are each a spacer group, Ar1 and Ar2 are each a non-substituted or substituted aromatic carbocyclic or heterocyclic group, Ar3 and Ar4 are each a non-substituted or substituted heterocyclic group, Phe is a non-substituted or substituted 1,4-phenylene group, and p, q and r are each 0 or 1.


Patent
Nippon Steel & Sumikin Chemical Co. and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2011-05-20

A nano-composite 10 is described, including a matrix resin 1, metal fine-particles 3 immobilized in the matrix resin 1, a binding species 7 immobilized on a part or all of the metal fine-particles 3, and metal fine-particles 9 indirectly immobilized on the metal fine-particles 3 via the binding species 7. Each of at least a part of the metal fine-particles 3 has a portion embedded in the matrix resin 1, and a portion (exposed portion 3a) exposed outside of the matrix resin 1, while the binding species 7 is immobilized on the exposed portions.


There are provided a conductive nanowire network, a conductive board and transparent electrode utilizing it, and a method for producing the same. The conductive nanowire network of the invention has essentially unbroken, continuous conductive nanowires randomly formed into a network. In the method for producing a conductive nanowire network according to the invention, nanofibers are applied in a random network-like fashion onto a substrate covered with a conductive layer, the conductive layer regions that are not covered with the nanofibers are removed, and then the nanofibers are removed. The network structure (wire diameter and network density) are also controlled to obtain a transparent electrode exhibiting both transparency and conductivity.


Patent
Nippon Oil Corporation and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-12-18

A microlens for an organic EL element, which is used by being disposed on a light-emitting surface of the organic EL element, said microlens comprising a cured resin layer having concavities and convexities formed on a surface thereof, wherein when a Fourier-transformed image is obtained by performing two-dimensional fast Fourier transform processing on a concavity and convexity analysis image obtained by analyzing a shape of the concavities and convexities by use of an atomic force microscope, the Fourier-transformed image shows a circular or annular pattern substantially centered at an origin at which an absolute value of wavenumber is 0 m^(1), and the circular or annular pattern is present within a region where an absolute value of wavenumber is within a range of 1 m^(1 )or less.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Basf | Date: 2010-03-03

The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a layered silicate containing at least silicon and oxygen, comprising (1) providing a mixture containing silica and/or at least one silica precursor, water, at least one tetraalkylammonium compound selected from the group consisting of diethyldimethylammonium compound, a triethylmethylammonium compound, and a mixture of a diethyldimethylammonium and a triethylmethylammonium compound, and at least one base, and optionally at least one suitable seeding material; and (2) heating of the mixture obtained according to (1) under autogenous pressure (hydrothermal conditions) to a temperature in the range of from to 120 to 160 C. for a period in the range of from 5 to 10 days to give a suspension containing the layered silicate.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Nippon Oil Corporation | Date: 2011-07-20

A mold for nanoimprint including a liquid-crystalline polysilane and having a raised and recessed surface formed by the formation of a smectic phase due to the orientation of the liquid-crystalline polysilane.


There are provided a conductive nanowire network, a conductive board and transparent electrode utilizing it, and a method for producing the same. The conductive nanowire network of the invention has essentially unbroken, continuous conductive nanowires randomly formed into a network. In the method for producing a conductive nanowire network according to the invention, nanofibers are applied in a random network-like fashion onto a substrate covered with a conductive layer, the conductive layer regions that are not covered with the nanofibers are removed, and then the nanofibers are removed. The network structure (wire diameter and network density) are also controlled to obtain a transparent electrode exhibiting both transparency and conductivity.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Nippon Oil Corporation | Date: 2010-07-16

A diffraction grating having a transparent supporting substrate; and a cured resin layer which is stacked on the transparent supporting substrate and which has concavities and convexities formed on a surface thereof, wherein when a Fourier-transformed image is obtained by performing two-dimensional fast Fourier transform processing on a concavity and convexity analysis image obtained by analyzing a shape of the concavities and convexities formed on the surface of the cured resin layer by use of an atomic force microscope, the Fourier-transformed image shows a circular or annular pattern substantially centered at an origin at which an absolute value of wavenumber is 0 m^(1), and the circular or annular pattern is present within a region where an absolute value of wavenumber is within a range of 10 m^(1 )or less.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The introduction of organic matter, such as proteins, into living cells has multiple uses for basic scientific research and industrial techniques. For example, the behavior of cell components can be traced by introducing a protein that emits a fluorescent signal into the cell. While scientists have long been successful in delivering proteins into living animal cells, there are difficulties in using the same techniques for plant studies. Developing a non-destructive method for protein introduction that could be used for genome editing and controlling a functionality, for example. Moreover, it will be expected to control flowering time by introducing flowering control proteins. With this in mind, Yuki Yanagawa and co-workers at the Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, NARO together with Akitoshi Okino and colleagues at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan, have developed a potentially useful technique for introducing proteins into plant cells using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas. Plasmas are created by adding energy to a gas, causing the atoms in the gas to become ionized. Plasmas have already proved invaluable in multiple applications and recently showed promise in inactivating bacteria by damaging the bacterial cell surfaces. Thus, the same process may be used to disturb the surface structure of plant cells, allowing proteins to enter the cell interior. The team tested their theory on tobacco, rice and Arabidopsis leaves or roots. They exposed groups of leaves to one of five different plasma types, and then immersed the leaves into solution containing a green fluorescent protein (sGFP) -- adenylate cyclase fusion protein. They found that those leaves treated with either carbon dioxide or nitrogen gas plasmas showed a high uptake of the protein into their cells. Protein introduction by plasma must be done by a completely different principle from any other existing techniques. Because it does not need any special pretreatment to plant tissues and/or proteins themselves, it is simple. In addition, it is scalable because the plasma jet apparatus can be modified in size. The researchers are hopeful that their method could prove useful for various plant species and tissues in future. The method for introducing organic matter, such as proteins, into living cells has been successfully developed in the biological sciences. Existing techniques for introducing organic matter into animal cells include micro-injections and transfection (where tiny holes or pores are opened up in the cell membrane to allow material to pass through). However, most of the methods are developed in animal cells, and there are additional obstacles in plants because of the different structure of plant cell surfaces and cell walls. The technique could be extended to introduce various different proteins in different plants, and could have applications in plant genome editing, analysis of protein function and the fine control of plant properties for research and industrial applications. This work was partly supported by KAKENHI (25440057) and Cabinet Office, Governmental of Japan, Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP), "Technologies for creating next-generation agriculture, forestry and fisheries" (funding agency: Bio-oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution, NARO) 2. Laboratory for Future Interdisciplinary Research of Science and Technology (FIRST), Institute of Innovative Research, Tokyo Institute of Technology


News Article | August 30, 2016
Site: www.cemag.us

Simple cements are everywhere in construction, but researchers want to create novel construction materials to build smarter infrastructure. The cement known as mayenite is one smart material — it can be turned from an insulator to a transparent conductor and back. Other unique properties of this material make it suitable for industrial production of chemicals such as ammonia and for use as semiconductors in flat panel displays. The secret behind mayenite's magic is a tiny change in its chemical composition, but researchers hadn't been sure why the change had such a big effect on the material, also known as C12A7. In new work, researchers show how C12A7 components called electron anions help to transform crystalline C12A7 into semiconducting glass. The study, published recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, uses computer modeling that zooms in at the electron level along with lab experiments. They showed how the small change in composition results in dramatic changes of the glass properties and, potentially, allows for greater control of the glass formation process. "We want to get rid of the indium and gallium currently used in most flat panel displays," says materials scientist Peter Sushko of the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. "This research is leading us toward replacing them with abundant non-toxic elements such as calcium and aluminum." More than a decade ago, materials scientist Hideo Hosono at the Tokyo Institute of Technology and colleagues plucked an oxygen atom from a crystal of C12A7 oxide, which turned the transparent insulating material into a transparent conductor. This switch is rare because the conducting material is transparent: Most conductors are not transparent (think metals) and most transparent materials are not conductive (think window glass). Back in the crystal, C12A7 oxide's departing oxygen leaves behind a couple electrons and creates a material known as an electride. This electride is remarkably stable in air, water, and ambient temperatures. Most electrides fall apart in these conditions. Because of this stability, materials scientists want to harness the structure and properties of C12A7 electride. Unfortunately, its crystalline nature is not suitable for large-scale industrial processes, so they needed to make a glass equivalent of C12A7 electride. And several years ago, they did. Hosono and colleagues converted crystalline C12A7 electride into glass. The glass shares many properties of the crystalline electride, including the remarkable stability. Crystals are neat and tidy, like apples and oranges arranged orderly in a box, but glasses are unordered and messy, like that same fruit in a plastic grocery bag. Researchers make glass by melting a crystal and cooling the liquid in such a way that the ordered crystal doesn't reform. With C12A7, the electride forms a glass at a temperature about 200 degrees lower than the oxide does. This temperature — when the atoms stop flowing as a liquid and freeze in place — is known as the glass transition temperature. Controlling the glass transition temperature allows researchers to control certain properties of the material. For example, how car tires wear down and perform in bad weather depends on the glass transition temperature of the rubber they're made from. Sushko, his PNNL colleague Lewis Johnson, Hosono and others at Tokyo Tech wanted to determine why the electride's glass transition temperature was so much lower than the oxide's. They suspected components of the electride known as electron anions were responsible. Electron anions are essentially freely moving electrons in place of the much-larger negatively charged oxygen atoms that urge the oxide to form a tidy crystal. The team simulated Hosono's lab experiments using molecular dynamics software that could capture the movement of both the atoms and the electron anions in both the melted material and glass. The team found that that the negatively-charged electron anions paired up between positively charged aluminum or calcium atoms, replacing the negatively charged oxygen atoms that would typically be found between the metals. The bonds that the electron anions formed between the metal atoms were weaker than bonds between metal and oxygen atoms. These weak links could also move rapidly through the material. This movement allowed a small number of electron anions to have a greater effect on the glass transition temperature than much larger quantities of minerals typically used as additives in glasses. To rule out other factors as the impetus for the lower transition temperature — such as the electrical charge or change in oxygen atoms — the researchers simulated a material with the same composition as the C12A7 electride but with the electrons spread evenly through the material instead of packed in as electron anions. In this simulation, the glass transition temperature was no different than C12A7 oxide's. This result confirmed that the network of weak links formed by the electron anions was responsible for changes to the glass transition temperature. According to the scientists, electron anions form a new type of weak link that can affect the conditions under which a material can form a glass. They join the ranks of typical additives that disrupt the ability of the material to form long chains of atoms, such as fluoride, or form weak, randomly oriented bonds between atoms of opposite charge, such as sodium. The work suggests researchers might be able to control the transition temperature by changing the amount of electron anions they use. "This work shows us not just how a glass forms," says PNNL's Johnson, "but also gives us a new tool for how to control it." This work was supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency and PNNL.


News Article | December 2, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

In nanotechnology control is key. Control over the arrangements and distances between nanoparticles can allow tailored interaction strengths so that properties can be harnessed in devices such as plasmonic sensors. Now researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology use dendrimers that mimic the electron valency of atoms and link them into arrays using molecules that coordinate with the dendrimer as they would form a covalent electron pair in their valence shell - "electron pair mimicry". Kimihisa Yamamoto, Ken Albrecht, and colleagues at Tokyo Tech considered the dendritic polyphenylazomethine (DPA), which has a structure that branches out from a central core. "Lewis acid" molecules coordinate to the "Lewis base" sites of DPA. Analysis of the ratio of SnCl2 Lewis acid molecules coordinating with each dendrimer revealed step increases from 2 to 4 to 8 to 16, which mimics the valency of the Bohr atom that has 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd , and 4th orbitals. This reflects the increase in the number of molecules that can coordinate with the dendrimer with increasing distance from the core, as the number of dendrimer branches and electron density increases. Yamamoto's team analysed the coordination of DPA with a stronger binding Lewis acid - triphenylmethylium (TPM) - bound to the rod-like molecule phenylene ethynylene. The phylene ethynlene backbone is rigid enough that the acid cations at either end cannot then bind to the same dendrimer. Instead a polymer chain of dendrimers forms. Using a different starting dendrimer (ZnPG4 instead of DPAG4) - which has a core valency of four instead of two - led to the formation of two dimensional polymerisation of the dendrimers, producing a 2D array of nanocontainers for that can accumulate other Lewis acids into the outer orbitals. The work describes "a new aspect of atom mimicry" conclude the researchers. "The geometry and pitch can be controlled by the design of the dendrimer and the linker and are potentially applicable to plasmonics (after seed-mediated growth) and nanoelectrode grids (which are also useful as electrocatalysts)." The Bohr model of the atom set out by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913 describes the atom as a positive nucleus surrounded by electrons in different shells or energy levels. Each shell has a prescribed number of electrons that can occupy it - that is, two electrons can occupy the first shell, eight the next, and eighteen the next, and so on. While there are aspects of the atom behaviour that the model does not cover, it is particularly successful at explaining the spectral emission lines. When excited, an electron can jump to the next energy level. When it returns to the initial energy level, the difference in the energies is emitted as light at the specific wavelength equivalent to the energy difference. Where a shell is not full, the atom can bond with another chemical species. In this way the valency of an atom describes how full the electron shell is and how readily bonds can form. The electron density gradient of dendrimers moving radially from the core to the more branched outer regions dictates how many Lewis acid coordinating molecules it can accommodate and in this way it mimics the energy levels of the Bohr atom. A Lewis acid is a chemical species that can accept a lone pair of electrons from a chemical that can donate a lone pair, that is, from a Lewis base. This behaviour is defined by the electron structure of the chemical. Lewis acids include acidic compounds but also metal cations. When the dendrimer coordinates with the Lewis acids it takes the place of the Lewis base that would donate an electron pair. The researchers describe the di-Lewis acid compound (linker molecule) as electron pair mimicry. When two chemicals react the amount of light absorbed can change depending on how much light the products versus the reactants absorb. If the products and reactants absorb the same amount of light at a particular wavelength, it is described as the isosbestic point. The researchers used isosbestic points to identify the step increases in Lewis acid reacting with the dendrimers. A wavelength shift in the isosbestic point indicates coordination of the Lewis acid to the subsequent layer of the dendrimer.


News Article | August 30, 2016
Site: phys.org

Organofluorine compounds are important in the fields of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and functional materials, because incorporation of fluorine atoms into organic molecules frequently influences their medicinal actions as well as chemical and physical properties. In particular, difluoromethyl group (CF2H) is an intriguing structural motif, especially in medicinal chemistry, because it may provide a lipophilic hydrogen donor and act as bioisostere of alcohols and thiols. However, the direct and catalytic incorporation of a CF2H group into organic molecules still remains to be further developed, while several methods have been reported. Now, Takashi Koike, Munetaka Akita and their colleagues at Laboratory for Chemistry and Life Scienece, Institute of Innovative Research, Tokyo Institute of Technology, have developed a novel and simple protocol for the direct incorporation of the CF2H group into organic skeltons by visible-light-driven photoredox catalysis. The reactions were performed in the presence of N-tosyl-S-difluoromethyl-S-phenylsulfoximine employed as the CF2H source and fac-[Ir(ppy)3] (ppy = 2-pyridylphenyl) photocatalyst under visible light irradiation (425 nm blue LED lamp). The photocatalytic reactions of olefins bearing various functional groups with oxygen-nucleophiles such as water, alcohols and carboxylic acids afforded β-CF2H-substituted alcohols, ethers and esters in a regiospecific manner, respectively. CF2H-containing organic molecules may show medicinal activities superior to those of existing medicines. Explore further: Taking a cue from nature: Turning alcohols into alkylating agents More information: Yusuke Arai et al. Oxydifluoromethylation of Alkenes by Photoredox Catalysis: Simple Synthesis of CFH-Containing Alcohols, Chemistry - A European Journal (2016). DOI: 10.1002/chem.201504838


News Article | December 13, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A group of Japanese researchers developed a prototype construction robot for disaster relief situations. This prototype has drastically improved operability and mobility compared to conventional construction machines. As part of the Impulsing Paradigm Challenge through Disruptive Technologies Program (ImPACT)'s Tough Robotics Challenge Program, a group of research leaders at Osaka University, Kobe University, Tohoku University, The University of Tokyo, and Tokyo Institute of Technology developed construction robots for disaster relief in order to solve various challenges of conventional construction machines used in such situations. Using a prototype machine with elemental technologies under development, verification tests were performed on places that represented disaster sites, and a certain level of performance was confirmed. This prototype looks like an ordinary hydraulic excavator, but, specifically, has the following elemental technologies: In addition to the above-mentioned technologies, this group is developing several useful elemental technologies and making efforts to improve their technical performance. They are also developing new robots with a double rotation mechanism and double arms with the purpose of achieving higher operability and terrain adaptability.


News Article | December 5, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

In electronics, lower power consumption leads to operation cost savings, environmental benefits and the convenience advantages from longer running devices. While progress in energy efficiencies has been reported with alternative materials such as SiC and GaN, energy-savings in the standard inexpensive and widely used silicon devices are still keenly sought. K Tsutsui at Tokyo Institute of Technology and colleagues in Japan have now shown that by scaling down size parameters in all three dimensions their device they can achieve significant energy savings. Tsutsui and colleagues studied silicon insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), a fast-operating switch that features in a number of every day appliances. While the efficiency of IGBTs is good, reducing the ON resistance, or the voltage from collector to emitter required for saturation (Vce(sat)), could help increase the energy efficiency of these devices further. Previous investigations have highlighted that increases in the "injection enhancement (IE) effect", which give rise to more charge carriers, leads to a reduction in Vce(sat). Although this has been achieved by reducing the mesa width in the device structure, the mesa resistance was thereby increased as well. Reducing the mesa height could help counter the increased resistance but is prone to impeding the (IE) effect. Instead the researchers reduced the mesa width, gate length, and the oxide thickness in the MOSFET to increase the IE effect and so reduce Vce(sat) from 1.70 to 1.26 V. With these alterations the researchers also used a reduced gate voltage, which has advantages for CMOS integration. They conclude, "It was experimentally confirmed for the first time that significant Vce(sat) reduction can be achieved by scaling the IGBT both in the lateral and vertical dimensions with a decrease in the gate voltage." These are three terminal devices used as switches or rectifiers. With simple gate-drive characteristics and high-current and low-saturation-voltage capabilities they combine the benefits of two other types of transistors - metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) and bipolar transistors. The researchers reduced the mesa width, gate length, and the oxide thickness in the MOSFET by a factor of 1/k, and compared devices with values of 1 and 3 for k. Because the fabrication of narrow mesas can cause problems they also reduced the trench depth by 1/k. Although this has a slightly negative effect on the IE effect, it has considerable benefits for fabrication ease and cost and the dependence of (Vce(sat)) on the trench depth was deemed to be small. The gate voltage was also decreased by a factor of 1/k, while the cell pitch was maintained at 16 μm.


News Article | December 19, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

In the Nankai subduction zone, Japan, non-volcanic deep tremors occur down-dip of the megathrust seismogenic zone, and are observed to coincide temporally with short-term slow-slip events (SSEs). They occur within a limited depth range of 30-35 km over an along-strike length of ~700 km, associated with subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate. As Low-Frequency Earthquakes (LFEs) coincide spatially with tremor activity, the locations of LFEs act as a proxy for tremor activity. There are two distinct gaps in LFE activity at the Kii Gap and Ise Gap, while there is limited or no LFE activity beneath Kanto and Kyushu at the extensions of the LFE activity zone (Fig. 1). Junichi Nakajima from Tokyo Institute of Technology and Akira Hasegawa at Tohoku University examined the seismic properties of Nankai, including areas where LFEs are present and absent, in an effort to elucidate the factors controlling LFE generation. The observed P-wave (dVp) and S-wave (dVs) velocities show the presence of low-velocity anomalies in the overlying plate at Kanto, Ise Gap, Kii Gap, and Kyushu, where there is limited or no LFE activity. LFEs do not occur on the megathrust where dVp and dVs are lower than approximately -4%, suggesting a systematic change in seismic velocities in the overlying plate between areas with and without LFE activity. There is a spatial correlation between LFE locations and seismic velocity, attenuation, and anisotropy anomalies. One hypothesis that could explain the variation in seismic properties along the LFE band is along-strike variation in the degree of prograde metamorphism above the megathrust that is proportional to the rate of fluid leakage from the subducting slab into the overlying plate. Notably, large amounts of fluid are liberated from the subducting crust at depths of 30-60 km. The along-strike variations in seismic properties suggest that the overlying plate is less metamorphosed in areas with LFE activity, and is significantly metamorphosed in areas of limited or no LFE activity. This anti-correlation between LFEs and metamorphism is probably caused by along-strike variation in hydrological conditions in the overlying plate. An impermeable overlying plate restricts fluids to the megathrust, whereas fluids escape from the megathrust, if the overlying plate is permeable. Undrained conditions at the megathrust elevate pore-fluid pressures to near-lithostatic values, lower the shear strength of the megathrust sufficiently to facilitate LFEs, and result in a low degree of metamorphism in the overlying plate (Fig. 2a). In contrast, in areas of limited LFE activity, fluids migrate into and metamorphose the permeable overlying plate, reducing pore-fluid pressures at the megathrust, which is no longer weak enough to generate LFEs (Fig. 2b). The large number of crustal earthquakes in the Kii Gap and Ise Gap suggests that LFE activity and seismicity in the overlying plate are anti-correlated, largely reflecting the magnitude of fluid flux from the megathrust. The scientists concluded that a well-drained megathrust allows fluids to migrate into the overlying plate, inhibiting LFE activity at the megathrust, but facilitating shallow seismicity due to the decreased shear strength of crustal faults.


The secret behind mayenite's magic is a tiny change in its chemical composition, but researchers hadn't been sure why the change had such a big effect on the material, also known as C12A7. In new work, researchers show how C12A7 components called electron anions help to transform crystalline C12A7 into semiconducting glass. The study, published Aug. 24 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, uses computer modeling that zooms in at the electron level along with lab experiments. They showed how the small change in composition results in dramatic changes of the glass properties and, potentially, allows for greater control of the glass formation process. "We want to get rid of the indium and gallium currently used in most flat panel displays," said materials scientist Peter Sushko of the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. "This research is leading us toward replacing them with abundant non-toxic elements such as calcium and aluminum." More than a decade ago, materials scientist Hideo Hosono at the Tokyo Institute of Technology and colleagues plucked an oxygen atom from a crystal of C12A7 oxide, which turned the transparent insulating material into a transparent conductor. This switch is rare because the conducting material is transparent: Most conductors are not transparent (think metals) and most transparent materials are not conductive (think window glass). Back in the crystal, C12A7 oxide's departing oxygen leaves behind a couple electrons and creates a material known as an electride. This electride is remarkably stable in air, water, and ambient temperatures. Most electrides fall apart in these conditions. Because of this stability, materials scientists want to harness the structure and properties of C12A7 electride. Unfortunately, its crystalline nature is not suitable for large-scale industrial processes, so they needed to make a glass equivalent of C12A7 electride. And several years ago, they did. Hosono and colleagues converted crystalline C12A7 electride into glass. The glass shares many properties of the crystalline electride, including the remarkable stability. Crystals are neat and tidy, like apples and oranges arranged orderly in a box, but glasses are unordered and messy, like that same fruit in a plastic grocery bag. Researchers make glass by melting a crystal and cooling the liquid in such a way that the ordered crystal doesn't reform. With C12A7, the electride forms a glass at a temperature about 200 degrees lower than the oxide does. This temperature—when the atoms stop flowing as a liquid and freeze in place—is known as the glass transition temperature. Controlling the glass transition temperature allows researchers to control certain properties of the material. For example, how car tires wear down and perform in bad weather depends on the glass transition temperature of the rubber they're made from. Sushko, his PNNL colleague Lewis Johnson, Hosono and others at Tokyo Tech wanted to determine why the electride's glass transition temperature was so much lower than the oxide's. They suspected components of the electride known as electron anions were responsible. Electron anions are essentially freely moving electrons in place of the much-larger negatively charged oxygen atoms that urge the oxide to form a tidy crystal. The team simulated Hosono's lab experiments using molecular dynamics software that could capture the movement of both the atoms and the electron anions in both the melted material and glass. The team found that that the negatively-charged electron anions paired up between positively charged aluminum or calcium atoms, replacing the negatively charged oxygen atoms that would typically be found between the metals. The bonds that the electron anions formed between the metal atoms were weaker than bonds between metal and oxygen atoms. These weak links could also move rapidly through the material. This movement allowed a small number of electron anions to have a greater effect on the glass transition temperature than much larger quantities of minerals typically used as additives in glasses. To rule out other factors as the impetus for the lower transition temperature—such as the electrical charge or change in oxygen atoms—the researchers simulated a material with the same composition as the C12A7 electride but with the electrons spread evenly through the material instead of packed in as electron anions. In this simulation, the glass transition temperature was no different than C12A7 oxide's. This result confirmed that the network of weak links formed by the electron anions was responsible for changes to the glass transition temperature. According to the scientists, electron anions form a new type of weak link that can affect the conditions under which a material can form a glass. They join the ranks of typical additives that disrupt the ability of the material to form long chains of atoms, such as fluoride, or form weak, randomly oriented bonds between atoms of opposite charge, such as sodium. The work suggests researchers might be able to control the transition temperature by changing the amount of electron anions they use. "This work shows us not just how a glass forms," said PNNL's Johnson, "but also gives us a new tool for how to control it." Explore further: In probing mysteries of glass, researchers find a key to toughness More information: Lewis E. Johnson et al. Electron anions and the glass transition temperature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1606891113


News Article | September 2, 2016
Site: www.materialstoday.com

A material known as mayenite, made up of aluminum, calcium and oxygen atoms, has several useful properties. Not only can it be turned from an insulator to a transparent conductor and back again, but it is used in the industrial production of chemicals such as ammonia and as a semiconductor in flat panel displays. The secret behind mayenite's magic is a tiny change in its chemical composition, but researchers hadn't been sure why this tiny change had such a big effect on the material, also known as C12A7. In a new study, researchers now show how specific components of C12A7 known as electron anions can help the material to transform from a crystal into a semiconducting glass. The study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, uses computer modeling to zoom in at the electron level, along with lab experiments. These revealed how the small change in composition results in dramatic changes in the material’s glass properties and, potentially, allows for greater control of the glass formation process. "We want to get rid of the indium and gallium currently used in most flat panel displays," explained materials scientist Peter Sushko of the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). "This research is leading us toward replacing them with abundant non-toxic elements such as calcium and aluminum." More than a decade ago, materials scientist Hideo Hosono at the Tokyo Institute of Technology in Japan and colleagues plucked an oxygen atom from a crystal of C12A7 oxide, transforming the transparent insulating material into a transparent conductor. Such transparent conductors are rare: most conductors are not transparent (think metals) and most transparent materials are not conductive (think window glass). This transformation is all due to the departing oxygen atom leaving behind a couple of electrons and creating a material known as an electride. The C12A7 electride is remarkably stable in air, water and ambient temperatures, whereas most electrides fall apart in these conditions. Because of this stability, materials scientists want to harness the structure and properties of C12A7 electride. Unfortunately, its crystalline nature is not suitable for large-scale industrial processes, so they needed to make a glass equivalent of C12A7 electride. And several years ago, they did. Hosono and colleagues converted crystalline C12A7 electride into a glass that shares many of the properties of the crystalline electride, including its remarkable stability. Crystals are neat and tidy, like apples and oranges arranged orderly in a box, but glasses are unordered and messy, like that same fruit in a plastic grocery bag. Researchers make glass by melting a crystal and cooling the liquid in such a way that the ordered crystal doesn't reform. With C12A7, the temperature at which the electride forms a glass is around 200°C lower than the temperature at which the oxide forms a glass. This temperature – when the atoms stop flowing as a liquid and freeze in place – is known as the glass transition temperature. Controlling the glass transition temperature allows researchers to control certain properties of the material. For example, how car tires wear down and perform in bad weather depends on the glass transition temperature of the rubber they're made from. Sushko and his PNNL colleague Lewis Johnson, together with Hosono and others at Tokyo Tech, wanted to determine why the electride's glass transition temperature was so much lower than the oxide's. They suspected that components of the electride known as electron anions were responsible. Electron anions are essentially freely-moving electrons that take the place of the much larger negatively-charged oxygen atoms that urge the oxide to form a tidy crystal. The researchers simulated Hosono's lab experiments using molecular dynamics software that could capture the movement of the atoms and electron anions in both the melted material and the glass. They found that that the negatively-charged electron anions paired up with positively-charged aluminum or calcium atoms, replacing the negatively-charged oxygen atoms that would typically be found between the metals. The bonds that the electron anions formed between the metal atoms were weaker than the bonds between the metal and oxygen atoms, and these weak bonds could also move rapidly through the material. This movement allowed a small number of electron anions to have a greater effect on the glass transition temperature than the much larger quantities of minerals typically used as additives in glass production. To rule out other factors as being responsible for the lower transition temperature – such as the electrical charge or change in oxygen atoms – the researchers simulated a material with the same composition as the C12A7 electride but with the electrons spread evenly through the material instead of packed in as electron anions. In this simulation, the glass transition temperature was no different to that of the C12A7 oxide. This result confirmed that the network of weak links formed by the electron anions is responsible for the change in the glass transition temperature. According to the researchers, electron anions form a new type of weak link that can affect the conditions under which a material can form a glass. They join the ranks of typical additives that disrupt the ability of a material to form long chains of atoms, such as fluoride, or promote the formation of weak, randomly-oriented bonds between atoms of opposite charge, such as sodium. The work suggests researchers might be able to control the transition temperature of glasses by changing the amount of electron anions they use. "This work shows us not just how a glass forms," said PNNL's Johnson, "but also gives us a new tool for how to control it." This story is adapted from material from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier. Link to original source.


News Article | December 8, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The research community and pharmaceutical industry have had a long-standing interest in developing peptide-based therapeutics owing to their high target specificity, potent activity, and small size relative to protein-based biologics. Towards this end, most peptide-based therapeutics currently available in the market consist of To address this challenge, a group of scientists led by Associate Professor Shinichiro Fuse from the Institute of Innovative Research, Tokyo Institute of Technology exploited their lab expertise and previously described micro-flow amide bond formation methodology to tackle this difficult synthetic challenge. In order to demonstrate the utility of this methodology, they focused on the arylglycine-containing oligopeptide, feglymycin, which possesses a unique helical conformation and potent anti-HIV activity. The first total synthesis of feglymycin was reported in 2009 by Süssmuth and co-workers by using a convergent approach, with 3-(diethyloxyphosphoryloxy)-1,2,3-benzotriazin-4(3H)-one (DEPBT) mediated amide coupling of the highly racemizable Dpg moieties being a key step. Despite this great achievement, severe racemization was noted when this coupling was attempted with longer peptides, suggesting a linear synthetic approach to feglymycin and related oligopeptides was improbable. Fortunately, Fuse and colleagues successfully implemented the micro-flow amide coupling methodology without severe racemization via the inexpensive and highly atom efficient coupling reagent, triphosgene. Importantly, the linear synthetic strategy highlighted in this research is highly desirable and necessary for the preparation of feglymycin analogs, as it allows the researchers to modify individual components of the molecule. Such precise manipulation of the molecule allows for optimization of the biological activity and physicochemical properties, and is an essential component to any drug discovery/development effort. An additional advantage of this approach is that flow chemistry provides direct access to safe and rapid compound scale-up using continuous operation of the requisite microreactors. As drug discovery efforts become increasing complex, novel and more efficient methodologies are required to allow rapid preparation and optimization of lead molecules of interest. In the future, this research will undoubtedly pave the way for the synthesis and analog preparation of feglymycin and other biologically active oligopeptides.


Comparison of synthetic strategies toward the total synthesis of feglymycin. Linear/convergent approach highlighted in this work and the convergent approached previously described by Süssmuth in 2009. Credit: Nature Communications Scientists at the Tokyo Institute of Technology utilized micro-flow amide bond formation to achieve total synthesis of the structurally complex, biologically active natural product, feglymycin. The technique they developed allows for efficient preparation of requisite oligopeptides containing highly racemizable amino acids and could directly impact how these agents will be synthesized in the future. The research community and pharmaceutical industry have had a long-standing interest in developing peptide-based therapeutics owing to their high target specificity, potent activity, and small size relative to protein-based biologics. Towards this end, most peptide-based therapeutics currently available in the market consist of To address this challenge, a group of scientists led by Associate Professor Shinichiro Fuse from the Institute of Innovative Research, Tokyo Institute of Technology exploited their lab expertise and previously described micro-flow amide bond formation methodology to tackle this difficult synthetic challenge. In order to demonstrate the utility of this methodology, they focused on the arylglycine-containing oligopeptide, feglymycin, which possesses a unique helical conformation and potent anti-HIV activity. The first total synthesis of feglymycin was reported in 2009 by Süssmuth and co-workers by using a convergent approach, with 3-(diethyloxyphosphoryloxy)-1,2,3-benzotriazin-4(3H)-one (DEPBT) mediated amide coupling of the highly racemizable Dpg moieties being a key step. Despite this great achievement, severe racemization was noted when this coupling was attempted with longer peptides, suggesting a linear synthetic approach to feglymycin and related oligopeptides was improbable. Fortunately, Fuse and colleagues successfully implemented the micro-flow amide coupling methodology without severe racemization via the inexpensive and highly atom efficient coupling reagent, triphosgene. Importantly, the linear synthetic strategy highlighted in this research is highly desirable and necessary for the preparation of feglymycin analogs, as it allows the researchers to modify individual components of the molecule. Such precise manipulation of the molecule allows for optimization of the biological activity and physicochemical properties, and is an essential component to any drug discovery/development effort. An additional advantage of this approach is that flow chemistry provides direct access to safe and rapid compound scale-up using continuous operation of the requisite microreactors. As drug discovery efforts become increasing complex, novel and more efficient methodologies are required to allow rapid preparation and optimization of lead molecules of interest. In the future, this research will undoubtedly pave the way for the synthesis and analog preparation of feglymycin and other biologically active oligopeptides. More information: Shinichiro Fuse et al, Total synthesis of feglymycin based on a linear/convergent hybrid approach using micro-flow amide bond formation, Nature Communications (2016). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13491


Genomic integrity in living cells is maintained by packaging of nuclear DNA into chromatin, which protects it from damage and controls gene replication and expression. Histones are the primary protein components of chromatin and their post-translational modifications regulate chromatin structure and play a fundamental role in biological processes such as DNA repair, DNA replication, mitosis, etc. Among the modifications, methylation of histone H4 at lysine 20 (H4K20) is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans and exists in three states, mono-, di- and trimethylation, each of which have distinct biological roles. Conventional techniques studying regulation by histone modifications are limited to fixed (dead) cells, thus preventing assessment of histone modification in single, living cells. To address this challenge, a group of scientists led by Prof. Kimura from the Institute of Innovative Research, Tokyo Institute of Technology, generated a genetically encoded live-cell imaging probe for sensitive monitoring of the intracellular spatiotemporal dynamics of H4K20 monomethylation (H4K20me1). The probe, called mintbody (modification-specific intracellular antibody), is a single-chain variable fragment tagged with a fluorescent protein that demonstrates high specificity for H4K20me1 over di- and trimethylation in living yeast, mammalian cells, and even multicellular organisms. H4K20me1 is most likely associated with the tight packing of a redundant (inactivated) female X chromosome (Xi) into heterochromatin. In a roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans model, Prof. Kimura and colleagues showed that the H4K20me1-mintbody could be used to monitor changes in H4K20me1 over the cell cycle and localization of dosage-compensated X chromosomes without disrupting cell function. Thus, the new mintbody can overcome the challenges associated with visualizing and tracking histone modifications directly in living cells. This research also identified key amino acids responsible for H4K20me1-mintbody conformational stability, solubility, and consequently, functional performance using X-ray crystallography and genetic analyses. Thus, a possible solution to the existing problem of limited solubility of intracellularly expressed antibody fragments due to aberrant folding in the cytoplasm that restricted their use was formulated. In the future, development of additional mintbodies specific to diverse post-translational histone modifications will facilitate the identification of regulatory mechanisms that control epigenetic modifications. Explore further: Packaging and unpacking of the genome More information: Yuko Sato et al, A Genetically Encoded Probe for Live-Cell Imaging of H4K20 Monomethylation, Journal of Molecular Biology (2016). DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2016.08.010


Nojima T.,University of Oxford | Gomes T.,University of Lisbon | Grosso A.R.F.,University of Lisbon | Kimura H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2015

Transcription is a highly dynamic process. Consequently, we have developed native elongating transcript sequencing technology for mammalian chromatin (mNET-seq), which generates single-nucleotide resolution, nascent transcription profiles. Nascent RNA was detected in the active site of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) along with associated RNA processing intermediates. In particular, we detected 5′splice site cleavage by the spliceosome, showing that cleaved upstream exon transcripts are associated with Pol II CTD phosphorylated on the serine 5 position (S5P), which is accumulated over downstream exons. Also, depletion of termination factors substantially reduces Pol II pausing at gene ends, leading to termination defects. Notably, termination factors play an additional promoter role by restricting non-productive RNA synthesis in a Pol II CTD S2P-specific manner. Our results suggest that CTD phosphorylation patterns established for yeast transcription are significantly different in mammals. Taken together, mNET-seq provides dynamic and detailed snapshots of the complex events underlying transcription in mammals. © 2015 The Authors.


Hoffmann R.W.,University of Marburg | Suzuki K.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Fundamental aspects of chemically activated reactive intermediates can possibly be learned from the novel generation of arynes. The intramolecular [4+2] cycloaddition between a diyne and an (electronically activated) alkyne also provides a new route to generate arynes (see scheme). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Hirose K.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Labrosse S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Labrosse S.,Institut Universitaire de France | Hernlund J.,University of California at Berkeley
Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences | Year: 2013

The composition and state of Earth's core, located deeper than 2,900 km from the surface, remain largely uncertain. Recent static experiments on iron and alloys performed up to inner core pressure and temperature conditions have revealed phase relations and properties of core materials. These mineral physics constraints, combined with theoretical calculations, continue to improve our understanding of the core, in particular the crystal structure of the inner core and the chemical composition, thermal structure and evolution, and possible stratification of the outer core. © Copyright ©2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Asahi Glass Co. | Date: 2014-12-11

A C12A7 electride thin film fabrication method includes a step of forming an amorphous C12A7 electride thin film on a substrate by vapor deposition under an atmosphere with an oxygen partial pressure of less than 0.1 Pa using a target made of a crystalline C12A7 electride having an electron density within a range of 2.010^(18 )cm^(3 )to 2.310^(21 )cm^(3).


Patent
Canon Kabushiki Kaisha, Sophia University and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2010-01-01

Provided is a piezoelectric material having a high Curie temperature and satisfactory piezoelectric characteristics, the piezoelectric material being represented by the following general formula (1): A(Zn_(x)Ti_((1-x)))_(y)M_((1-y))O_(3)(1) where A represents a Bi element, M represents at least one element selected from Fe, Al, Sc, Mn, Y, Ga, and Yb; x represents a numerical value of 0.4x0.6; and y represents a numerical value of 0.17y0.60.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Yamatokako Co. | Date: 2014-07-09

The method for manufacturing a molded article of the present invention includes a step of compression-molding a molding material with a mold to obtain a molded article. The mold comprises at least two sections, being an upper mold and a lower mold arranged to face the upper mold, and the upper mold and the lower mold each have a degassing structure. A pressing operation and a degassing operation are performed in the compression-molding.


A device for culturing a liver tissue has a culture chamber to which at least two flow channels, which are at least for introducing and discharging a culture medium, are connected. A gel which serves as a cell scaffold material is housed in the culture chamber. A co-culture system containing an endothelial cell-derived cell, a hepatocyte-derived cell and a mesenchymal cell is co-cultured on the gel in such a way that the co-culture system has a tubular structure.


A thin film of amorphous metal oxide includes zinc (Zn), silicon (Si) and oxygen (O), the atomic ratio of Zn/(Zn+Si) being 0.30 to 0.95.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology, Asahi Glass Co., Japan Science and Technology Agency | Date: 2016-11-02

A thin film of amorphous metal oxide includes zinc (Zn), silicon (Si) and oxygen (O), the atomic ratio of Zn / (Zn + Si) being 0.30 to 0.95.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Asahi Glass Co. | Date: 2015-04-29

A C12A7 electride thin film fabrication method includes a step of forming an amorphous C12A7 electride thin film on a substrate by vapor deposition under a low-oxygen-partial-pressure atmosphere using a target made of a crystalline C12A7 electride having an electron density within a range of 2.010^(18) cm^(-3) to 2.310^(21) cm^(-3).


A method for distinguishing prostate cancer from prostatic hypertrophy using the method for analyzing PSA and an analysis kit of PSA are provided. An object of the present invention can be solved by being brought into contact a lectin having an affinity for -N-acetylgalactosamine residues with a sample possibly containing PSA, to determine an amount of PSA having an affinity for the lectin. A method for distinguishing prostate cancer from prostatic hypertrophy can be provided by this method.


The molding material of the present invention is a powdered molding material obtained by three-dimensionally kneading, while heating, lacquer and plant fibers. The compression-molded article of the present invention is obtained by compression-molding the above molding material.


A method for distinguishing prostate cancer from prostatic hypertrophy using the method for analyzing PSA and an analysis kit of PSA are provided. An object of the present invention can be solved by being brought into contact a lectin having an affinity for -N-acetylgalactosamine residues with a sample possibly containing PSA, to determine an amount of PSA having an affinity for the lectin. A method for distinguishing prostate cancer from prostatic hypertrophy can be provided by this method.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Asahi Glass Co. | Date: 2014-12-11

A light emitting device including an organic electroluminescence element is provided. The light emitting device may be a display device or a lighting device. The organic electroluminescence element includes an anode, a light emitting layer, and a cathode that are arranged in this order. An electron injection layer is arranged between the light emitting layer and the cathode. The electron injection layer is made of an amorphous C12A7 electride.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Asahi Glass Co. | Date: 2014-07-21

A method for manufacturing a metamaterial including an electromagnetic wave resonator that resonates with an electromagnetic wave is provided. In the method, a support including a portion where the electromagnetic wave resonator is to be formed is formed, and the electromagnetic wave resonator is arranged in the support by depositing a material to form the electromagnetic wave resonator on the portion of the support. The support is formed by forming a column structure of a hydrophilic/hydrophobic phase-separated film including a hydrophilic liquid phase area penetrating through in a thickness direction, by packing a filler into the column structure of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic phase-separated film including the hydrophilic liquid phase area so as to form the filler as high as the column structure, and by obtaining the support including the filler by removing at least a part of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic phase-separated film.


News Article | December 7, 2016
Site: www.businesswire.com

MULHOUSE, France--(BUSINESS WIRE)--CellProthera, which offers the most advanced cell therapy for the regeneration of the damaged heart muscle after myocardial infarction, has changed its corporate governance and appointed Matthieu de Kalbermatten as CEO. He succeeds Jean-Claude Jelsch (currently Chairman of the Supervisory Board) and now manages the bio-tech firm alongside the Chairman, Professor Philippe Hénon. The change to the governance of CellProthera aims mainly at : driving current and future clinical studies, increasing the company's global presence, and ensuring the successful marketing of the innovative therapy worldwide. With his solid track record of success within various organizations, Matthieu de Kalbermatten brings along management skills that are strategic for CellProthera’s development. He has demonstrated detailed knowledge of the operational requirements and needs of interventional cardiology and masters the regulatory and commercial particularities of this market at international level. Previously, Matthieu de Kalbermatten was executive VP at Acrostak, a Swiss SME in the field of medical devices, carrying out similar activities to CellProthera and for which he developed its international success. An engineer graduate from ETH Zürich, Matthieu de Kalbermatten has also gained international experience at ALSTOM and AREVA. He holds an MSc from Tokyo Institute of Technology and an MBA from the London Business School. "We decided to entrust Matthieu with the management of CellProthera owing to his experience and drive, which will undoubtedly ensure our international success without losing sight of our ultimate goal - to continue to save the lives of numerous patients and make their everyday life more comfortable." About CellProthera CellProthera is a French biotech company developing an innovative therapy using autologous stem cells for the structural and functional regeneration of the heart following acute myocardial infarction. In 2016, following the approval of European and national regulatory agencies, CellProthera launched a phase I/IIb clinical trial which is currently being tested on 44 patients in France and Great Britain. A phase III clinical trial, extended to 150 patients in Europe, USA and Canada, will precede the marketing phase. Professor Philippe Hénon, Chairman and Scientific Director is the driving force behind the research developed by CellProthera. He is supported by Matthieu de Kalbermatten, CEO, who is in charge of the activities carried out by an experienced team of 20 persons. Jean-Claude Jelsch is the Chairman of the Supervisory Board. The original source-language text of this announcement is the official, authoritative version. Translations are provided as an accommodation only, and should be cross-referenced with the source-language text, which is the only version of the text intended to have legal effect.


News Article | December 5, 2016
Site: phys.org

Trench gate IGBT schematic indicating the mesa width (S), gate length (Lg), and the oxide thickness in the MOSFET (tox), cell pitch (W), and the trench depth (DT). Credit: Tokyo Institute of Technology In electronics, lower power consumption leads to operation cost savings, environmental benefits and the convenience advantages from longer running devices. While progress in energy efficiencies has been reported with alternative materials such as SiC and GaN, energy-savings in the standard inexpensive and widely used silicon devices are still keenly sought. K Tsutsui at Tokyo Institute of Technology and colleagues in Japan have now shown that by scaling down size parameters in all three dimensions their device they can achieve significant energy savings. Tsutsui and colleagues studied silicon insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), a fast-operating switch that features in a number of every day appliances. While the efficiency of IGBTs is good, reducing the ON resistance, or the voltage from collector to emitter required for saturation (Vce(sat)), could help increase the energy efficiency of these devices further. Previous investigations have highlighted that increases in the "injection enhancement (IE) effect", which give rise to more charge carriers, leads to a reduction in Vce(sat). Although this has been achieved by reducing the mesa width in the device structure, the mesa resistance was thereby increased as well. Reducing the mesa height could help counter the increased resistance but is prone to impeding the (IE) effect. Instead the researchers reduced the mesa width, gate length, and the oxide thickness in the MOSFET to increase the IE effect and so reduce Vce(sat) from 1.70 to 1.26 V. With these alterations the researchers also used a reduced gate voltage, which has advantages for CMOS integration. They conclude, "It was experimentally confirmed for the first time that significant Vce(sat) reduction can be achieved by scaling the IGBT both in the lateral and vertical dimensions with a decrease in the gate voltage."


News Article | November 29, 2016
Site: www.cemag.us

"While we think of diamonds as very expensive jewelry, they can actually be made using methane and hydrogen. Diamonds are really just carbon, a light and simple element. Their simple yet unique characteristics create significant potential for use in a wide range of purposes, including generation of environmental energy and biological applications," says Professor Mutsuko Hatano of the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Hatano joined Tokyo Tech with the goal of developing diamond-based semiconductors for use in power electronics and sensors. Diamonds, although nonconductive, can be altered to function as semiconductors with the addition of phosphorus and boron. Silicon, the most common semiconductor, is widely used in memory devices and microprocessors. It is also used in power devices. As power devices are key for social infrastructure that facilitates smart grids, high capacity is required. As a result, the demand for high-capacity power production with minimal loss during power conversion calls for the development of new semiconductor materials. The thermal conductivity of diamonds is 14 times greater than that of silicon, and electrical field resistance is 30 times greater. High thermal conductivity allows the release of heat, which can reduce the size of cooling systems normally required during the generation of increased levels of electric power. High electrical field resistance suppresses power conversion losses. With these characteristics, diamonds are the ultimate semiconductors for electronic devices that require several kilovolts (kV) of power, such as those used in electric vehicles, railways, and power transmission. Although the formation of diamond-based n-type semiconductors, whose conduction carriers are electrons, and p-type semiconductors, whose conduction carriers are electron holes, has been achieved, the difficulty has traditionally lain in the formation of the lateral p-n junction, which is the basic structure of devices. Collaborating with researchers at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Hatano established a lateral p-n junction, which was then applied to a junction field effect transistor (FET) prototype. This was the world's first high-voltage power device, whose application to power supply optimization in smart grids is significantly reducing environmental impact. Hatano is now focusing on the development of a diamond sensor, which has attracted attention around the world due to its potential application to biology. In a diamond crystal, carbon atoms can be replaced by nitrogen atoms to create nitrogen-vacancy complexes (NV centers). Negatively charged NV centers exhibit a magnetic property called electron spin. Green light radiation causes the emission of red fluorescence. Depending on the magnetic field, fluorescence processes change, and magnetic field strength and direction can be detected. Diamond sensors apply these characteristics, and the imaging of a magnetic field is enabled. Diamond sensors are superior to other sensors because they allow a wider range of spatial resolution — from nanometers to millimeters — and have a high magnetic sensitivity. Another outstanding characteristic is that while SQUID magnetic sensors conventionally require a low temperature, diamond sensors operate at room temperature. Diamond sensors enable scalable application to spatial resolution, which is required for the nanometer-level analysis of protein structures, submicron cell measurement applied to drug delivery and immunological testing, and micron-level analysis of medical imaging, medicines, foods, and noninvasive measurement. Hatano wants to address issues in both the dynamic use of diamond sensors in power device semiconductors and the application of diamond sensors at the nanoscale. In order to do so, she facilitates integration of research in areas such as the life sciences, theoretical physics, materials sciences, and her specialty — electronics and electrical engineering — and promotes collaboration with overseas researchers. Hatano's research on diamonds is an outgrowth of her general interest in science, something that was sparked during her early childhood. On her fourth birthday, she received Virginia Lee Burton's Life Story from her grandfather. This children's story of the history of Earth impressed her deeply. Hatano's parents both have science backgrounds, and she often talked with her father about things such as which atoms made up the food they were having for dinner. She was also excited by the experiments in her elementary school science class. The professor looks back happily on her childhood. She says that the educational environment at home and school worked well for her, considering Japan's need to compete globally in the field of science and technology in order to compensate for its lack of natural resources. At Hitachi, Ltd., where she was hired after graduating from university, Hatano was engaged in fundamental research on superconductivity and quantum effect devices for 12 years. During her employment, she also earned her doctorate. She then worked as a project leader in research and development for the commercialization of mobile displays, and projects related to environmental energy electronics. Hitachi sent her to participate in joint research at University of California, Berkeley (UCB) for three years in 1997. That experience had a great impact on her way of thinking and approach to research. Her specialty was electronics, but she chose to collaborate with a professor specializing in machine engineering. Through the accumulation of research on heat, they deepened their mutual understanding and discovered a new field, something that was extremely meaningful for her. "Coming from different backgrounds, our discussions had a synergistic effect that led to the establishment of a new field. Changing specializations and jobs is common in Silicon Valley. Through such mobility, technology and know-how are expanded to a wide range of locations. This leads to the establishment of new startup companies," Hatano says. The professor was exposed to a wide range of stimuli living in a different culture. When she moved to UCB, her firstborn was an elementary school student while her second daughter was in nursery school. At that time, Silicon Valley was experiencing its peak period of new startups. The elementary school attended by her first daughter had students from over ten different countries, reminding Hatano that Silicon Valley was attracting specialists from around the world. The infrastructure, however, was struggling to keep up with the rapid growth in population, and schools had reached capacity. In an effort to counter this, Hatano was involved in the establishment of a new elementary school in cooperation with other companies in the region — HP Inc., Xerox Parc, and numerous startups. Some of the classes were taught by employees from universities, NASA, and major enterprises. "My daughter's classmate's mother was a professor at Stanford University. She dissected a cow's eye for the students, which wowed everyone. Until then, my daughters had only had the chance to dissect frogs, making that an unforgettable experience for them," Hatano reminisces. “I came to Tokyo Tech with a clean slate," Hatano says. The professor moved from Hitachi Ltd. to Tokyo Tech in July 2010, a change she made after deciding to shift her focus to education. Although her work at Hitachi was fulfilling and secure, she chose a completely different environment because she dislikes complacency, opting instead to follow a scrap-and-build life. At first, she felt the stark contrast between private enterprise and university. Sharing her struggle with students, however, she was able to show that, regardless of the occasional ups and downs, anyone could start from zero at any time. Hatano has a message for Tokyo Tech students. "It has become increasingly important to create new and innovative value rather than simply focus on problem solving. Tokyo Tech students should apply their knowledge to the creation of new value and the design of a new society through cooperation with people specializing in a wide range of fields. With mutual understanding and cooperative competition, things that you simply can't create alone emerge." To conclude, Hatano reveals a secret. When producing artificial diamonds for sensors, some diamonds become pink. We are not exactly sure why this happens. Naturally colored diamonds are rare and sell for incredibly high prices overseas. In 2013, a 59-carat pink diamond sold for 8.3 billion yen. "I dream of being surrounded by diamonds one day, like 007," Hatano smiles. Her research continues.


News Article | November 2, 2016
Site: www.sciencenews.org

Figuring out the nuts and bolts of the cell’s recycling machinery has earned the 2016 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. Cell biologist Yoshinori Ohsumi of the Tokyo Institute of Technology has received the prize for his work on autophagy, a method for breaking down and recycling large pieces of cellular junk, such as clusters of damaged proteins or worn-out organelles. Keeping this recycling machinery in good working condition is crucial for cells’ health (SN: 3/26/11, p. 18). Not enough recycling can cause cellular trash to build up and lead to neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Too much recycling, on the other hand, has been linked to cancer. “It’s so exciting that Ohsumi has received the Nobel Prize, which he no question deserved,” says biologist Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz of Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Janelia Research Campus in Ashburn, Va. “He set the framework for an entire new field in cell biology.” Ohsumi‘s discoveries helped reveal the mechanism and significance of a fundamental physiological process, biologist Maria Masucci of the Karolinska Institute in Sweden said in a news briefing October 3. “There is growing hope that this knowledge will lead to the development of new strategies for the treatment of many human diseases.” Scientists got their first glimpse of autophagy in the 1960s, not long after the discovery of the lysosome, a pouch within cells that acts as a garbage disposal, grinding fats and proteins and sugars into their basic building blocks. (That discovery won Belgian scientist Christian de Duve a share of the Nobel Prize in 1974.) Researchers had observed lysosomes stuffed with big chunks of cellular material — like the bulk waste of the cellular world — as well as another, mysterious pouch that carried the waste to the lysosome. Somehow, the cell had devised a way to consume large parts of itself. De Duve dubbed the process autophagy, from the Greek words for “self” and “to eat.” But over the next 30 years, little more became known about the process. “The machinery was unknown, and how the system was working was unknown, and whether or not it was involved in disease was also unknown,” said physiologist Juleen Zierath, also of the Karolinska Institute, in an interview after the prize’s announcement. That all changed in the 1990s when Ohsumi decided to study autophagy in a single-celled organism called baker’s yeast, microbes known for making bread rise. The process was tricky to catch in action, partly because it happened so fast. So Ohsumi bred special strains of yeast that couldn’t break down proteins in their cellular garbage disposals (called vacuoles in yeast). “He reasoned that if he could stop the degradation process, he could see an accumulation of the autophagy machinery in these cells,” Zierath said. And that’s just what Ohsumi saw. When he starved the yeast cells, the “self-eating” machinery kicked into gear (presumably to scrounge up food for the cells). But because the garbage disposals were defective, the machinery piled up in the vacuoles, which swelled like balloons stuffed with sand. Ohsumi could see the bulging, packed bags clearly under a light microscope. He published the work in a 1992 paper in the Journal of Cell Biology. Finding the autophagy machinery let Ohsumi study it in detail. A year later, he discovered as many as 15 genes needed for the machinery to work. In the following years, Ohsumi and other scientists examined the proteins encoded by these genes and began to figure out how the components of the “bulk waste” bag, or autophagosome, came together, and then fused with the lysosome. The work revealed something new about the cell’s garbage centers, Zierath said. “Before Ohsumi came on the scene, people understood that the waste dump was in the cell,” she said. “But what he showed was that it wasn’t a waste dump. It was a recycling plant.” Later, Ohsumi and his colleagues studied autophagy in mammalian cells and realized that the process played a key maintenance role in all kinds of cells, breaking down materials for reuse. Ohsumi  “found a pathway that has its counterparts in all cells that have a nucleus,” says 2013 Nobel laureate Randy Schekman, a cell biologist at the University of California, Berkeley. “Virtually every corner of the cell is touched by the autophagic process.” Since Ohsumi’s discoveries, research on autophagy has exploded, says Lippincott-Schwartz. “It’s an amazing system that every year becomes more and more fascinating.” Ohsumi, 71, remains an active researcher today. He received the call from the Nobel committee at his lab in Japan. The prize includes an award of 8 million Swedish kronor (equivalent to about $934,000). About his work, he said: “It was lucky. Yeast was a very good system, and autophagy was a very good topic.” Still, he added in an interview with a Nobel representative, “we have so many questions. Even now we have more questions than when I started.”


News Article | December 7, 2016
Site: www.businesswire.com

MULHOUSE, France--(BUSINESS WIRE)--A l’origine du traitement cellulaire contre l’insuffisance cardiaque le plus avancé du marché, CellProthera fait évoluer sa gouvernance et nomme à sa direction générale Matthieu de Kalbermatten. Il succède à Jean-Claude Jelsch, désormais Président du Conseil de Surveillance, et pilote la société de biotechnologie aux côtés du Président, Pr. Philippe Hénon. L’évolution de la gouvernance de CellProthera répond à de multiples vocations : principalement l’accomplissement des études scientifiques actuelles et futures, l’augmentation de l’attractivité et du rayonnement international, et le succès de la mise sur le marché de la thérapie innovante développée par CellProthera. Matthieu de Kalbermatten fait valoir auprès de CellProthera de nombreuses compétences, stratégiques à son développement. Il profite d’une fine connaissance du fonctionnement et des besoins de la cardiologie interventionnelle et maîtrise les spécificités réglementaires et commerciales de ce marché au niveau mondial. Ingénieur diplômé de l’ETH Zürich, Matthieu de Kalbermatten a par ailleurs forgé pendant 10 ans son expérience internationale au sein d’ALSTOM et AREVA. Il dispose d’un MSc, réalisé au Tokyo Institute of Technology, et d’un MBA de la London Business School. « Nous avons décidé de confier la direction de CellProthera à Matthieu qui, par son expérience et son dynamisme, nous conduira assurément au succès international, sans perdre de vue que notre but ultime est de contribuer à sauver et à rendre plus confortable la vie de très nombreux patients ». Avec l’autorisation des agences réglementaires européenne et nationales, CellProthera a démarré en 2016 un essai clinique phase I/IIb qui est actuellement réalisé sur 44 patients en France et en Angleterre. Un essai clinique phase III, étendu à 150 patients en Europe, aux USA et au Canada, précédera la phase de commercialisation.


News Article | November 10, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

OAK RIDGE, Tenn., Nov. 10, 2016--Leaders in hybrid accelerated high-performance computing (HPC) in the United States (U.S.), Japan, and Switzerland have signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) establishing an international institute dedicated to common goals, the sharing of HPC expertise, and forward-thinking evaluation of computing architecture. The MOU authorizes the creation of the Accelerated Data Analytics and Computing (ADAC) institute to support collaborative projects and programs that bridge the respective HPC missions of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (ETH Zurich). All three organizations manage HPC centers that run large, GPU-accelerated supercomputers and provide key HPC capabilities to academia, government, and industry to solve many of the world's most complex and pressing scientific problems. "Forecasting the future of leadership-class computing and managing the risk of architectural change is a shared interest among ORNL, Tokyo Tech, and ETH Zurich," said Jeff Nichols, associate laboratory director of computing and computational sciences at ORNL. "What unites our three organizations is a willingness to embrace change, actively partner with HPC vendors, and devise solutions that advance the work of our scientific users. ADAC provides a framework for member organizations to pursue mutual interests such as accelerated node architectures as computing moves toward the exascale era and beyond." ADAC will focus on multiple objectives spanning performance, hardware, and applications, including: The institute lays the groundwork for more focused collaboration centered around three inaugural technical areas--applications, performance, and resource management. Designated representatives from each member institution serve as the leads in these areas. "ADAC is unique in that while all of these research centers compete on some level, the challenges we face are very similar. From application development to fully utilizing novel architectures, we can better evolve toward the exascale by sharing our problems and solutions," said Satoshi Matsuoka of the Global Scientific Information and Computing Center at Tokyo Tech, adding that the initial three-member collaboration could grow to include other institutions in the future. Thomas Schulthess, of the Swiss National Supercomputing Center (CSCS) at ETH Zurich, echoed Nichols' and Satoshi's sentiment: "ADAC is an acknowledgement that, despite the myriad accomplishments in accelerated computing, significant challenges remain. These challenges require collaboration across the HPC spectrum in order for our users to continue to push the frontiers of science, and, by extension, computing." Oak Ridge National Laboratory is home to the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, a DOE Office of Science User Facility. UT-Battelle manages ORNL for the DOE's Office of Science. The Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the U.S., and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit http://science. . Caption: ADAC members from ORNL, ETH Zurich and Tokyo Tech gathered in Lugano, Switzerland for a workshop earlier this year. NOTE TO EDITORS: You may read other press releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory or learn more about the lab at http://www. . Additional information about ORNL is available at the sites below:


Takahashi N.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Yamada I.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Sayed A.H.,University of California at Los Angeles
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2010

This paper presents an efficient adaptive combination strategy for the distributed estimation problem over diffusion networks in order to improve robustness against the spatial variation of signal and noise statistics over the network. The concept of minimum variance unbiased estimation is used to derive the proposed adaptive combiner in a systematic way. The mean, mean-square, and steady-state performance analyses of the diffusion least-mean squares (LMS) algorithms with adaptive combiners are included and the stability of convex combination rules is proved. Simulation results show i) that the diffusion LMS algorithm with the proposed adaptive combiners outperforms those with existing static combiners and the incremental LMS algorithm, and ii) that the theoretical analysis provides a good approximation of practical performance. © 2006 IEEE.


Akagi H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Kitada R.,Chubu Electric Power Co.
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2011

This paper discusses the control and design of the 6.6-kV back-to-back (BTB) system combining bidirectional isolated dc/dc converters and modular multilevel cascade pulsewidth modulation (PWM) converters. The system consists of multiple converter cells connected in cascade per phase at both front ends. Each converter cell consists of a bidirectional isolated medium-frequency dc/dc converter and two voltage-source H-bridge (single-phase full-bridge) PWM converters. Extremely low-voltage steps bring a significant reduction in harmonics and electromagnetic interference emissions to the BTB system. This paper designs, constructs, and tests a single-phase downscaled BTB system rated at 120 V and 3.3 kW to verify the viability and effectiveness, leading to the actual system. © 2011 IEEE.


Inoue S.,Tohoku University | Inoue S.,University College London | Saitoh T.R.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2012

Bulges in spiral galaxies have been supposed to be classified into classical bulges or pseudo-bulges. Classical bulges are thought to form by galactic merger with bursty star formation, whereas pseudo-bulges are suggested to form by secular evolution due to spiral arms and a barred structure funnelling gas into the galactic centre. Noguchi suggested another bulge formation scenario, 'clump-origin bulge'. He demonstrated using a numerical simulation that a galactic disc suffers dynamical instability to form clumpy structures in the early stage of disc formation since the premature disc is expected to be highly gas rich, then the clumps are sucked into the galactic centre by dynamical friction and merge into a single bulge at the centre. This bulge formation scenario, which is expected to happen only at the high redshift, is different from the galactic merger and the secular evolution. Therefore, clump-origin bulges may have their own unique properties. We perform a high-resolution N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation for the formation of the clump-origin bulge in an isolated galaxy model and study dynamical and chemical properties of the clump-origin bulge. We find that the clump-origin bulge resembles pseudo-bulges in dynamical properties, a nearly exponential surface density profile, a barred boxy shape and a significant rotation. We also find that this bulge consists of old and metal-rich stars, displaying resemblance to classical bulges. These natures, old metal-rich population but pseudo-bulge-like structures, mean that the clump-origin bulge cannot be simply classified into classical bulges or pseudo-bulges. From these results, we discuss similarities of the clump-origin bulge to the Milky Way bulge. Combined with a result of Elmegreen et al., this pseudo-bulge-like clump-origin bulge could be inferred to form in clump clusters with a relatively low surface density. © 2012 The Authors Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2012 RAS.


Ikoma M.,University of Tokyo | Ikoma M.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Hori Y.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

Motivated by recent discoveries of low-density super-Earths with short orbital periods, we have investigated in situ accretion of H-He atmospheres on rocky bodies embedded in dissipating warm disks, by simulating quasi-static evolution of atmospheres that connect to the ambient disk. We have found that the atmospheric evolution has two distinctly different outcomes, depending on the rocky body's mass: while the atmospheres on massive rocky bodies undergo runaway disk-gas accretion, those on light rocky bodies undergo significant erosion during disk dispersal. In the atmospheric erosion, the heat content of the rocky body that was previously neglected plays an important role. We have also realized that the atmospheric mass is rather sensitive to disk temperature in the mass range of interest in this study. Our theory is applied to recently detected super-Earths orbiting Kepler-11 to examine the possibility that the planets are rock-dominated ones with relatively thick H-He atmospheres. The application suggests that the in situ formation of the relatively thick H-He atmospheres inferred by structure modeling is possible only under restricted conditions, namely, relatively slow disk dissipation and/or cool environments. This study demonstrates that low-density super-Earths provide important clues to understanding of planetary accretion and disk evolution. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Kokubo E.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory | Genda H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2010

The final stage of terrestrial planet formation is known as the giant impact stage where protoplanets collide with one another to form planets. So far this stage has been mainly investigated by N-body simulations with an assumption of perfect accretion in which all collisions lead to accretion. However, this assumption breaks for collisions with high velocity and/or a large impact parameter. We derive an accretion condition for protoplanet collisions in terms of impact velocity and angle and masses of colliding bodies, from the results of numerical collision experiments. For the first time, we adopt this realistic accretion condition in N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation from protoplanets. We compare the results with those with perfect accretion and show how the accretion condition affects terrestrial planet formation. We find that in the realistic accretion model about half of collisions do not lead to accretion. However, the final number, mass, orbital elements, and even growth timescale of planets are barely affected by the accretion condition. For the standard protoplanetary disk model, typically two Earth-sized planets form in the terrestrial planet region over about 10 8 yr in both realistic and perfect accretion models. We also find that for the realistic accretion model, the spin angular velocity is about 30% smaller than that for the perfect accretion model, which is as large as the critical spin angular velocity for rotational instability. The spin angular velocity and obliquity obey Gaussian and isotropic distributions, respectively, independently of the accretion condition. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society.


Yokoyama T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Tserkovnyak Y.,University of California at Los Angeles
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2014

We study spin and charge diffusion in metallic-ferromagnet/topological- insulator junctions. The diffusive theory is constructed for the coupled transport of the spin-dependent electron densities in the ferromagnet and the charge density in the topological insulator. The diffusion equations for the coupled transport are derived perturbatively with respect to the strength of the interlayer tunneling. We analytically calculate spin accumulation in the ferromagnet and junction magnetoresistance associated with a current bias along the interface. It is found that due to the helical spin texture of the surface Dirac fermion, the spin accumulation and the junction magnetoresistance depend on the angle between the magnetization and the current-induced spin polarization on the surface of the topological insulator. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Koretsune T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Hotta C.,Kyoto Sangyo University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2014

We elucidate the model parameters for a series of organic crystals called κ- and β′-type salts by constructing the maximally localized Wannier orbitals which reproduce the bulk energy band of the first-principles methods based on the density functional theory (DFT). These materials host a dimer Mott insulator, localizing one hole per dimerized ET molecules due to strong on-dimer interaction, Ud. For all these materials, we evaluate the parameters of the two representative effective lattice models in units of molecule and on dimer, and clarify two issues. First, the conventional relationships between the two models called "dimer approximation" does not hold. Second, contrary to the previous semiempirical estimates, the degree of dimerization (which approximates Ud) does not depend much on materials, and that the overall ground state properties are controlled by the degree of anisotropy of the triangular lattice, denoted as |tc/ta| in units of dimers. We update the DFT estimates |tc/ta| of κ-ET2Cu2(CN)3, showing that it falls on a class of regular triangle with the strongest degree of frustration. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Tian F.,Tsinghua University | Ida S.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Nature Geoscience | Year: 2015

Efforts to identify habitable extrasolar planets have focused on systems around M dwarfs, faint stars with less than half the solar mass. Habitable planets around M dwarfs are thought to be more plentiful and easier to detect than those orbiting Sun-like G dwarfs. However, unlike G dwarfs, M dwarfs experience a prolonged decline in luminosity early in their history, leading to an inward migration of the habitable zone to where planets may have lost their water through dissociation and hydrodynamic escape. Water-poor planets, such as Venus, are considered uninhabitable. In contrast, planets with too much water (>1 wt%) would lack continents, leading to climate instability and nutrient limitation problems. Here we combine a numerical planet population synthesis model with a model for water loss to show that the evolution of stellar luminosity leads to two types of planets of Earth-like mass (0.1 to 10 Earth masses) in the habitable zones around M dwarfs: ocean planets without continents, and desert planets, on which there are orders of magnitude less surface water than on Earth. According to our simulations, Earth-mass planets with Earth-like water contents are rare around M dwarfs and occur 10-100 times less frequently than around G dwarfs. We suggest that stars close to the size of the Sun should be the primary targets for detecting Earth-like planets. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Patent
Canon Kabushiki Kaisha, Sophia School Corporation and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2011-02-28

Provided is a Bi-based piezoelectric material having good piezoelectric properties. The piezoelectric material includes a perovskite-type metal oxide represented by the following general formula (1): A_(x)(Zn_(j)Ti_((1-j)))_(l)(Mg_(k)Ti_((1-k)))_(m)M_(n)O_(3)General formula (1) where: A represents a Bi element, or one or more kinds of elements selected from the group consisting of trivalent metal elements and containing at least a Bi element; M represents at least one kind of an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Al, Sc, Mn, Y, Ga, and Yb; and 0.9x1.25, 0.4j0.6, 0.4k0.6, 0.09l0.49, 0.19m0.64, 0.13n0.48, and l+m+n=1 are satisfied.


Patent
Canon Kabushiki Kaisha and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2010-08-02

An active matrix display comprising a light control device and a field effect transistor for driving the light control device. The active layer of the field effect transistor comprises an amorphous.


Patent
Canon Kabushiki Kaisha and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2010-09-15

Semiconductor devices and circuits with use of transparent oxide film are provided. The semiconductor device having a P-type region and an N-type region, wherein amorphous oxides with electron carrier concentration less than 10^(18)/cm^(3 )is used for the N-type region.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology and Canon Kabushiki Kaisha | Date: 2013-06-20

A novel amorphous oxide applicable, for example, to an active layer of a TFT is provided. The amorphous oxide comprises microcrystals.


Patent
Canon Kabushiki Kaisha and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2012-05-16

A novel amorphous oxide film applicable, for example, to an active layer of a TFT is provided. The amorphous oxide in the film has an electron carrier concentration of less than 10^(18)/cm^(3) at a temperature of 25 C, wherein the amorphous oxide is any one selected from the group consisting of an oxide containing In, Zn, and Sn; an oxide containing In and Zn; an oxide containing In and Sn; and an oxide containing In, Ga, and Zn. The oxide chemical composition changes in the layer thickness direction in the film interior such that there is a region with a first chemical composition and a region with a second chemical composition other than said first composition.


Patent
Canon Kabushiki Kaisha, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency | Date: 2015-07-22

A novel amorphous oxide applicable, for example, to an active layer of a TFT is provided. The amorphous oxide comprises microcrystals.


Patent
Canon Kabushiki Kaisha and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2012-05-23

A novel amorphous oxide film applicable, for example, to an active layer of a TFT is provided. The amorphous oxide film has an electron carrier concentration of less than 10^(18)/cm^(3) at a temperature of 25 C, wherein the amorphous oxide is any one selected from the group consisting of an oxide containing In, Zn, and Sn; an oxide containing In and Zn; an oxide containing In and Sn; and an oxide containing In, Zn, and Ga. The oxide comprises one type of element or a plurality of elements selected from the group consisting of Li, Na, Mn, Ni, Pd, Cu, Cd, C, N, and P; or at least one element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Ru, and F.


Patent
Canon Kabushiki Kaisha, Tokyo Institute of Technology and Kyoto University | Date: 2010-09-24

Provided is a ferroelectric thin film formed on a substrate and having an amount of remanent polarization increased in its entirety. The ferroelectric thin film contains a perovskite-type metal oxide formed on a substrate, the ferroelectric thin film containing a column group formed of multiple columns each formed of a spinel-type metal oxide, in which the column group is in a state of standing in a direction perpendicular to a surface of the substrate, or in a state of slanting at a slant angle in a range of 10 or more to +10 or less with respect to the perpendicular direction.


Patent
Canon Kabushiki Kaisha and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2010-09-15

An Object of the Present Invention is to provide a new light-emitting device with the use of an amorphous oxide. The light-emitting device has a light-emitting layer existing between first and second electrodes and a field effect transistor, of which the active layer is an amorphous.


Patent
Tokyo Institute of Technology, Murata Manufacturing Co., TDK Corp and Taiyo Yuden Co | Date: 2014-07-10

A solid ion capacitor having electrodes on both principal surfaces of a solid electrolyte having a thickness no greater than 200 m. The solid electrolyte contains an ion conductive compound having a Nasicon type crystal structure, and the ion conductive compound includes at least Li, Al, P, and O. The electrodes are formed from a non-valve action material which does not have a valve action. The interface between the solid electrolyte and the electrodes has a fine uneven structure. This solid ion capacitor is used at a driving voltage of no greater than 3 V, or preferably 1.5 to 3 V.


Provided are a piezoelectric film, a piezoelectric film element, a liquid discharge head using the piezoelectric film element, and a liquid discharge apparatus. A piezoelectric film element that can be suitably used for a discharge pressure-generating element of a liquid discharge head is obtained by using an epitaxial oxide film composed of a perovskite composite oxide constituted according to a general formula ABO_(3) as a piezoelectric film. The epitaxial oxide film has at least an A domain and a B domain having a crystal orientation deviation with respect to each other. The crystal orientation deviation between the A domain and the B domain is less than 2.


Patent
Canon Kabushiki Kaisha and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2012-05-16

A novel amorphous oxide film applicable, for example, to an active layer of a TFT is provided. The amorphous oxide film has an electron carrier concentration of less than 10^(18)/cm^(3) at a temperature of 25 C, wherein the amorphous oxide is an oxide comprising In, Ga, and Zn. The amorphous oxide film comprises a microcrystal that is surrounded by said amorphous oxide; orthe oxide chemical composition changes in the layer thickness direction in the film interior such that there is a region with a first chemical composition and a region with a second chemical composition other than said first composition; orthe oxide comprises one type of element or a plurality of elements selected from the group consisting of Li, Na, Mn, Ni, Pd, Cu, Cd, C, N, and P; orthe oxide comprises at least one element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Ru, and F.


Patent
Ricoh Company and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-02-03

Provided is a sulfide-based solid electrolyte, including: a Na element; a Ge element; a P element; and a S element, wherein an atomic percentage (at. %) of each of the Na element, the Ge element, the P element, and the S element is as follows when a total of the respective elements is 100 at. %,


Patent
Canon Kabushiki Kaisha and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2010-09-15

A novel field-effect transistor is provided which employs an amorphous oxide. In an embodiment of the present invention, the transistor comprises an amorphous oxide layer containing electron carrier at a concentration less than 110^(18)/cm^(3), and the gate-insulating layer is comprised of a first layer being in contact with the amorphous oxide and a second layer different from the first layer.


Patent
Canon Kabushiki Kaisha and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2010-06-28

Provided is a novel method for manufacturing a field effect transistor. Prior to forming an amorphous oxide layer on a substrate, ultraviolet rays are irradiated onto the substrate surface in an ozone atmosphere, plasma is irradiated onto the substrate surface, or the substrate surface is cleaned by a chemical solution containing hydrogen peroxide.


Patent
Canon Kabushiki Kaisha, Sophia School Corporation and Tokyo Institute of Technology | Date: 2013-02-19

The piezoelectric element includes, on a substrate: a piezoelectric film; and a pair of electrodes provided in contact with the piezoelectric film; in which the piezoelectric film contains a perovskite-type metal oxide represented by the general formula (1) as a main component: A_(x)(Zn_(j)Ti_((1-j)))_(1)(Mg_(k)Ti_((1-k)))_(m)M_(n)O_(3)General Formula (1) wherein the perovskite-type metal oxide is uniaxially (111)-oriented in pseudo-cubic notation in a thickness direction, of the pair of electrodes, a lower electrode provided on the substrate side is a multilayer electrode including at least a first electrode layer in contact with the substrate and a second electrode layer in contact with the piezoelectric film, and the second electrode layer is a perovskite-type metal oxide electrode which is uniaxially (111)-oriented in pseudo-cubic notation in a thickness direction.


News Article | December 13, 2016
Site: www.gizmag.com

Currently, when the rubble at disaster sites is being moved, ordinary construction equipment is used. Scientists at several Japanese universities, however, are working on something more task-specific. They've created a remote-control robotic excavator, that is said to offer "drastically improved operability and mobility." Given that the machine may be performing some fairly fine manipulations, it is equipped with a force feedback system. This measures oil pressure in the hydraulic arm's cylinders, and reproduces that resistance in the user's controls. Additionally, high-frequency vibrations are detected by a sensor in the forearm, and are likewise mirrored for the operator. Situational awareness is a big factor at disaster sites, so the machine is also equipped with a remote-control camera-toting tethered quadcopter drone. Power is supplied to the aircraft through its tether, so long flights are possible. There are additionally four wide-angle video cameras mounted high on the excavator, along with a far-infrared camera – the latter lets the user see what's around the robot even in low-visibility conditions such as fog. The excavator was created in a collaboration between Osaka University, Kobe University, Tohoku University, Tohoku University, The University of Tokyo, and Tokyo Institute of Technology. It was made as part of the Tough Robotics Challenge, an initiative of Japan's Impulsing Paradigm Challenge through Disruptive Technologies (ImPACT) Program. A version with two arms is reportedly now in the works.


News Article | February 28, 2017
Site: phys.org

DMD modes of the pressure. Credit: Tokyo Institute of Technology Intensive pressure oscillations by thermoacoustic instabilities are critical for the operation of practical gas turbine combustors. However, it is difficult to investigate interactions between turbulent flames and acoustic modes of combustors due to the existence of complex dynamics and their three-dimensional nature. Now, Kozo Aoki, Masayasu Shimura, Mamoru Tanahashi and colleagues at Tokyo Institute of Technology have shown that turbulent flame fluctuations induced by large- and fine-scale vortical motions interact with specific three-dimensional acoustic modes of a combustor. The characteristics were investigated by applying dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) to results of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent swirling premixed flames in a small cuboid combustor. The transverse acoustic plane waves and pressure oscillations induced by large-scale vortical motions play important roles for pressure oscillations in the combustor. DMD of heat release rate field reveals that the DMD modes of pressure with high amplitude do not necessarily have coupling with fluctuations of heat release rate, whereas oscillation modes caused by large-scale vortical motions have large energy not only in pressure field but also in heat release rate field. These results indicate the significance of the control of large-scale vortical motion to suppress thermoacoustic instability. Furthermore, thermoacoustic instability has been investigated recently from the view point of disturbance energy, which will contribute to deepen understanding of the mechanisms of thermoacoustic instability. More information: Kozo Aoki et al. Short- and long-term dynamic modes of turbulent swirling premixed flame in a cuboid combustor, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (2015). DOI: 10.1016/j.proci.2014.10.003 Kozo Aoki et al. Disturbance energy budget of turbulent swirling premixed flame in a cuboid combustor, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (2017). DOI: 10.1016/j.proci.2016.08.033


News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: phys.org

(Top) color samples were used in the present study. (Bottom) optimal number of clusters in Japanese color names derived by k-means analysis with Gap statistic. Credit: Ichiro Kuriki Color plays an important role in conveying visual information. For example, color can help the observer find an object in a cluttered environment. Although the human eye can distinguish millions of colors, human languages have only a few color terms, such as "red," "green," "blue" and "yellow," which speakers can use to communicate about colors in everyday life. These color terms change over time as a language evolves, and the Japanese language is no exception. This became clear through the work of an international collaboration between researchers at Tohoku University, their colleagues at Tokyo Institute of Technology and Ohio State University. The researchers investigated the number of color categories (such as aka, midori, ao, ki, etc.) that are commonly used by native Japanese speakers. They asked 52 participants to name 320 color samples of various hues and lightness (plus black, white and several grays) using only single color words without modifiers (no "greenish yellow" or "light purple"). Statistical analysis of the results revealed 19 common Japanese categories. There were the 11 basic color categories common to most modern industrialized cultures (red, green, blue, yellow, purple, pink, brown, orange, white, gray and black), plus eight additional named color categories. These were: mizu ("water")/light blue, hada ("skin tone")/peach, matcha ("ceremonial green tea")/yellow-green, oudo ("mud")/mustard, enji/maroon, yamabuki ("goldflower")/gold and cream. Of these additional terms, mizu was used by 98% of informants, making it a strong candidate for a 12th Japanese basic color category. Thirty years ago, a study of Japanese color categories (Uchikawa & Boynton, 1987) did not reveal mizu as a basic color category, because the informants in that earlier study often used mizu ("water") and ao (blue) interchangeably. Conversely, Uchikawa & Boynton found that kusa ("grass") was a very popular term for yellow-green, whereas, in the present study, kusa has been largely replaced with matcha ("ceremonial green tea"). These results illustrate that color terms, like many other aspects of language, change over time. In contrast to these recent changes, there is one tradition that has not changed over the past millennium: the mixed use of green and blue. Careful study of classic Japanese poems before the 10th century showed that ao ("blue") was used to name both things that were clearly blue and also things that were clearly green; the same was true of midori ("green"). Even today, modern Japanese people refer to the color of the green traffic light, lush green leaves and green vegetables, as ao ("blue"). However, the use of ao and midori are otherwise quite distinct. The transition from a single category encompassing both blue and green ("grue") to distinct blue and green categories is considered to be a landmark in the typical evolution of color lexicons around the world. For example, the Middle English term "hwen" was used to denote a grue category until 13th century, but modern English, like modern Japanese, has distinct terms for separate blue and green color categories. These investigators showed that, in addition to distinct color terms for blue and green, modern Japanese has recently added a new intermediate color term "mizu" for lighter bluish and greenish samples. This study showed that although modern Japanese is not a "grue" language - since blue and green are distinct color categories - Japanese people have nonetheless retained traditional expressions from the classic poetic tradition of a thousand years ago. Explore further: Blue or green? United Kingdom split over color of swatch More information: Ichiro Kuriki et al, The modern Japanese color lexicon, Journal of Vision (2017). DOI: 10.1167/17.3.1


News Article | December 13, 2016
Site: phys.org

As part of the Impulsing Paradigm Challenge through Disruptive Technologies Program (ImPACT)'s Tough Robotics Challenge Program, a group of research leaders at Osaka University, Kobe University, Tohoku University, The University of Tokyo, and Tokyo Institute of Technology developed construction robots for disaster relief in order to solve various challenges of conventional construction machines used in such situations. Using a prototype machine with elemental technologies under development, verification tests were performed on places that represented disaster sites, and a certain level of performance was confirmed. This prototype looks like an ordinary hydraulic excavator, but, specifically, has the following elemental technologies: In addition to the above-mentioned technologies, this group is developing several useful elemental technologies and making efforts to improve their technical performance. They are also developing new robots with a double rotation mechanism and double arms with the purpose of achieving higher operability and terrain adaptability. Explore further: Hybrid hydrostatic transmission enables robots with human-like grace and precision


News Article | January 25, 2016
Site: phys.org

A collaboration of scientists from the RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Osaka University, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, and the Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute have published research clarifying the role of magnetism in a new type of high-temperature superconductor. The research, just published as a Rapid Communication in Physical Review B, gives us a better understanding of the atomic-scale behavior of these materials. Physicists hope that, by understanding how these materials superconduct at relatively high temperature, they can eventually learn enough to make materials that superconduct close to room temperature. It is known that the phenomenon of superconductivity—where materials conduct electricity without resistance—arises when pairs of electrons become coupled together or "paired". With traditional superconductors, this pairing arises due to vibrations of the ions in the structure. But this is not always the case: there are other types of materials, such as cuprate superconductors and a relatively new class of superconductor iron-pnictide superconductors, that was discovered by a group led by Hideo Hosono at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, where magnetism may be the paring mechanism. According to Alfred Baron, the leader of the Materials Dynamics Lab at RIKEN SPring-8 Center, "The question we addressed was how the atomic vibrations in the iron pnictides are affected by magnetism. This was especially interesting because atomic vibrations are understood to be driving force of the older type of low-temperature superconductors, while magnetism is considered to be the probable driving mechanism of the new, high-temperature, superconductivity. Thus, it was in some sense, an overlap of the old with the new." Using a technique called inelastic x-ray scattering on two beamlines of the powerful SPring-8 synchrotron facility in Harima, Japan, the group was able to measure the dynamics in specially prepared single-domain samples. Comparing their measurements to calculations then suggested that magnetic fluctuations play an important role in the atomic vibrations. Naoki Murai, the graduate student spearheading the measurement explains, "By very gently pressing the material in the correct direction we were able to observe effects due to the onset of magnetic order". Says Baron, "One of the nice things about this work is that it provides a basis for describing atomic vibrations in this whole class of materials—do calculations with magnetism and then add fluctuations". Baron says the collaboration will continue to investigate the properties of these fascinating materials, and also, more generally, the interaction of magnetism and atomic vibrations. More information: N. Murai et al., Effect of magnetism on lattice dynamics in SrFe2As2 using high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering, Physical Review B 93, 020301(R) (2016), DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.020301


News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Color plays an important role in conveying visual information. For example, color can help the observer find an object in a cluttered environment. Although the human eye can distinguish millions of colors, human languages have only a few color terms, such as "red," "green," "blue" and "yellow," which speakers can use to communicate about colors in everyday life. These color terms change over time as a language evolves, and the Japanese language is no exception. This became clear through the work of an international collaboration between researchers at Tohoku University, their colleagues at Tokyo Institute of Technology and Ohio State University. The researchers investigated the number of color categories (such as aka, midori, ao, ki, etc.) that are commonly used by native Japanese speakers. They asked 52 participants to name 320 color samples of various hues and lightness (plus black, white and several grays) using only single color words without modifiers (no "greenish yellow" or "light purple"). Statistical analysis of the results revealed 19 common Japanese categories. There were the 11 basic color categories common to most modern industrialized cultures (red, green, blue, yellow, purple, pink, brown, orange, white, gray and black), plus eight additional named color categories. These were: mizu ("water")/light blue, hada ("skin tone")/peach, matcha ("ceremonial green tea")/yellow-green, oudo ("mud")/mustard, enji/maroon, yamabuki ("goldflower")/gold and cream. Of these additional terms, mizu was used by 98% of informants, making it a strong candidate for a 12th Japanese basic color category. Thirty years ago, a study of Japanese color categories (Uchikawa & Boynton, 1987) did not reveal mizu as a basic color category, because the informants in that earlier study often used mizu ("water") and ao (blue) interchangeably. Conversely, Uchikawa & Boynton found that kusa ("grass") was a very popular term for yellow-green, whereas, in the present study, kusa has been largely replaced with matcha ("ceremonial green tea"). These results illustrate that color terms, like many other aspects of language, change over time. In contrast to these recent changes, there is one tradition that has not changed over the past millennium: the mixed use of green and blue. Careful study of classic Japanese poems before the 10th century showed that ao ("blue") was used to name both things that were clearly blue and also things that were clearly green; the same was true of midori ("green"). Even today, modern Japanese people refer to the color of the green traffic light, lush green leaves and green vegetables, as ao ("blue"). However, the use of ao and midori are otherwise quite distinct. The transition from a single category encompassing both blue and green ("grue") to distinct blue and green categories is considered to be a landmark in the typical evolution of color lexicons around the world. For example, the Middle English term "hœwen" was used to denote a grue category until 13th century, but modern English, like modern Japanese, has distinct terms for separate blue and green color categories. These investigators showed that, in addition to distinct color terms for blue and green, modern Japanese has recently added a new intermediate color term "mizu" for lighter bluish and greenish samples. This study showed that although modern Japanese is not a "grue" language - since blue and green are distinct color categories - Japanese people have nonetheless retained traditional expressions from the classic poetic tradition of a thousand years ago.


News Article | January 26, 2016
Site: www.nanotech-now.com

Home > Press > Clarifying the role of magnetism in high-temperature superconductors Abstract: A collaboration of scientists from the RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Osaka University, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, and the Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute have published research clarifying the role of magnetism in a new type of high-temperature superconductor. The research, just published as a Rapid Communication in Physical Review B, gives us a better understanding of the atomic-scale behavior of these materials. Physicists hope that, by understanding how these materials superconduct at relatively high temperature, they can eventually learn enough to make materials that superconduct close to room temperature. It is known that the phenomenon of superconductivity -- where materials conduct electricity without resistance -- arises when pairs of electrons become coupled together or "paired". With traditional superconductors, this pairing arises due to vibrations of the ions in the structure. But this is not always the case: there are other types of materials, such as cuprate superconductors and a relatively new class of superconductor iron-pnictide superconductors, that was discovered by a group led by Hideo Hosono at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, where magnetism may be the paring mechanism. According to Alfred Baron, the leader of the Materials Dynamics Lab at RIKEN SPring-8 Center, "The question we addressed was how the atomic vibrations in the iron pnictides are affected by magnetism. This was especially interesting because atomic vibrations are understood to be driving force of the older type of low-temperature superconductors, while magnetism is considered to be the probable driving mechanism of the new, high-temperature, superconductivity. Thus, it was in some sense, an overlap of the old with the new." Using a technique called inelastic x-ray scattering on two beamlines of the powerful SPring-8 synchrotron facility in Harima, Japan, the group was able to measure the dynamics in specially prepared single-domain samples. Comparing their measurements to calculations then suggested that magnetic fluctuations play an important role in the atomic vibrations. Naoki Murai, the graduate student spearheading the measurement explains, "By very gently pressing the material in the correct direction we were able to observe effects due to the onset of magnetic order". Says Baron, "One of the nice things about this work is that it provides a basis for describing atomic vibrations in this whole class of materials--do calculations with magnetism and then add fluctuations". Baron says the collaboration will continue to investigate the properties of these fascinating materials, and also, more generally, the interaction of magnetism and atomic vibrations. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


News Article | October 23, 2015
Site: news.mit.edu

To overcome the danger of fires and increase the energy density of lithium batteries, researchers are developing solid-state lithium batteries that replace flammable liquid electrolytes with a safer solid electrolyte. These solid-state lithium batteries are like a tightly connected sandwich of cathode, electrolyte, and anode, and common problems are separation of these layers from each other and mechanical degradation within the layers, which leads to weaker battery performance and eventual failure. "In particular, for all solid-state batteries, the mechanical degradation is very significant for the durability of the battery," explains Giovanna Bucci, a postdoc in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering. The mechanisms that lead to this failure are a complex mix of electrical, chemical, and mechanical factors. They affect the capability to transfer lithium ions back and forth through the electrolyte to the cathode and anode. With a strong background in solid mechanics, Bucci developed non-linear continuum mechanics-based simulations, using finite element analysis and writing computer code, primarily in C++, to model these interactions. "Generally speaking, my work is to analyze the coupling between mechanical and electrochemical effects," she says. Bucci's expertise in continuum-scale simulation enables her to model mechanical and chemical behavior of battery charging and discharging on a suitable time scale and cell size. "It is not possible to do it with atomistic calculation because they cover a very small range of time and space," she says. The overall goal of the research is to find the combination of material properties and microstructure engineering that is most failure tolerant. The design of a battery considers the geometry of the microstructure (particle size and distribution), and the operating conditions, in other words how fast the battery is charged and discharged. Bucci, who earned her PhD in Italy and was previously a postdoc at Brown University, started working on the project under MIT professors W. Craig Carter and Yet-Ming Chiang in March 2014. She also is working on solid oxide fuel cells under professors Harry Tuller and Bilge Yildiz, with funding from the COFFEI project (DOE grant DE-SC0002633). Her current MIT post is Bucci's first experience in a materials science department. Carter says of Bucci, "She has an incredible background in theoretical mechanics, which you wouldn't expect would have very much application in materials science. But, she's been able to bridge the gap between this rigorous foundation, learning some of the elements of materials science and putting those together in a way, which, I think, has not been done before. She's writing up some very fundamental work right now and then doing some simulations, which shed light on the behavior of battery microstructures and solid oxide fuel cells. I'm very pleased with her work." From her studies, Bucci has created animations that show the swelling associated with lithium ions flowing into the cathode or anode material, which is called intercalation. The swelling causes mechanical stress on the material, which can lead to incomplete absorption of available lithium ions and lessen a battery’s ability to hold a charge. "During cycling, the particles undergo some volumetric change, some swelling and deswelling, because lithium is intercalating in the particles, and so the interface between the two solid materials can delaminate because of this volume change and the mechanical stress that arises from that," Bucci explains. "This means that some of the particles can be disconnected from the electrolyte. Since the electrolyte will carry the lithium ion, that could be an increase in time for charging the battery; there also could be capacity loss, because an electrode particle becomes completely isolated, so lithium cannot reach some of those particles." Stress is an important problem that cannot be ignored, she says. Batteries opened after they have been charged and discharged many times show fractures in particles of electrode material that develop because of this volume change and the stress that accompanies it. When lithium diffuses into electrodes (the active materials of a battery), the material has to expand like a sponge to absorb it. But in a solid-state battery, the electrode particles are constrained by the surrounding solid matrix, and their capability to absorb lithium is limited, Bucci says. "The material swells but also this swelling means that the lattice is stressed; so there is mechanical stress there, and then this mechanical stress affects the diffusion of lithium, so the coupling goes in two directions," she adds. Most cathode and anode materials undergo some change of volume, which could be from a few percent to a very large change. Silicon, for example, can undergo a very large volume change up to 300 percent, while compounds that are commonly used as a cathode or anode material undergo between 5 and 10 percent volume change. Even moderate volume changes have a large impact on the overall battery performance, she says. This lithium flow, or flux, is made harder by the presence of compressive stress. Bucci's work also shows that inhomogeneous mechanical stress causes lithium to concentrate in areas of higher tensile stress and migrate away from regions where the material is compressed. A related computer animation shows this effect. "It creates a stress gradient across the sample and demonstrates how the stress, in turn, drives lithium diffusion," she explains. "The particles are usually solid cathodes and anodes, but in the case of the solid electrolyte, the effect is bigger because the system is more constrained. If there is a liquid or a very soft material in between the particles, the system is more tolerant to deformation." Despite posing some challenges compared with liquid electrolytes, solid electrolytes have a different advantage of being selective carriers for lithium. A selective solid electrolyte suppresses unwanted side reactions, which a liquid electrolyte would allow. "The solid electrolyte, if it has been engineered for being a lithium ion carrier, it will just do that. It will allow us to use a combination of cathode and anode materials that would be unstable with liquid electrolyte," Bucci says. This could allow for batteries with higher energy density, based on a combination of anodes and cathodes that cannot currently be used with liquid electrolyte. Since solid electrodes can be extremely thin, multiple battery cells can be stacked to produce higher voltages, for example, for an electric car, unlike organic liquid electrolyte, for which every cell needs to be singly packaged and then connected externally. "The cells can be stuck one on top of the other without being separated from each other, and so it reduces the volume, and the mass, of the overall system," she notes. Lithium ion flux tends to be slower in solid electrolytes, but research continues to find solid electrolytes that carry lithium ions faster. As particles absorb lithium ions, swelling can lead to the loss of contact between electrode particles and electrolyte. "The mechanical degradation of the system is strongly connected to the durability of the battery," Bucci explains. "The mechanical characteristics of the solid electrolyte are very important. Because if it is a soft material, it will allow this volume change more easily than if it is a rigid material, or a brittle material, that can easily crack." Her animation shows that, if the particle is connected completely to the electrolyte, lithium ions cross into the electrode particle and reach its core. But having some of the interfaces delaminated means that lithium cannot flow across the interface and charging of the battery is slower because the lithium ion has to follow a more difficult path to reach the particle. Solid-state lithium batteries at large scale have potential for electric cars, while miniaturized ones can power medical devices. For thin-film batteries, with anodes, electrolyte, and cathodes on top of each other, the electrolyte can be less conductive and still make an efficient battery because it is so thin, Bucci suggests. One solid electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON), was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and it has been primarily tested in thin-film batteries. Researchers there published a study in October 2014 showing a 5-volt solid-state battery with a lifetime of more than 27 years with a daily charge/discharge cycle. Japanese researchers have also had recent success with several different initiatives involving lithium ion batteries. A 2014 paper by researchers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology and Toyota Motor Corporation analyzed ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes made from crystals of Li GeP S  with varying combinations of silicon or tin. Professor Ryoji Kanno and Associate Professor Masaaki Hirayama and their team received a U.S. patent on April 15, 2014, for a high-output solid-state battery with a sulfide solid electrolyte and excellent ion conductivity. Hitoshi Takamura, professor of energy materials at Tohoku University, demonstrated in a May 2014 paper that a "parasitic conduction mechanism" enhanced lithium ionic conductivity in a solid electrolyte composed of lithium borohydride (LiBH ) doped with potassium iodide (KI). In a series of papers, a group led by Masahiro Tatsumisago, professor of applied chemistry at Osaka Prefecture University, demonstrated that the glass-ceramic material Li S-P S  works well as a solid electrolyte for solid-state lithium batteries with high lithium-ion conductivity and reversible capacity. Using solution processing, the researchers coated the glass-ceramic material onto LiCoO  particles. Quality of the contact at the interface between a solid electrode and a solid electrolyte is a key to improving battery performance, Tatsumisago and co-authors noted in a review article, "Recent development of sulfide solid electrolytes and interfacial modification for all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries," in the Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies. Bucci's work made use of NSF computational resources through the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) network. "The heavy calculation is split up among many processors, and that will speed up the time of the whole simulation, and it allows us to scale up the problem, so going from tens of particles to a system of hundreds of particles or 1,000 [electrode particles]," she explains. The problems her coding addresses are not easy to solve because of the coupling of different physical phenomena. "I have a series of equations that need to be solved simultaneously, and this requires appropriate computational tools," she says. Developing the main structure of her code took about six months, and she adds new features as needed. Her study is still unpublished, but she is working on a manuscript. Bucci gave a presentation on April 15 at MIT at the Rising Stars in Nuclear Science and Engineering symposium, which features promising female researchers. Bucci's initial model featured square particles in a matrix because fractures are more likely to initiate at sharp corners. "People usually do a representation of spherical particles, and try to understand what happens when you lithiate, and how big the stress is and try to go from there and extend to a real cell," Bucci says. "In this case, we can directly model a complex electrode-electrolyte system and see if it fractures or it doesn't, and if it fractures, what consequences that would have. So, I think in that sense, it's a unique tool that we have." Her next step will be to import data from X-ray tomographic microscopy images of real battery microstructures by making use of OOF3D, a freely available library developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Being able to simulate a realistic battery system would have a large impact in guiding the experimentation towards promising solutions. Bucci was born on a farm in southern Italy. "My father is a mason and my mother is a dressmaker. I didn't know that I would end up being a research scientist and working at MIT. It's very far from what I could see at the time." She got her undergraduate degree in architecture at University of Pavia in Milan before earning her doctorate in structural engineering at the Polytechnic University of Milan. Bucci is married to MIT aeronautics and astronautics graduate student Brandon L. Talamini, and their daughter, Iolanda, was born May 9. "We share a lot of interests in the research that we do," she says. Bucci hopes to begin looking for a faculty position in the fall.


News Article | October 27, 2015
Site: phys.org

Scheme of Gd-DTPA/CaP hybrid micelles targeting tumours for gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT). (a) The accumulation of Gd-DTPA delivered by Gd-DTPA/CaP in tumours due to the enhanced permeation and retention effect. (b) Low energy thermal neutron irradiation does not kill normal cells without NCT agents. (c) Thermal neutron irradiation could kill or cause hazardous damage to cancer cells by the gamma rays emitted from the Gd nuclides after nuclear reaction with captured thermal neutrons. Credit: 2015 The American Chemical Society Neutron-capture therapy (NCT) provides an effective localised treatment for irradiating cancer tumours. However to ensure only cancerous cells are destroyed it is helpful to see where NCT drugs have accumulated in order to target their activation only in tumours. Now a collaboration led by researchers at the Kawasaki Institute of Industry Promotion in Japan has demonstrated cancer imaging and treatment using gadolinium-based nanoparticles in living mice. Absorption of harmless low-energy thermal neutrons can trigger fission in stable elements including lithium, boron, gadolinium and uranium, releasing high-energy particles and gamma radiation that destroy nearby cells. Therefore, NCT has the potential advantage of attacking cells across a whole tumour. Among those elements, gadolinium is useful, because is used for MRI imaging. Dr. Kazunori Kataoka and colleagues at Kawasaki Institute of Industry Promotion, Tokyo Institute of Technology, The University of Tokyo, National Institute of Radiological Sciences and Kyoto University in Japan delivered a gadolinium-based clinical MRI contrast agent - Gd-DTPA - to tumour cells. They encased the drug in CaP micelles that ensured preferential uptake by tumour tissue and stayed intact while in the blood only disintegrating to release the gadolinium compounds once in tumour cells in response to the change in pH. "The Gd-DTPA/CaP showed a dramatically increased accumulation of Gd-DTPA in tumours, leading to the selective contrast enhancement of tumour tissues for precise tumor location by MRI," state the researchers in their report. "The enhanced tumour-to-blood distribution ratio of Gd-DTPA/CaP resulted in the effective suppression of tumour growth without loss of body weight, indicating the potential of Gd-DTPA/CaP for safe cancer treatment." More information: Peng Mi et al. Hybrid Calcium Phosphate-Polymeric Micelles Incorporating Gadolinium Chelates for Imaging-Guided Gadolinium Neutron Capture Tumor Therapy, ACS Nano (2015). DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b00532


News Article | February 2, 2016
Site: www.scientificcomputing.com

The Green500 list ranks the top 500 supercomputers in the world by energy efficiency. A focus of “performance-at-any-cost computer operations” led to emergence of supercomputers that consume vast amounts of electrical power and produce so much heat that large cooling facilities must be constructed to ensure proper performance. In order to address this trend, the Green500 list states that it puts a premium on energy-efficient performance for sustainable supercomputing. Currently, the Green500 has two releases per year: June and November. The inaugural list was released on November 15, 2007 at SC|07. As a complement to the TOP500, the unveiling of the Green500 “ushered in a new era where supercomputers can be compared by performance-per-watt.” For decades, the notion of "performance" has been synonymous with "speed" (as measured in FLOPS, short for floating-point operations per second). This focus has led to the emergence of “supercomputers that consume egregious amounts of electrical power and produce so much heat that extravagant cooling facilities must be constructed to ensure proper operation. In addition, the emphasis on speed as the ultimate metric has caused other metrics such as reliability, availability and usability to be largely ignored,” the List site states. And this, in turn, has resulted in “an extraordinary increase in the total cost of ownership (TCO) of a supercomputer.” In order to raise awareness to other performance metrics of interest (e.g., performance per watt and energy efficiency for improved reliability), the Green500 offers lists to encourage supercomputing stakeholders to ensure that supercomputers are only simulating climate change and not creating climate change. On November 18, 2015, the Shoubu supercomputer from RIKEN maintained the top spot on the 18th edition of the List and claimed the title of the “most energy-efficient (or greenest) supercomputer in the world.” The Shoubu supercomputer, which surpassed the seven gigaflops/watt (billions of operations per second per watt) milestone in July 2015, also remains as the only supercomputer that has surpassed that mark. The TSUBAME-KFC/DL supercomputer from the GSIC Center at Tokyo Institute of Technology in Japan and the Lattice-CSC supercomputer from GSI Helmholtz Center in Germany grabbed second and third place, respectively, with both machines surpassing five gigaflops/watt. The Green500 began in April 2005 after a keynote talk by Dr. Wu-chun Feng at the IEEE IPDPS Workshop on High-Performance, Power-Aware Computing. The idea was then formally presented at the workshop a year later, with a paper and associated talk entitled "Making a Case for a Green500 List," [ paper ] [ talk ]. A subsequent presentation at Clusters and Computational Grids for Scientific Computing 2006, "Global Climate Warming? Yes … In The Machine Room," brought increased interest. Ultimately, the announcement of the Green500 was made at SC|06. One year later, at SC|07, the inaugural list was released. Dr. Wu-chun Feng is an associate professor of Computer Science with a courtesy appointment in Electrical & Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech (VT). At VT, he directs the Synergy Laboratory, which conducts research at the synergistic intersection of systems software, middleware and application software; of particular note is his high-performance computing (HPC) research in the areas of green supercomputing, accelerator-based parallel computing, and bioinformatics. Dr. Kirk W. Cameron is an associate professor of Computer Science at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. He directs the SCAPE Laboratory at Virginia Tech where he pioneered the area of Green HPC to improve the efficiency of high-end systems. Prof. Cameron is on the editorial board and editor for the IEEE Computer "Green IT" column. He is an active consultant for the Energy Star program for Servers and a founding member of SPECPower, the first and foremost industry benchmark for power and performance.


News Article | November 20, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

A groundbreaking researcher whose research lies at the intersection of education and cognitive neuroscience was awarded the ninth annual prize for “Transforming Education Through Neuroscience.” The award was established to honor individuals who represent excellence in bridging neuroscience and education and is funded by the Learning & the Brain® Foundation. The $2,500 award will be used to support translational efforts bridging scientific findings and classroom practice. Kou Murayama, PhD, is being honored for his work on motivation and cognition from the neural level to the social level. Dr. Murayama received his Doctorate in Educational Psychology from the University of Tokyo in 2006 and did his post-doctoral work at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, the University of Rochester, the University of Munich and UCLA. Now at the University of Reading in the United Kingdom, Dr. Murayama is an Associate Professor of Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience where he runs the Motivation Lab. Dr. Murayama’s research on motivation has potentially large implications for the field of education. His research focuses on a number of questions about the function and the architecture of human motivation from both theoretical (especially focusing on the theories of achievement goals, intrinsic motivation, and reinforcement learning) and practical (especially educational) perspectives. Some of these questions revolve on how motivation can enhance learning, the nature of intrinsic motivation, and metamotivation. His laboratory uses a multi-method approach by drawing upon a variety of methodologies such as behavioral experiments, large sample surveys, neuroimaging (i.e., fMRI), experience sampling, meta-analysis, behavioral genetics analysis, mathematical modeling, and intervention in order to understand motivation from different perspectives. According to Mary Helen Immordino-Yang, EdD, who is Associate Professor of Education, Psychology and Neuroscience at the Rossier School of Education and Associate Professor of Psychology at the Brain and Creativity Institute at the University of Southern California, Dr. Murayama is “an exceptionally talented and prodigious scholar who is conducting groundbreaking interdisciplinary research integrating cognitive scientific, neuroscientific and educational research approaches.” She also said that “his work is remarkable for its creativity and innovation in both neuroscientific and educational domains.” Last year’s award winner, Fumiko Hoeft called Dr. Murayama “…a truly talented researcher bridging many fields.” David B. Daniel, PhD, Professor of Psychology at James Madison University and the 2013 winner of the award, also had praise for the new recipient. “Dr. Murayama is engaging in important synthetic and complex scholarship that promises to encourage innovative theory as well as practical educational import.” Dr. Daniel presented the prize to Dr. Murayama at the Learning & the Brain® educational conference in Boston, MA on Saturday, November 19, held at the Westin Copley Hotel. The Learning & the Brain® Foundation wishes Dr. Murayama our heartiest congratulations.

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