Tokyo Gakugei University or Gakudai , for short, is a national university in Koganei, Tokyo. While its history may be traced to 1873, it was formally chartered as a university in 1949 through the merging of four teacher-training institutions.In 1966, the Graduate School of Tokyo Gakugei University was established, and since 1996 it has offered Doctoral degrees in the education field as part of a coalition of educational institutions that include Chiba University, Saitama University, and Yokohama National University.In recent years, Tokyo Gakugei University has developed programs to better accommodate professional school teachers, including evening and short-term courses. The university also houses a number of national research centres in education-related fields. In addition to its Koganei campus, it also maintains a number of attached public schools offering curricula in elementary, secondary, and special education at various locations in the greater Tokyo area. The university has a strong reputation in education-related fields, playing a national role in the development of educational policy and innovations in teacher education. Wikipedia.
Ikeda K.,Tokyo Gakugei University
Hearing Research | Year: 2015
Binaural interaction in the auditory brainstem response (ABR) represents the discrepancy between the binaural waveform and the sum of monaural ones. A typical ABR binaural interaction in humans is a reduction of the binaural amplitude compared to the monaural sum at the wave-V latency, i.e., the DN1 component. It has been considered that the DN1 is mainly elicited by high frequency components of stimuli whereas some studies have shown the contribution of low-to-middle frequency components to the DN1. To examine this issue, the present study compared the ABR binaural interaction elicited by tone pips (1kHz, 10-ms duration) with the one by clicks (a rectangular wave, 0.1-ms duration) presented at 80dB peak equivalent SPL and a fixed stimulus onset interval (180. ms). The DN1 due to tone pips was vulnerable compared to the click-evoked DN1. The pip-evoked DN1 was significantly detected under auditory attention whereas it failed to reach significance under visual attention. The click-evoked DN1 was robustly present for the two attention conditions. The current results might confirm the high frequency sound contribution to the DN1 elicitation. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Sakakibara T.,Tokyo Gakugei University
Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science | Year: 2017
This study had two purposes: (1) to develop university classes in which students can participate in intercultural dialogue by exchanging letters focusing on a topic about everyday norms implicit in each culture, and (2) to examine how students develop their intercultural understanding through participating in these classes. Twenty-two Japanese and six Chinese university students (each group in their own country) participated in three class sessions. At the beginning of the first class, students were given a dialogue theme that focused on cultural differences. The selected theme was mobile phone use while riding on public transportation, as this practice is prohibited in Tokyo but not in Beijing. Students discussed their opinions in small groups, wrote questions to their counterparts in the other country, and then reflected on and discussed the answers received. Analysis of the Japanese students’ written reflections showed that their understanding of different cultural values and beliefs changed from one based only on a Japanese cultural perspective to one that respected the relativity of cultural norms. The results suggested that the arousal of negative emotions when students are exposed to the perspectives of other cultures is closely related to their understanding of cultural relativity. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Yamada M.,Tokyo Gakugei University |
Akasaka T.,University of Tsukuba |
Nagase S.,Kyoto University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013
Carbenes are unquestionably powerful intermediates to functionalize fullerenes. Various carbene precursors are useful for reactions. The availability of widely diverse carbene precursors enriches the fullerene chemistry. Both electrophilic and nucleophilic carbenes are applicable reagents, giving the corresponding fullerene derivatives. The reaction mechanisms depend on the precursors and reaction conditions applied. A typical carbene reaction involves addition to a π bond of olefins, which is also the case for a π bond of fullerenes. It is also important to note that carbenes exhibit diverse reactivity. Singlet carbenes possess both electrophilic and nucleophilic character, whereas triplet carbenes show diradical reactivity. Dihalocarbene, because it is among the simplest and most representative carbene species, is widely used in synthetic chemistry. Diazo compounds are useful carbene transfer reagents to fullerenes.
Hasegawa H.,Tokyo Gakugei University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2010
We have studied finite N -body D -dimensional nonextensive ideal gases and harmonic oscillators, by using the maximum-entropy methods with the q and normal averages (q: the entropic index). The validity range, specific heat and Tsallis entropy obtained by the two average methods are compared. Validity ranges of the q - and normal averages are 0
q L, respectively, where qU =1+ (ηDN ) -1, qL =1- ( ηDN+1 ) -1 and η=1/2 (η=1) for ideal gases (harmonic oscillators). The energy and specific heat in the q and normal averages coincide with those in the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics, although this coincidence does not hold for the fluctuation of energy. The Tsallis entropy for N | q-1 | 1 obtained by the q average is quite different from that derived by the normal average, despite a fairly good agreement of the two results for | q-1 | 1. It has been pointed out that first-principles approaches previously proposed in the superstatistics yield additive N -body entropy (S (N) =N S (1)) which is in contrast with the nonadditive Tsallis entropy. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
Hasegawa H.,Tokyo Gakugei University
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2013
We have studied dynamical properties and quantum tunneling in asymmetric double-well (DW) systems, by solving Schrödinger's equation with the use of two kinds of spectral methods for initially squeezed Gaussian wavepackets. Time dependences of wavefunction, averages of position and momentum, the auto-correlation function, an uncertainty product and the tunneling probability have been calculated. Our calculations have shown that (i) the tunneling probability is considerably reduced by a potential asymmetry ΔU, (ii) a resonant tunneling with |ΔU|â‰κÄ§ω is realized for motion starting from the upper minimum of asymmetric potential wells, but not for motion from lower minimum (κ=0,1,2,.; ω: oscillator frequency at minima), (iii) the reduction of the tunneling probability by an asymmetry is less significant for the Gaussian wavepacket with narrower width, and (iv) the uncertainty product 〈δ x2〉〈δp2〉 in the resonant tunneling state is larger than that in the non-resonant tunneling state. The item (ii) is in contrast with the earlier study [D. Mugnai, A. Ranfagni, M. Montagna, O. Pilla, G. Viliani, M. Cetica, Phys. Rev. A 38 (1988) 2182] which showed the symmetric result for motion starting from upper and lower minima. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mochizuki T.,Tokyo Gakugei University
Langmuir | Year: 2013
When a water droplet is suspended in an immiscible, insulating liquid medium of essentially infinite dimensions and is subjected to a periodically alternating electric field, it will undergo periodic deformation at a frequency twice that of the field. This work examined the periodic deformation and bursting of microsize water droplets in silicone oil moving through a PTFE microchannel with an inner diameter nearly twice that of the droplets, under a periodically alternating electric field normal to the direction of flow. When the sinusoidal electric field was either relatively weak or had a low frequency, the droplets displayed periodic deformation alternating between a prolate ellipsoidal along the electric field direction and a sphere. In contrast, droplets alternated between prolate and oblate shapes when the electric field strength was high or the frequency of the electric field was high. When the applied electric field strength was increased, a constriction formed in the central portion of droplets which had deformed into a prolate ellipsoid. When the electric field strength was further increased, droplets broke into two or more smaller droplets as the result of the inertial force acting on the water in the droplet and the electrostatic force at the interface of the droplet and the surrounding liquid. The majority of the small droplets formed by such breakups subsequently merged into single droplets over the course of time. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Sato K.,Tokyo Gakugei University
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2011
Organism-dependent biogenic quartz formation in the steady-state environment is a phenomenon that can address the global environmental issues such as diagenetic evolution, biogeochemical cycling, and reservoir formation, but detailed studies have not been performed so far. Here, steady-state quartz formation is studied for amorphous silica of different biogenic origin on the basis of the recently established mechanistic model [Sato et al., J. Phys. Chem. C2011, 115, 18131]. Amorphous silica originated from rice husks possesses angstrom-scale pores larger by 1.3 Å than those originated from diatom algae. The slight difference of pore size dramatically reduces activation energies of water diffusion by 78% and reactions of water molecules at pore surfaces by 47%, resulting in the reduction of activation energy of biogenic quartz formation by 64%. The present findings evidence that angstrom-scale pores intrinsically residing in the amorphous matrix are the organism-dependent origin of steady-state biogenic quartz formation. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Maeda Y.,Tokyo Gakugei University
Nanoscale | Year: 2011
Since the first discovery of fullerenes in 1985, the insertion of one or more atoms into a hollow fullerene cage has been attempted. Furthermore, synthesis and extraction of metallofullerene, La@C(n), were reported in 1991. Recent successful isolation and purification of metallofullerenes have facilitated the investigation of their chemical properties. This mini-review presents a summary of the recent progress of chemical functionalization and supramolecular chemistry of M@C(82). Selective functionalization and successful structural analysis of derivatives have revealed their chemical features arising from endohedral metal doping.
Hasegawa H.,Tokyo Gakugei University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2012
Specific heats of quantum systems with symmetric and asymmetric double-well potentials have been calculated. In numerical calculations of their specific heats, we have adopted the combined method, which takes into account not only eigenvalues of εn for 0≤n≤Nm obtained by the energy-matrix diagonalization but also their extrapolated ones for N m+1≤n<∞ (Nm=20 or 30). Calculated specific heats are shown to be rather different from counterparts of a harmonic oscillator. In particular, specific heats of symmetric double-well systems at very low temperatures have the Schottky-type anomaly, which is rooted to a small energy gap in low-lying two-level eigenstates induced by a tunneling through the potential barrier. The Schottky-type anomaly is removed when an asymmetry is introduced into the double-well potential. It has been pointed out that the specific-heat calculation of a double-well system reported by Feranchuk, Ulyanenkov, and Kuz'min is misleading because the zeroth-order operator method they adopted neglects crucially important off-diagonal contributions. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Hasegawa H.,Tokyo Gakugei University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2011
We have studied the properties of a classical NS-body system coupled to a bath containing NB-body harmonic oscillators, employing an (NS+NB) model that is different from most of the existing models with NS=1. We have performed simulations for N S-oscillator systems, solving 2(NS+NB) first-order differential equations with NS≃1-10 and N B≃10-1000, in order to calculate the time-dependent energy exchange between the system and the bath. The calculated energy in the system rapidly changes while its envelope has a much slower time dependence. Detailed calculations of the stationary energy distribution of the system f S(u) (u: an energy per particle in the system) have shown that its properties are mainly determined by NS but weakly depend on N B. The calculated fS(u) is analyzed with the use of the Γ and q-Γ distributions: the latter is derived with the superstatistical approach (SSA) and microcanonical approach (MCA) to the nonextensive statistics, where q stands for the entropic index. Based on analyses of our simulation results, a critical comparison is made between the SSA and MCA. Simulations have been performed also for the NS-body ideal-gas system. The effect of the coupling between oscillators in the bath has been examined by additional (NS+NB) models that include baths consisting of coupled linear chains with periodic and fixed-end boundary conditions. © 2011 American Physical Society.