Kobayashi K.,Tokyo Dental College
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology | Year: 2017
Liver fibrosis is one of the common complications of transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD) in Down syndrome (DS), but the exact molecular pathogenesis is largely unknown. We herein report a neonate of DS with liver fibrosis associated with TMD, in which we performed the serial profibrogenic cytokines analyses. We found the active monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in the affected liver tissue and also found that both serum and urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 concentrations are noninvasive biomarkers of liver fibrosis. We also showed a prospective of the future anticytokine therapy with herbal medicine for the liver fibrosis associated with TMD in DS. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Yeung A.W.K.,University of Hong Kong |
Tanabe H.C.,Nagoya University |
Suen J.L.K.,University of Hong Kong |
Suen J.L.K.,Tokyo Dental College |
And 2 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2016
Evaluation of taste intensity is one of the most important perceptual abilities in our daily life. In contrast with extensive research findings regarding the spatial representation of taste in the insula and thalamus, little is known about how the thalamus and insula communicate and reciprocally influence their activities for processing taste intensity. To examine this neurophysiological relationship, we investigated the modulatory effect of intensity of saltiness on connections in the network processing taste signals in the human brain. These "effective connectivity" relationships refer to the neurophysiological influence (including direction and strength of influence) of one brain region on another. Healthy adults (N=34), including 17 males and 17 females (mean age=21.3years, SD=2.4; mean body mass index (BMI)=20.2kg/m2, SD=2.1) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging as they tasted three concentrations of sodium chloride solutions. By effective connectivity analysis with dynamic causal modeling, we show that taste intensity enhances top-down signal transmission from the insular cortex to the thalamus. These results are the first to demonstrate the modulatory effect of taste intensity on the taste network in the human brain. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Kikuchi Y.,Tokyo Dental College
BMC oral health | Year: 2015
BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as a major pathogen in the development and progression of chronic periodontitis. P. gingivalis biofilm formation in the subgingival crevice plays an important role in the ability of the bacteria to tolerate stress signals outside the cytoplasmic membrane. Some bacteria use a distinct subfamily of sigma factors to regulate their extracytoplasmic functions (the ECF subfamily). The objective of this study was to determine if P. gingivalis ECF sigma factors affect P. gingivalis biofilm formation.METHODS: To elucidate the role of ECF sigma factors in P. gingivalis, chromosomal mutants carrying a disruption of each ECF sigma factor-encoding gene were constructed. Bacterial growth curves were measured by determining the turbidity of bacterial cultures. The quantity of biofilm growing on plates was evaluated by crystal violet staining.RESULTS: Comparison of the growth curves of wild-type P. gingivalis strain 33277 and the ECF mutants indicated that the growth rate of the mutants was slightly lower than that of the wild-type strain. The PGN_0274- and PGN_1740-defective mutants had increased biofilm formation compared with the wild-type (p < 0.001); however, the other ECF sigma factor mutants or the complemented strains did not enhance biofilm formation.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PGN_0274 and PGN_1740 play a key role in biofilm formation by P. gingivalis.
Yazu H.,Tokyo Dental College
Eye and Contact Lens | Year: 2017
PURPOSE:: To investigate the association between recurrence of conjunctival papillomas and presence of atypical epithelial changes in patients undergoing surgical excision for conjunctival papilloma. METHODS:: We retrospectively reviewed 1,195 ophthalmic pathology specimens from 2004 to 2014 at Ichikawa General Hospital. Pathologic specimens of 5 patients with a final diagnosis of “conjunctival papilloma” were stained with hematoxylin–eosin, Ki 67, p53, human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 antibodies. RESULTS:: Of 1,195 patients, 5 patients (4 men, 1 woman; age range: 27∼57 years, mean age: 38.4 years) had a diagnosis of conjunctival papilloma, which constituted to 0.42% of the pathologic diagnosis made for the ophthalmology specimens. All specimens displayed multiple fronds of thickened conjunctival epithelium that enclosed cores of vascularized connective tissues. Three patients with recurrence after surgical excision demonstrated moderate to severe epithelial atypia, who also showed higher staining with Ki67 and p53 compared with patients with no recurrence. HPV16 and 18 antibodies staining did not appear to relate to recurrences. CONCLUSIONS:: Conjunctival papillomas with higher positive staining for Ki67 and p53 seem to have a higher risk of recurrence even after complete surgical excision and necessitate careful follow-up. © 2017 Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, Inc.
Taguchi T.,Tokyo Dental College
The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants | Year: 2011
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether intravenous sedation during dental implant surgery contributed to stabilization of hemodynamics. Two hundred fifty-five consecutive patients treated with dental implants were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous sedation with local anesthesia (sedation group, n = 123) or local anesthesia only (nonsedation group, n = 132). Midazolam and propofol were used synergistically as sedative agents. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate were measured every 2.5 minutes during dental implant surgery. On the basis of these data, the coefficient of variation, percentage of change, maximum values, and incidences of a larger increase were analyzed and expressed as cardiovascular changes. A comparison of percentages of change, maximum values, and incidences of a greater increase showed that systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in the nonsedation group than in the sedation group. The combination of midazolam and propofol sedation prevented excessive increases in blood pressure. The circulatory suppression induced by the intravenous sedation regimen not only reduced mental stress arising from the state of sedation but also exerted a pharmacologic effect. The application of this intravenous sedation regimen stabilized hemodynamics and contributed to the safety of the patient in dental implant surgery. The application of intravenous sedation had a beneficial effect for hemodynamic changes during dental implant surgery.
Sugihara N.,Tokyo Dental College
The Bulletin of Tokyo Dental College | Year: 2010
The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for root surface caries in the elderly and to evaluate the factors associated with gingival recession, one of the main risk factors for root surface caries. A total of 153 elderly people (35 men, 118 women) aged between 60 and 94 years (73.5+/-7.5 years) were surveyed. All participants were relatively healthy elderly who did not need special care in their daily lives. The survey was conducted in Chiba prefecture, Japan, and oral examinations and a questionnaire with face-to-face interviews were also carried out. Correlation analysis revealed that number of present teeth (p<0.001), gingival recession (p<0.001), bleeding on probing (p<0.001) and presence or absence of dentures (p<0.05) were significantly correlated with number of root surface caries. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis for root surface caries revealed that the risk factors for increasing numbers of teeth with root surface caries were number of teeth with gingival recession (p<0.0001), bleeding on probing (p=0.0017) and self-reported dry mouth (p=0.0454). Sex (p<0.05), number of present teeth (p<0.001), bleeding on probing (p<0.01), the presence or absence of systemic disease (p<0.01), dentures (p<0.01), drinking alcohol (p<0.01) and smoking (p<0.01) were significantly correlated with amount of gingival recession by correlation analysis. Moreover, the risk factors for increasing number of teeth with gingival recession were living in an institution (p=0.0244), number of present teeth (p<0.0001) and smoking (p=0.0037), as determined by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis for gingival recession.
Hara T.,Tokyo Dental College
The Bulletin of Tokyo Dental College | Year: 2012
Various bone matrix proteins are produced during the process of osteogenesis. Many previous studies suggested that the topography of an implant surface might affect the expression of osteoblast-mediated cytokines. However, these earlier studies were performed using in vitro cell culture. This study investigated the influence of the surface topography of a titanium implant placed under the periosteum on the gene expression of bone morphogenic markers in rat. Six custom-made implants with a rough upper surface and 6 custom-made implants with a smooth machined upper surface were placed subcrestally with the upper surface facing up in the femurs of 6 adult male rats. Five rats were sacrificed 7 days after the implant placement, and the periosteum above the embedded implant was obtained and analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR for the target genes: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN). The other rat was sacrificed at day 7, and both implants and the surrounding tissue were embedded in paraffin. For light microscopic observations, paraffin sections were stained with toluidine blue. Gene expression of ALP, BSP and OCN at the rough surface implant was significantly higher than that at the smooth machined surface implant. At day 7, both types of implant were covered with soft tissue, but a lower number of cells stained with toluidine blue was observed on the machined surface compared with on the rough surface. It is considered that rough surfaces may stimulate osteoblasts, and that ALP activity is increased indirectly. Furthermore, the two other markers were also increased by the rough surface in vivo, and different distributions of cellular and extracellular components on the upper surface of the implants were observed at day 7. These results suggest that a rough surface implant under the periosteum promotes higher gene expression of ALP, BSP and OCN in rat.
Kato H.,Tokyo Dental College
The Bulletin of Tokyo Dental College | Year: 2013
Dens invaginatus is a morphological abnormality of the tooth in which the coronal tooth enamel and dentin fold inwards towards the pulp cavity. Dens invaginatus type III (Oehlers: 1957) is characterized by infolding of the enamel and dentin as far as the root apex. This report describes a case of surgical and non-surgical endodontic therapy for a maxillary lateral incisor with type III dens invaginatus, necrotic pulp, and an associated large periradicular lesion. The patient was a 16-year-old man. Periapical radiographs suggested the presence of an untreated area of invagination. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was then used for three-dimensional observation of the morphological details of this area. The CBCT scans revealed invagination and its relationship with the pulp chamber. A dental operating microscope was used to access two primary root canals and the area of invagination. The root canals were then localized, negotiated, enlarged, and filled with calcium hydroxide. Two months later, the canal and invagination were obturated with core-based gutta-percha (FlexPoint Neo: FP core-carrier technique) and restored. Cone beam computed tomography and microscopic techniques allow even complicated cases of dens invaginatus to be diagnosed and treated using non-surgical root canal management.
Shimazaki J.,Tokyo Dental College
Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery | Year: 2010
Safe and efficient exposure of Descemet membrane is the key to success in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. Although widely used, the big-bubble technique has the drawback of difficulty in maintaining appropriate needle insertion depth in the corneal stroma, resulting in injected air sometimes escaping to the peripheral cornea without separation of Descemet membrane. We describe a variation of the big-bubble technique in which air is injected into the anterior chamber before it is injected into the stroma. By observing the reflection created on the surface of the air, a needle can be inserted deep into the stroma without puncturing Descemet membrane. This allows safe and efficient separation of Descemet membrane. Moreover, air in the anterior chamber can be used as an indicator of successful Descemet membrane separation as air is shifted to the periphery with creation of the big bubble. Financial Disclosure: The author has no financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. © 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS.
News Article | February 15, 2017
Anesthesia Progress – Everyone wants less pain during dental surgery, but it can be challenging for dentists to choose the best drug option for each patient. Dentists have several general anesthesia alternatives and finding the right option can result in less patient anxiety and better overall outcomes. Researchers from the Tokyo Dental College in Tokyo, Japan wanted to find out which anesthetic was the better choice in a dental office: propofol or sevoflurane. In an article published in the current issue of the journal Anesthesia Progress, the researchers compared the recovery and satisfaction of 20 patients who had severe anxiety about the dental surgery. All patients were healthy, and none had been given general anesthesia for prior dental treatment. At two different appointments, each patient was anesthetized with either propofol or sevoflurane alone. Patients were given the same drug to eliminate any movement and a breathing tube was used. The single-drug anesthetic had never been studied; patients were always given opioids or nitrous oxide to keep them anesthetized throughout the procedure, making it difficult to pinpoint the effects of the primary painkilling drugs themselves. The researchers found no differences between the two drugs in terms of recovery. Although patients came out of anesthesia more quickly with sevoflurane than with propofol, all patients were discharged at a similar time. A few patients had nausea while recovering from sevoflurane, but none reported complications 24 hours later. All patients were able to eat their first meal and drink fluids at a similar time, and no patients experienced nausea or vomiting once leaving the dentists’ office. However, patients revealed a clear preference for propofol after being anesthetized with each drug. They said they had more discomfort and fatigue after taking sevoflurane. Some also said they disliked the smell of sevoflurane. Even though some patients reported more pain during injection of propofol, 80 percent of patients in the study said they would choose propofol for future surgeries. The researchers concluded that propofol is the anesthetic of choice for dental patients with severe anxiety about surgery, but these patients may continue to need general anesthesia in future surgeries. When patient satisfaction is the highest priority, the researchers suggest that dentists may want to give propofol during in-office surgery. Full text of the article “Recovery Profile and Patient Satisfaction After Ambulatory Anesthesia for Dental Treatment—A Crossover Comparison Between Propofol and Sevoflurane,” Anesthesia Progress, Vol. 63, No. 4, 2016, is now available at http://www.anesthesiaprogress.org/doi/full/10.2344/15-00012.1. About Anesthesia Progress Anesthesia Progress is the official publication of the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology (ADSA). The quarterly journal is dedicated to providing a better understanding of the advances being made in the science of pain and anxiety control in dentistry. The journal invites submissions of review articles, reports on clinical techniques, case reports, and conference summaries. To learn more about the ADSA, visit http://www.adsahome.org/.