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Hayashi K.,Tokushima University | Nakamura M.,Tokushima University | Miki H.,Tokushima University | Ozaki S.,Tokushima Prefectural Central Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2014

Physical therapies including photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) can be effective against diseases that are resistant to chemotherapy and remain as incurable malignancies (for example, multiple myeloma). In this study, to enhance the treatment efficacy for multiple myeloma using the synergetic effect brought about by combining PDT and PTT, iodinated silica/porphyrin hybrid nanoparticles (ISP HNPs) with high photostability are developed. They can generate both 1O2 and heat with irradiation from a light-emitting diode (LED), acting as photosensitizers for PDT/PTT combination treatment. ISP HNPs exhibit the external heavy atom effect, which significantly improves both the quantum yield for 1O 2 generation and the light-to-heat conversion efficiency. The in vivo fluorescence imaging demonstrates that ISP HNPs, modified with folic acid and polyethylene glycol (FA-PEG-ISP HNPs), locally accumulate in the tumor after 18 h of their intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice. The LED irradiation on the tumor area of the mice injected with FA-PEG-ISP HNPs causes necrosis of the tumor tissues, resulting in the inhibition of tumor growth and an improvement in the survival rate. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Nakamura M.,Tokushima University | Hayashi K.,Tokushima University | Hayashi K.,EcoTopia Science Institute | Nakano M.,Tokushima University | And 4 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2015

An in vitro imaging system to evaluate the stealth function of nanoparticles against mouse macrophages was established using fluorescent organosilica nanoparticles. Surface-functionalized organosilica nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol (PEG) were prepared by a one-step process, resulting in a brush-type PEG layer. A simultaneous dual-particle administration approach enabled us to evaluate the stealth function of nanoparticles with respect to single cells using time-lapse fluorescent microscopic imaging and flow cytometry analyses. Single-cell imaging and analysis revealed various patterns and kinetics of bare and PEGylated nanoparticle uptake. The PEGylated nanoparticles revealed a stealth function against most macrophages (PEG-sensitive macrophages); however, a stealth function against certain macrophages (PEG-insensitive macrophages) was not observed. We identified and characterized the PEG-resistant macrophages that could take up PEGylated nanoparticles at the same level as bare nanoparticles. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Tanemura Y.,Tokushima University | Yamanaka-Okumura H.,Tokushima University | Sakuma M.,Tokushima University | Nii Y.,Tokushima Prefectural Industrial Technology Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Investigation | Year: 2014

Long-term suppression of postprandial glucose concentration is an important dietary strategy for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Because previous reports have suggested that seaweed may exert anti-diabetic effects in animals, the effects of Wakame or Mekabu intake with 200 g white rice, 50 g boiled soybeans, 60 g potatoes, and 40 g broccoli on postprandial glucose, insulin and free fatty acid levels were investigated in healthy subjects. Plasma glucose levels at 30 min and glucose area under the curve (AUC) at 0-30 min after the Mekabu meal were significantly lower than that after the control meal. Plasma glucose and glucose AUC were not different between the Wakame and control meals. Postprandial serum insulin and its AUC and free fatty acid concentration were not different among the three meals. In addition, fullness, satisfaction, and wellness scores were not different among the three meals. Thus, consumption of 70 g Mekabu with a white rice-based breakfast reduces postprandial glucose concentration. © 2014 by The University of Tokushima Faculty of Medicine.

Higaino T.,Keio University | Aoyama T.,Keio University | Ogawa H.,Tokushima Prefectural Industrial Technology Center
Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Leading Edge Manufacturing in 21st Century, LEM 2015 | Year: 2015

The problems associated with machining CFRTP (carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics) are short tool life and burrs. In this study, side milling tests are carried out dry and with two types of coolants liquefied carbon dioxide (LCO2) and liquefied nitrogen (LN2). The workpiece material is a composite material made of carbon fibers and polyetheretherketon (CF/PEEK) Cutting force, surface integrity and tool wear are evaluated, and the elastic modulus of the CF/PEEK is examined. The use of liquefied nitrogen as a coolant suppresses burrs effectively. There is no significant difference in tool wear between the dry and cryogenic conditions. The finished surface roughness increases with the cutting length, and milling with liquefied nitrogen shows the highest surface roughness. The elastic modulus of CF/PEEK under cryogenic condition is higher than that at room temperature.

Hayashi K.,Tokushima University | Nakamura M.,Tokushima University | Sakamoto W.,EcoTopia Science Institute | Yogo T.,EcoTopia Science Institute | And 2 more authors.
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2011

Conifer foliage-like rutile TiO2 nanoparticles (CFR NPs), spherical anatase TiO2 NPs (SA NPs), and a mixture of CFR and SA NPs were synthesized in aqueous solution at low temperature. Furthermore, sea urchin-like nanostructures combining SA and CFR NPs, which were designated as anatase/rutile nanostructures (A/R NSs), were produced through the self-assembly of jack bean urease (JBU). The specific surface area of the A/R NSs was considerably larger than those of the CFR NPs, SA NPs, and commercial TiO 2 (P25). In addition, the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) yielded from the A/R NSs was significantly higher than that yielded from CFR NPs, SA NPs, and P25 because of the large surface area of the A/R NSs and a synergistic effect caused by the integration of anatase and rutile phases. The A/R NSs showed no cytotoxicity at concentrations <100 μg/mL, although CFR NPs, SA NPs, and P25 were cytotoxic, probably because of their size and shape. Using the high surface area and the superior photocatalytic activity of the A/R NSs, macrophages were effectively destroyed by UV irradiation for the purpose of treating atherosclerosis. Macrophages were killed more effectively by the A/R NSs than P25. Furthermore, different mechanisms of cell destruction resulting from UV irradiation, A/R NSs, and a combination of both were investigated. The death of cells treated with A/R NSs and exposed to UV irradiation was induced primarily by apoptosis rather than necrosis; cells that were not treated with the NSs died mainly from necrosis. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

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