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Tokushima, Japan

Tokushima Bunri University is a private university in Tokushima, Japan. Wikipedia.

Fujiki H.,Tokushima Bunri University | Suganuma M.,Research Institute for Clinical Oncology
Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

Microcystin-LR and nodularin, along with okadaic acid, are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A). The mechanisms of action of microcystin-LR and nodularin in the liver and that of okadaic acid, a potent tumor promoter on mouse skin, have attracted the attention of the scientists. This paper reviews several topics: new inhibitors of PP1 and PP2A with new chemical structures, structure-function relationships for both receptor binding and inhibition of protein phosphatases, the crystal structure of PP1 or PP2A - toxin complex, induction of gene expression and apoptosis. These subjects were studied by using in vitro and in vivo experimental systems. Two-stage carcinogenesis experiments with microcystin-LR and nodularin for the first time demonstrated that microcystin-LR is a new tumor promoter in rat liver initiated with diethylnitrosamine (DEN), and that nodularin is a potent tumor promoter associated with weak initiating activity in rat liver initiated with DEN. A working group of WHO (IARC) concluded that microcystin-LR is "possibly carcinogenic to humans and that nodularin is "not classifiable as to carcinogenicity". Our studies revealed that chemical tumor promoters are inducers of TNF-α in the cells of target tissues and that TNF-α is an endogenous tumor promoter. This advance in carcinogenesis made it possible to look for the link between chemical tumor promoters and endogenous tumor promoters, such as TNF-α and IL-1. The carcinogenic features of TNF-α are described in this review, and the TNF-α inducing protein (Tipα) of Helicobacter pylori genome is presented as an example of a tumor promoter of human stomach cancer development. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Suzuki M.,Tokushima Bunri University
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2012

DNA is constantly exposed to endogenous and exogenous oxidative stresses. Damaged DNA can cause mutations, which may increase the risk of developing cancer and other diseases. G:C-C:G transversions are caused by various oxidative stresses. 2,2,4-Triamino-5(2H)-oxazolone (Oz), guanidinohydantoin (Gh)/iminoallantoin (Ia) and spiro-imino-dihydantoin (Sp) are known products of oxidative guanine damage. These damaged bases can base pair with guanine and cause G:C-C:G transversions. In this study, the stabilization energies of these bases paired with guanine were calculated in vacuo and in water. The calculated stabilization energies of the Ia:G base pairs were similar to that of the native C:G base pair, and both bases pairs have three hydrogen bonds. By contrast, the calculated stabilization energies of Gh:G, which form two hydrogen bonds, were lower than the Ia:G base pairs, suggesting that the stabilization energy depends on the number of hydrogen bonds. In addition, the Sp:G base pairs were less stable than the Ia:G base pairs. Furthermore, calculations showed that the Oz:G base pairs were less stable than the Ia:G, Gh:G and Sp:G base pairs, even though experimental results showed that incorporation of guanine opposite Oz is more efficient than that opposite Gh/Ia and Sp.

Minesaki Y.,Tokushima Bunri University
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2013

We propose an accurate orbital integration scheme for the general three-body problem that retains all conserved quantities except angular momentum. The scheme is provided by an extension of the d'Alembert-type scheme for constrained autonomous Hamiltonian systems. Although the proposed scheme is merely second-order accurate, it can precisely reproduce some periodic, quasiperiodic, and escape orbits. The Levi-Civita transformation plays a role in designing the scheme. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Minesaki Y.,Tokushima Bunri University
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2013

There is no known integrator that yields exact orbits for the general three-body problem (G3BP). It is difficult to verify whether a numerical procedure yields the correct solutions to the G3BP because doing so requires knowledge of all 11 conserved quantities, whereas only six are known. Without tracking all of the conserved quantities, it is possible to show that the discrete general three-body problem (d-G3BP) yields the correct orbits corresponding to Lagrange solutions of the G3BP. We show that the d-G3BP yields the correct solutions to the G3BP for two special cases: the equilateral triangle and collinear configurations. For the triangular solution, we use the fact that the solution to the three-body case is a superposition of the solutions to the three two-body cases, and we show that the three bodies maintain the same relative distances at all times. To obtain the collinear solution, we assume a specific permutation of the three bodies arranged along a straight rotating line, and we show that the d-G3BP maintains the same distance ratio between two bodies as in the G3BP. Proving that the d-G3BP solutions for these cases are equivalent to those of the G3BP makes it likely that the d-G3BP and G3BP solutions are equivalent in other cases. To our knowledge, this is the first work that proves the equivalence of the discrete solutions and the Lagrange orbits. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

For the restricted three-body problem, we propose an accurate orbital integration scheme that retains all conserved quantities of the two-body problem with two primaries and approximately preserves the Jacobi integral. The scheme is obtained by taking the limit as mass approaches zero in the discrete-time general three-body problem. For a long time interval, the proposed scheme precisely reproduces various periodic orbits that cannot be accurately computed by other generic integrators. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.

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