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Jiayi Shi, Taiwan

Specific primers play an important role in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments, and therefore it is essential to find specific primers of outstanding quality. Unfortunately, many PCR constraints must be simultaneously inspected which makes specific primer selection difficult and time-consuming. This paper introduces a novel computational intelligence-based method, Teaching-Learning-Based Optimisation, to select the specific and feasible primers. The specified PCR product lengths of 150- 300 bp and 500-800 bp with three melting temperature formulae of Wallace's formula, Bolton and McCarthy's formula and SantaLucia's formula were performed. The authors calculate optimal frequency to estimate the quality of primer selection based on a total of 500 runs for 50 random nucleotide sequences of 'Homo species' retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The method was then fairly compared with the genetic algorithm (GA) and memetic algorithm (MA) for primer selection in the literature. The results show that the method easily found suitable primers corresponding with the setting primer constraints and had preferable performance than the GA and the MA. Furthermore, the method was also compared with the common method Primer3 according to their method type, primers presentation, parameters setting, speed and memory usage. In conclusion, it is an interesting primer selection method and a valuable tool for automatic high-throughput analysis. In the future, the usage of the primers in the wet lab needs to be validated carefully to increase the reliability of the method. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2014. Source

This paper employed two classical, popular decision-tree algorithms (C5. 0 and CART), and traditional Regression to deal with reservoir operations regarding decision of the releases from a reservoir system during floods. The experiment site was in Shihmen Reservoir, located in northern Taiwan. In a typical single-peak typhoon, the rules derived include two operational stages, the stage before peakflow (Stage I) and the stage after peakflow (Stage II). This study collected 50 typhoons (1987-2009). Four cases are designed, that are discretized class labels (target fields) are run by C5. 0 and CART (i. e., Cases 1 and 2, respectively), while numeric class labels are run by CART and Regression (i. e., Cases 3 and 4, respectively). The criteria of root mean square error (RMSE), coefficient of efficiency (CE), and relative error of peak discharge (EQ p) were used to evaluate the forecasts. Results showed that the decision trees are skillful in the prediction of reservoir releases in the studied site. Furthermore, it was found that CART regression trees with numeric targets are more appropriate and precise than C5. 0 classification trees and Regression for the prediction of releases. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

The forecast of precipitations during typhoons has received much attention in recent years. It is important in meteorology and atmospheric sciences. Hence, the study on precipitation nowcast during typhoons is of great significance to operators of a reservoir system. This study developed an improved neural network that combines the principal component analysis (PCA) technique and the radial basis function (RBF) network. The developed methodology was employed to establish the quantitative precipitation forecast model for the watershed of the Shihmen Reservoir in northern Taiwan. The results obtained from RBF, multiple linear regression (MLR), PCA-RBF, and PCA-MLR models included the forecasts of L-ahead (L51, 3, 6) hourly accumulated precipitations. The deducted prediction results were compared in terms of four measures [mean absolute error (MAE), RMSE, coefficient of correlation (CC), and coefficient of efficiency (CE)] and four skill scores [percentage error (PE), area-weighted error score (AWES), bias score (BIAS), and equitable threat score (ETS)]. The results showed that predictions obtained using RBF and PCA-RBF were better than those produced by MLR and PCA-MLR. Although both RBF and PCA-RBF can provide good results on average, the network architecture and the learning speed of the PCA-RBF network are superior to those of the simple RBF network. This is because PCA technique could greatly reduce the input parameters and simplify concurrently the network structure. Consequently, the PCA-RBF neural networks can be regarded as a reliable model for predicting precipitation during typhoons. © 2012 American Meteorological Society. Source

This study presents two support vectormachine (SVM) basedmodels for forecasting hourly precipitation during tropical cyclone (typhoon) events. The two SVM-based models are the traditional Gaussian kernel SVMs (GSVMs) and the advanced wavelet kernel SVMs (WSVMs). A comparison between the fifthgeneration Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) and statistical models, including SVM-based models and linear regressions (regression), was made in terms of performance of rainfall prediction at the Shihmen Reservoir watershed in Taiwan. Data from 73 typhoons affecting the Shihmen Reservoir watershed were included in the analysis. This study designed six attribute combinations with different lag times for the forecast target. The modified RMSE, bias, and estimated threat score (ETS) results were employed to assess the predicted outcomes. Results show that better attribute combinations for typhoon climatologic characteristics and typhoon precipitation predictions occurred at 0-h lag time with modified RMSE values of 0.288, 0.257, and 0.296 in GSVM, WSVM, and the regression, respectively. Moreover, WSVM having average bias and ETS values close to 1.0 gave better predictions than did the GSVM and regression models. In addition, Typhoons Zeb (1998) and Nari (2001) were selected for comparison between the MM5 model output and the developed statistical models. Results showed that the MM5 tended to overestimate the peak and cumulative rainfall amounts while the statistical models were inclined to yield underestimations. © 2012 American Meteorological Society. Source

Tropical cyclones, also known as typhoons or hurricanes, are among the most devastating events in nature and often strike the western North Pacific region (including the Philippines, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, China, and others). This paper focuses on addressing the rainfall retrieval problem for quantitative precipitation forecast during tropical cyclones. In this study, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data and Water Resources Agency (WRA) measurements of Taiwan were used to quantitatively estimate precipitation over the Tanshui River basin in northern Taiwan. Various retrievals for the rainfall rate over land are compared by five methods/techniques. They are the single-channel regression, multichannel linear regressions (MLR), scattering index over land approach (SIL), support vector regression (SVR), and the proposed SIL-SVR. This study collected 70 typhoons affecting the studied watershed over the past 12 years (1997-2008). The measurements of the SSM/I satellite comprise the brightness temperatures at 19.35, 22.23, 37.0, and 85.5 GHz. Overall, the results showed the approaches using the SVR and conjoined SVR and SIL performed better than regression and SIL methods according to their performances of the root-mean-square error (RMSE), bias ratio, and equitable threat score (ETS). © 2012 American Meteorological Society. Source

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