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Funaishikawa, Japan

Tsuburaya A.,Yokohama City University | Yoshida K.,Gifu University | Kobayashi M.,Kochi Medical School | Yoshino S.,Yamaguchi University | And 16 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology

Background: The prognosis for locally advanced gastric cancer is poor despite advances in adjuvant chemotherapy. We did the Stomach cancer Adjuvant Multi-Institutional group Trial (SAMIT) to assess the superiority of sequential treatment (paclitaxel then tegafur and uracil [UFT] or paclitaxel then S-1) compared with monotherapy (UFT or S-1) and also the non-inferiority of UFT compared with S-1. Methods: We did this randomised phase 3 trial with a two-by-two factorial design at 230 hospitals in Japan. We enrolled patients aged 20-80 years with T4a or T4b gastric cancer, who had had D2 dissection and a ECOG performance score of 0-1. Patients were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups with minimisation for tumour size, lymph node metastasis, and study site. Patients received UFT only (267 mg/m2 per day), S-1 only (80 mg/m2 per day) for 14 days, with a 7-day rest period or three courses of intermittent weekly paclitaxel (80 mg/m2) followed by either UFT, or S-1. Treatment lasted 48 weeks in monotherapy groups and 49 weeks in the sequential treatment groups. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival assessed by intention to treat. We assessed whether UFT was non-inferior to S-1 with a non-inferiority margin of 1·33. This trial was registered at UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, number C000000082. Findings: We randomly assigned 1495 patients between Aug 3, 2004, and Sept 29, 2009. 374 patients were assigned to receive UFT alone, 374 to receive S-1 alone, 374 to received paclitaxel then UFT, and 373 to receive paclitaxel then S-1. We included 1433 patients in the primary analysis after at least 3 years of follow-up (359, 364, 355, and 355 in each group respectively). Protocol treatment was completed by 215 (60%) patients in the UFT group, 224 (62%) in the S-1 group, 242 (68%) in the paclitaxel then UFT group, and 250 (70%) in the paclitaxel then S-1 group. 3-year disease-free survival for monotherapy was 54·0% (95% CI 50·2-57·6) and that of sequential treatment was 57·2% (53·4-60·8; hazard ratio [HR] 0·92, 95% CI 0·80-1·07, p=0·273). 3-year disease-free survival for the UFT group was 53·0% (95% CI 49·2-56·6) and that of the S-1 group was 58·2% (54·4-61·8; HR 0·81, 95% CI 0·70-0·93, p=0·0048; pnon-inferiority=0·151). The most common grade 3-4 haematological adverse event was neutropenia (41 [11%] of 359 patients in the UFT group, 48 [13%] of 363 in the S-1 group, 46 [13%] of 355 in the paclitaxel then UFT group, and 83 [23%] of 356 in the paclitaxel then S-1 group). The most common grade 3-4 non-haematological adverse event was anorexia (21 [6%], 24 [7%], seven [2%], and 18 [5%], respectively). Interpretation: Sequential treatment did not improve disease-free survival, and UFT was not non-inferior to S-1 (and S-1 was superior to UFT), therefore S-1 monotherapy should remain the standard treatment for locally advanced gastric cancer in Japan. Funding: Epidemiological and Clinical Research Information Network. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kono T.,Advanced Surgery Center | Hata T.,Osaka University | Morita S.,Yokohama City University | Munemoto Y.,Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology

Purpose: Oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (OPN) is frequent and potentially severe, but successful treatment of this condition is still an unmet clinical need. We aimed to determine whether treatment with goshajinkigan (TJ-107), a traditional Japanese medicine, is better than placebo in preventing OPN in patients with advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer patients treated with standard FOLFOX regimens. Methods: In this phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients undergoing oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy were randomized to receive either oral TJ-107 (7.5 g) or matching placebo daily. The severity of OPN was assessed according to the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events at baseline, every 2 weeks until the 8th cycle, and every 4 weeks thereafter until the 26th week. The primary endpoint was the incidence of grade 2 or greater OPN until the 8th cycle of chemotherapy. Results: Analyses were done by intention to treat. Eighty-nine patients were randomly assigned to receive either TJ-107 (n = 44) or placebo (n = 45) between May 2009 and March 2010. The incidence of grade 2 or greater OPN until the 8th cycle was 39 and 51 % in the TJ-107 and placebo groups, respectively (relative risk (RR), 0.76; 95 % CI, 0.47-1.21). The incidence of grade 3 OPN was 7 % (TJ-107) vs. 13 % (placebo) (0.51, 0.14-1.92). No concerns regarding toxicity emerged with TJ-107 treatment. Conclusions: TJ-107 appears to have an acceptable safety margin and a promising effect in delaying the onset of grade 2 or greater OPN without impairing FOLFOX efficacy. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

Paoletti X.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Oba K.,Hokkaido University | Bang Y.-J.,Seoul National University | Bleiberg H.,Jules Bordet Hospital | And 20 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute

The traditional endpoint for assessing efficacy of chemotherapies for advanced/ recurrent gastric cancer is overall survival (OS), but OS requires prolonged follow-up. We investigated whether progression-free survival (PFS) is a valid surrogate for OS. Using individual patient data from the GASTRIC meta-analysis, surrogacy of PFS was assessed through the correlation between the endpoints and through the correlation between the treatment effects on the endpoints. External validation of the prediction based on PFS was also evaluated. Individual data from 4069 patients in 20 randomized trials were analyzed. The rank correlation coefficient between PFS and OS was 0.853 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.852 to 0.854). The R2 between treatment effects on PFS and on OS was 0.61 (95% CI = 0.04 to 1.00). Treatment effects on PFS and on OS were only moderately correlated, and we could not confirm the validity of PFS as a surrogate endpoint for OS in advanced/recurrent gastric cancer. © The Author 2013. Source

Oba K.,Hokkaido University | Paoletti X.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Alberts S.,Mayo Medical School | Bang Y.-J.,Seoul National University | And 17 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute

Background In investigations of the effectiveness of surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancers, overall survival (OS) is considered the gold standard endpoint. However, the disadvantage of using OS as the endpoint is that it requires an extended follow-up period. We sought to investigate whether disease-free survival (DFS) is a valid surrogate for OS in trials of adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer. Methods The GASTRIC group initiated a meta-analysis of individual patient data collected in randomized clinical trials comparing adjuvant chemotherapy vs surgery alone for patients with curatively resected gastric cancer. Surrogacy of DFS was assessed through the correlation between the endpoints as well as through the correlation between the treatment effects on the endpoints. External validation of the prediction based on DFS was also evaluated. Results Individual patient data from 14 randomized clinical trials that included a total of 3288 patients were analyzed. The rank correlation coefficient between DFS and OS was 0.974 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.971 to 0.976). The coefficient of determination between the treatment effects on DFS and on OS was as high as 0.964 (95% CI = 0.926 to 1.000), and the surrogate threshold effect based on adjusted regression analysis was 0.92. In external validation, the six hazard ratios for OS predicted according to DFS were in very good agreement with those actually observed for OS. Conclusions DFS is an acceptable surrogate for OS in trials of cytotoxic agents for gastric cancer in the adjuvant setting. © The Author 2013. Source

Tsuburaya A.,Kanagawa Cancer Center | Nagata N.,Kitakyushu General Hospital | Cho H.,Kanagawa Cancer Center | Hirabayashi N.,Hiroshima City Asa Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology

Purpose: Paclitaxel-cisplatin (TC) combination is effective and well tolerated in patients with unresectable gastric cancer. We investigated the efficacy and safety of TC for locally advanced gastric cancers in a neoadjuvant setting. Methods: Patients received 2-4 courses of paclitaxel (80 mg/m 2) and cisplatin (25 mg/m2) on days 1, 8, and 15 in a 4-weekly schedule, followed by radical gastrectomy. Primary endpoint was the pathological response rate: percentage of tumors in which one-third or more parts were affected. Results: All 52 patients enrolled were eligible. Thirty-six (69.7 %) patients completed two or more courses of chemotherapy. Forty-three patients (82.7 %) underwent surgery, 33 (63.5 %) had R0 resection, and there was no treatment-related death. The pathological response was 34.6 % (95 % CI 22.0-49.1) for all registered patients; the null hypothesis of tumor response ≤10 % was rejected (p < 0.0001). The 3-year overall survival was 41.5 % (95 % CI 27.4-55.0). Conclusions: The neoadjuvant chemotherapy with TC was safe and effective for patients with locally advanced gastric cancer, and further study is needed to confirm the effectiveness of this regimen. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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