Suzuki H.,Toholcu University |
Saito M.,Sapporo City University |
Yoshino H.,Toholcu University
Journal of Environmental Engineering | Year: 2011
A field survey on the living room temperature in terms of residential building types, heating space and operation throughout Hokkaido has been done in 2008 winter. The 879 residential buildings responded to the questionnaire on the types of their building, heating equipments, heating space, operations and clothing style. In addition, they measured their living room air temperature for seven days by liquid crystal thermometer card. Followings are results; 1) Average room air temperature throughout Hokkaido is 20.9 C . 2) Central heating systems are installed in 3O0o of all. In the other houses only the living room was heated with convectors. The room air temperature of the central heating and living room heating is 21.6 C and 20.8 C respectively. 3) For heating operation, ratio of houses with all-day heating is about 3O0o and that with intermittent heating is about 7O0o. The room air temperature of two groups is 21.5 C and 20.7 C respectively. 4) The room air temperature with the convection heating systems is 1 C lower than that with the radiation heating systems. 5) The mean occupant's clothing value in their living room is 0.6 do for male and 1.0 do for female. 6) According to the multi-variate analysis, it is found that the factors such as age and family size affect the living room air temperature.
Ishikawa N.,Toholcu University |
Mihashi H.,Toholcu University
Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering | Year: 2011
In this study, influence of composite materials and mix proportions on the fresh properties Lmd the mechanical ones of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites (HFRCC) was experimentally investigated. Then, the influence was Lmalyzed by applying the excess paste thickness theory proposed by Keimedy in 1940 Lmd formulated as frmnctions of domixumt factors. Results of the experiment Lmd the Lmalysis revealed the following matters: 1. The relative yield value Lmd the relative plastic viscosity of HERCC (yield value Lmd plastic viscosity of HERCC normalized by those of paste) decreased as the fiber volume content increased, Lmd influenced by the geometry of contained steel fiber. Though it could not be quLmtified only by the excess paste thickness, the influence of sLmd-binder ratio, admixtures, volume content of each fiber Lmd the geometry of the steel fiber on fresh properties Lmd mechanical ones of HERCC could be quLmtifled by introducing modified excess paste thickness. However, it was not possible to apply it to express the influence of different water binder ratio. 2. The value of ductility index obtained by three point bending test increased as the fiber volume content Lmd the aspect ratio of the steel fiber increased. By introducing modified excess paste thickness, the influence of sLmd binder ratio, water binder ratio, fiber volume content Lmd aspect ratio of the steel fiber on the value of ductility index of HFRCC could be quLmtified. However, it was not possible to apply it to express the influence of different admixtures.