Tohoku University , Tōhoku daigaku), abbreviated to Tohokudai , located in Sendai, Miyagi in the Tōhoku Region, Japan, is a Japanese national university. It is the third oldest Imperial University in Japan and among the National Seven Universities. It is considered as one of the most prestigious universities in Japan, and one of the top fifty universities in the world.In 2009, Tohoku University had ten colleges within the university, including fifteen departments with graduate students, with a total enrollment of 17,949 students. The university's three core values are "Research First ," "Open-Door ," and "Practice-Oriented Research and Education ." Wikipedia.
Harada R.,Tohoku University
European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging | Year: 2013
Extensive deposition of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although several PET imaging agents have been developed for in vivo detection of senile plaques, no PET probe is currently available for selective detection of neurofibrillary tangles in the living human brain. Recently, [(18)F]THK-523 was developed as a potential in vivo imaging probe for tau pathology. The purpose of this study was to compare the binding properties of [(18)F]THK-523 and other amyloid imaging agents, including PiB, BF-227 and FDDNP, to synthetic protein fibrils and human brain tissue. In vitro radioligand binding assays were conducted using synthetic amyloid β(42) and K18ΔK280-tau fibrils. Nonspecific binding was determined by the addition of unlabelled compounds at a concentration of 2 μM. To examine radioligand binding to neuropathological lesions, in vitro autoradiography was conducted using sections of AD brain. [(18)F]THK-523 showed higher affinity for tau fibrils than for Aβ fibrils, whereas the other probes showed a higher affinity for Aβ fibrils. The autoradiographic analysis indicated that [(18)F]THK-523 accumulated in the regions containing a high density of tau protein deposits. Conversely, PiB and BF-227 accumulated in the regions containing a high density of Aβ plaques. These findings suggest that the unique binding profile of [(18)F]THK-523 can be used to identify tau deposits in AD brain.
McCann E.,Lancaster University |
Koshino M.,Tohoku University
Reports on Progress in Physics | Year: 2013
We review the electronic properties of bilayer graphene, beginning with a description of the tight-binding model of bilayer graphene and the derivation of the effective Hamiltonian describing massive chiral quasiparticles in two parabolic bands at low energies. We take into account five tight-binding parameters of the Slonczewski-Weiss-McClure model of bulk graphite plus intra- and interlayer asymmetry between atomic sites which induce band gaps in the low-energy spectrum. The Hartree model of screening and band-gap opening due to interlayer asymmetry in the presence of external gates is presented. The tight-binding model is used to describe optical and transport properties including the integer quantum Hall effect, and we also discuss orbital magnetism, phonons and the influence of strain on electronic properties. We conclude with an overview of electronic interaction effects. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Hayashi M.,Tohoku University
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2011
We derive a new upper bound for Eve's information in secret key generation from a common random number without communication. This bound improves on Bennett 's bound based on the Rényi entropy of order 2 because the bound obtained here uses the Rényi entropy of order 1+s for s ∈ [0,1]. This bound is applied to a wire-tap channel. Then, we derive an exponential upper bound for Eve's information. Our exponent is compared with Hayashi 's exponent. For the additive case, the bound obtained here is better. The result is applied to secret key agreement by public discussion. © 2011 IEEE.
Inada T.,Tohoku University
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms | Year: 2013
RNA processing is an essential gene expression step and plays a crucial role to achieve diversity of gene products in eukaryotes. Various aberrant mRNAs transiently produced during RNA processing reactions are recognized and eliminated by specific quality control systems. It has been demonstrated that these mRNA quality control systems stimulate the degradation of aberrant mRNA to prevent the potentially harmful products derived from aberrant mRNAs. Recent studies on quality control systems induced by abnormal translation elongation and termination have revealed that both aberrant mRNAs and proteins are subjected to rapid degradation. In NonStop Decay (NSD) quality control system, a poly(A) tail of nonstop mRNA is translated and the synthesis of poly-lysine sequence results in translation arrest followed by co-translational degradation of aberrant nonstop protein. In No-Go Decay (NGD) quality control system, the specific amino acid sequences of the nascent polypeptide induce ribosome stalling, and the arrest products are ubiquitinated and rapidly degraded by the proteasome. In Nonfunctional rRNA Decay (NRD) quality control system, aberrant ribosomes composed of nonfunctional ribosomal RNAs are also eliminated when aberrant translation elongation complexes are formed on mRNA. I describe recent progresses on the mechanisms of quality control systems and the relationships between quality control systems. This article is part of a Special issue entitled: RNA Decay mechanisms. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Fukuda M.,Tohoku University
Traffic | Year: 2013
Rab27, a member of the small GTPase Rab family, is widely conserved in metazoan, and two Rab27 isoforms, Rab27A and Rab27B, are present in vertebrates. Rab27A was the first Rab protein whose dysfunction was found to cause a human hereditary disease, type 2 Griscelli syndrome, which is characterized by silvery hair and immunodeficiency. The discovery in the 21st century of three distinct types of mammalian Rab27A effectors [synaptotagmin-like protein (Slp), Slp homologue lacking C2 domains (Slac2), and Munc13-4] that specifically bind active Rab27A has greatly accelerated our understanding not only of the molecular mechanisms of Rab27Amediated membrane traffic (e.g. melanosome transport and regulated secretion) but of the symptoms of Griscelli syndrome patients at the molecular level. Because Rab27B is widely expressed in various tissues together with Rab27A and has been found to have the ability to bind all of the Rab27A effectors that have been tested, Rab27A and Rab27B were initially thought to function redundantly by sharing common Rab27 effectors. However, recent evidence has indicated that by interacting with different Rab27 effectors Rab27A and Rab27B play different roles in special types of secretion (e.g. exosome secretion and mast cell secretion) even within the same cell type. In this review article, I describe the current state of our understanding of the functions of Rab27 effectors in secretory pathways. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.