Sendai, Japan
Sendai, Japan

Tohoku University , Tōhoku daigaku), abbreviated to Tohokudai , located in Sendai, Miyagi in the Tōhoku Region, Japan, is a Japanese national university. It is the third oldest Imperial University in Japan and among the National Seven Universities. It is considered as one of the most prestigious universities in Japan, and one of the top fifty universities in the world.In 2009, Tohoku University had ten colleges within the university, including fifteen departments with graduate students, with a total enrollment of 17,949 students. The university's three core values are "Research First ," "Open-Door ," and "Practice-Oriented Research and Education ." Wikipedia.


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Patent
Tohoku University | Date: 2014-12-17

A jet stream generating device that generates a jet stream of liquid includes: a cylindrical liquid chamber; a nozzle configured to open an end part of the liquid chamber and inject liquid F in the liquid chamber to outside; a liquid supply path configured to supply liquid F into the liquid chamber; a laser beam irradiation part configured to irradiate a pulse laser beam into the liquid chamber, and vaporize the liquid F in the liquid chamber; and a laser oscillator configured to control laser beam intensity and laser beam pulse width independently. An inner surface of the liquid chamber has a mirror plane for reflecting and guiding the pulse laser beam emitted from the laser beam irradiation part to the end part of the liquid chamber, and an adjusting part configured to adjust a distance between the nozzle and the laser beam irradiation part is included.


A living body state estimation apparatus acquires information indicating a state of a living body. The living body state estimation apparatus is configured to include an electrocardiogram signal acquisition unit which acquires an electrocardiogram signal of the living body and an information acquisition unit which acquires a parameter as the information, the parameter specifying a predetermined function indicating a probability distribution for a reference wave interval which is a time interval between peaks of consecutive predetermined reference waves in the acquired electrocardiogram signal.


Patent
Sumitomo Rubber Industries Ltd. and Tohoku University | Date: 2014-12-16

The present invention provides an effective method for fractionating rubber particles in natural rubber latex by particle size, and effective methods for transporting or preserving rubber particles. The present invention relates to a method for fractionating rubber particles in natural rubber latex by particle size, the method including centrifuging natural rubber latex in at least four stages at forces of 800 to 3,000g, 6,500 to 10,000g, 17,000 to 22,000g, and 40,000 to 60,000g to fractionate rubber particles. The present invention also relates to methods for transporting or preserving rubber particles, the methods including the steps of adding a buffer solution and an antioxidant to natural rubber latex or rubber particles fractionated from natural rubber latex; and freezing a mixture prepared in the above step.


Patent
Tohoku University | Date: 2014-12-01

A method for producing a bone regeneration material containing an octacalcium phosphate-gelatin complex, the method including: co-precipitating octacalcium phosphate with gelatin to produce an octacalcium phosphate-gelatin co-precipitate; washing the co-precipitate with a washing liquid to remove gelatin from the co-precipitate, thereby obtaining an octacalcium phosphate slurry; dispersing the octacalcium phosphate slurry or dry granules formed using the slurry in an aqueous gelatin solution; and drying the dispersion of octacalcium phosphate dispersed in the aqueous gelatin solution to produce an octacalcium phosphate-gelatin complex.


Provided is a method for producing a polyisoprenoid, which can increase natural rubber production by enhancing the rubber synthesis activity of rubber particles. The present invention provides methods for producing a polyisoprenoid using a gene coding for a cis-prenyltransferase (CPT) family protein, a gene coding for a Nogo-B receptor (NgBR) family protein and a gene coding for a rubber elongation factor (REF) family protein, specifically a method for producing a polyisoprenoid in vitro using rubber particles bound to proteins coded for by these genes, and a method for producing a polyisoprenoid in vivo using a recombinant organism (plant) having these genes introduced therein.


Patent
NEC Corp and Tohoku University | Date: 2016-11-14

A thermoelectric conversion apparatus includes a substrate, and a power generation part formed on the substrate for generating a thermoelectric power. The power generation part includes a magnetic layer with magnetization and an electrode layer including a material exhibiting a spin-orbit interaction and formed on the magnetic layer. The substrate and the power generation part have flexibility, respectively. The thermoelectric conversion apparatus further includes a cover layer having flexibility and formed on the substrate so as to cover at least the power generation part. The thermoelectric conversion apparatus further includes a cylindrical member having a cylindrical shape. The substrate, the power generation part, and the cover layer are arranged outside of the cylindrical member so that a magnetization direction of the magnetic layer of the power generation part is aligned with an axial direction of the cylindrical member.


Patent
Tohoku University and Hokkaido University | Date: 2015-05-08

An excitation light source emits excitation light to a target sample. An image sensor includes pixels arranged one-dimensionally or two-dimensionally, and receives measurement light from the sample according to the excitation light. A polarization selector arranged between the sample and image sensor includes pixels arranged one-dimensionally or two-dimensionally. Each pixel receives a corresponding portion of the measurement light, selects light having a polarization direction that corresponds to a driving signal applied to the pixels, and supplies this light to the image sensor. A measurement control unit supplies the cyclic driving signal having a first period T_(1 )and acquires data I_(1), I_(2), I_(3), and I_(4 )from each pixel of the image sensor for each exposure time segment T_(2)=T_(1)/4 obtained by dividing the first period T_(1 )by 4.


Patent
Tohoku University | Date: 2015-03-31

A primary object of the present invention is to provide a method for conveniently and accurately testing for pulmonary hypertension. To achieve this object, the present invention provides a method for testing for pulmonary hypertension using as an indicator the concentration of selenoprotein P protein in a sample derived from a subject.


Patent
Tohoku University and IHI Corporation | Date: 2016-11-09

Provided is a combustion experiment device, which includes a reaction tube into which a sample fluid flows and to which a temperature gradient in which a temperature rises toward a downstream side is imparted, and a burner part that is configured to flow a combustible gas along and around the reaction tube from the downstream side to an upstream side of the reaction tube and to maintain a flame surrounding the reaction tube from the outside in a radial direction of the reaction tube.


Patent
Osg Corporation and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-11-26

Provided are: a hard lubricating coating film which is hard and has wear resistance; and a hard lubricating coating film-covered tool. A hard coating film (10), which is hard and has wear resistance, and an end mill (12) can be obtained by alternately forming two or more (CraMobWcVdBe)1-x-yCxNy layers A (22) and two or more (CraMobWcVdBe)1-x-y-zCxNyOz layers B (24) by controlling the composition ratios of Cr, Mo, W, V and B and various reaction gases during the film formation, or alternatively by controlling only the various reaction gases during the film formation. In this connection, the atomic ratios a-e, y and (x+y) of the layers A (22) are within predetermined ranges; the atomic ratios a-e, x, y, z and (x+y+z) of the layers B (24) are within predetermined ranges; the film thickness (D1) of the layers A (22) is within the range from 2 nm to 1,000 nm (inclusive); the film thickness (D2) of the layers B (24) is within the range from 2 nm to 500 nm (inclusive); and the total film thickness (D) is within the range from 0.1 m to 10.0 m (inclusive).


Patent
Hitachi Ltd. and Tohoku University | Date: 2016-09-12

It is an objective of the invention to provide a quasi-solid state electrolyte that has a well-balanced combination of contact performance with electrode active materials, conductivity, and chemical and structural stability, each at a high level, and an all solid state lithium secondary battery using the quasi-solid state electrolyte. There is provided a quasi-solid state electrolyte comprising: metal oxide particles; and an ionic conductor, the ionic conductor being a mixture of either a glyme or DEME-TFSI and a lithium salt that includes LiFSI, and being carried by the metal oxide particles.


Hayakawa J.,Tohoku University | Muraki K.,Nippon Telegraph and Telephone | Yusa G.,Tohoku University
Nature Nanotechnology | Year: 2013

Electrons in semiconductors usually behave like a gas-as independent particles. However, when confined to two dimensions under a perpendicular magnetic field at low temperatures, they condense into an incompressible quantum liquid. This phenomenon, known as the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) effect1, is a quantum-mechanical manifestation of the macroscopic behaviour of correlated electrons that arises when the Landau-level filling factor is a rational fraction. However, the diverse microscopic interactions responsible for its emergence1,2 have been hidden by its universality and macroscopic nature3-9. Here, we report real-space imaging of FQH liquids, achieved with polarization-sensitive scanning optical microscopy using trions (charged excitons)10-15 as a local probe for electron spin polarization. When the FQH ground state is spin-polarized, the triplet/singlet intensity map exhibits a spatial pattern that mirrors the intrinsic disorder potential, which is interpreted as a mapping of compressible and incompressible electron liquids. In contrast, when FQH ground states with different spin polarization coexist, domain structures with spontaneous quasi-long-range order emerge, which can be reproduced remarkably well from the disorder patterns using a two-dimensional random-field Ising model16. Our results constitute the first reported real-space observation of quantum liquids in a class of broken symmetry state known as the quantum Hall ferromagnet17-25. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Patent
NEC Corp and Tohoku University | Date: 2014-04-16

A thermoelectric conversion apparatus has a substrate 10 and a power generation part 20. The power generation part 20 has a magnetic layer 21 with magnetization and an electrode layer 22 made of a material exhibiting a spin-orbit interaction and formed on the magnetic layer 21. The substrate 10 and the power generation part 20 have flexibility. This thermoelectric conversion apparatus further has a cover layer 90 having flexiblity and formed on the substrate 10 so as to cover at least the power generation part 20.


Patent
Tohoku University and IHI Corporation | Date: 2012-11-28

A fuel property determination method includes a reaction mechanism analysis process (S1) of analyzing elementary reactions that compose chemical reactions between a plurality of types of initial materials including the materials that compose the fuel and obtaining the elementary reactions as fuel elementary reactions, and an octane number determination process (S2) of calculating the combustion characteristics of the fuel by performing a simulation based on the fuel elementary reactions and determining the octane number based on the combustion characteristics of the fuel.


Patent
Tohoku University and NEC Corp | Date: 2013-08-01

Provided is a nonvolatile content addressable memory. Each word circuit includes a plurality of segments having an order relation. Each of the segments includes one or more memory cells. Each of the memory cells includes a nonvolatile storage element. Each of the segments includes a power switch for turning on/off a power of a memory cell of the segment. During stand-by, all the power switches are turned off, and, in search operation, the power switch is turned on as necessary for each of the segments.


Patent
NEC Corp and Tohoku University | Date: 2016-11-16

An alloy composition of Fe_((100-X-Y-Z))B_(X)P_(Y)Cu_(z), where 4 X 14 atomic %, 0 < Y 10 atomic %, and 0.5 Z 2 atomic %. This alloy composition has an amorphous phase as a main phase. This alloy composition is used as a starting material and exposed to a heat-treatment so that nanocrystals comprising no more than 25 nm of bccFe can be crystallized. Thus, an Fe-based nano-crystalline alloy having superior magnetic properties can be obtained.


A biological signal is obtained from a player, under a situation where a biological parameter can be calculated based on a biological signal repeatedly obtained from a sensor attached to a player, and a predetermined game processing can be performed using the biological parameter. Then, whether the sensor is attached to the player is determined based on the biological signal, and the predetermined game processing is performed in at least one of a case where the sensor attachment determining means determines that the sensor has changed from its attached state to its detached state and a case where the sensor attachment determining means determines that the sensor has changed from its detached state to its attached state, according to the timing at which the determinations is made.


Patent
Tohoku University and IHI Corporation | Date: 2013-09-25

In a combustion experimental apparatus to obtain the positions of flames formed inside a tube (1), it is possible to adjust a temperature gradient in a longitudinal direction applied to the tube, by including a temperature-adjusting fluid supply device (2) to cause a temperature-adjusting fluid to flow along the tube.


A new information processing device for presenting information and allowing a user to input sound in relation to the presented information is provided. An information processing device 10 includes: a display section 104 that displays a sentence that is a reading-aloud target; a sound input section 102 to which sound is input; a time measuring section 105 that measures a sound input time in which the sound is input to the sound input section 102; and a test execution section 103 that determines whether or not the reading-aloud target is read aloud based on the sound input time and a silent time after the sound is input to the sound input section.


An information processing apparatus 10 includes a training execution section 15 which executes working memory training, a time measurement section 16 which measures cumulative training time during a given period, and a process execution section 17 which executes a process of encouraging a user to perform the working memory training on the basis of a relationship between the cumulative training time during the given period and a first ideal period of time and/or a process of restricting the user from performing the working memory training on the basis of a relationship between the cumulative training time during the given period and a second ideal period of time.


Patent
Tohoku University, Advanced Power Device Research Association and Tokyo Electron | Date: 2013-12-04

The method for fabricating a semiconductor device is to fabricate a semiconductor device including GaN (gallium nitride) that composes a semiconductor layer and includes a step of forming a gate insulating film. In the step, at least one film selected from the group consisting of a SiO_(2) film and an Al_(2)O_(3) film is formed on a nitride layer containing GaN by using microwave plasma and the formed film is used as at least a part of the gate insulating film.


Patent
Tohoku University and Advanced Power Device Research Association | Date: 2013-07-24

Provided is a method of manufacturing a gallium-nitride-based semiconductor device, comprising forming a first semiconductor layer of a gallium-nitride-based semiconductor; and forming a recessed portion by dry etching a portion of the first semiconductor layer via a microwave plasma process using a bromine-based gas.


Patent
Tohoku University and Advanced Power Device Research Association | Date: 2013-07-24

Provided is a semiconductor device manufacturing method, comprising forming a first sacrificial layer that contacts at least a portion of a first semiconductor layer and has a higher solid solubility for impurities included in the first semiconductor layer than the first semiconductor layer; annealing the first sacrificial layer and the first semiconductor layer; removing the first sacrificial layer through a wet process; after removing the first sacrificial layer, performing at least one of forming an insulating layer that covers at least a portion of the first semiconductor layer and etching a portion of the first semiconductor layer; and forming an electrode layer that is electrically connected to the first semiconductor layer.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-23-2015 | Award Amount: 7.15M | Year: 2016

The demand for lower dependency on critical raw materials (CRM) such as rare earths (RE) is not only a European but a global problem that demands immediate action. The purpose of this project is to exploit advanced theoretical and computation methods together with state-of-the-art materials preparation and characterization techniques, to develop the next generation RE-free/lean permanent magnets (PM). The material design will be driven by automated large computational screening of new and novel intermetallic compounds with uniaxial structure in order to achieve high saturation magnetisation, magnetocrystalline anisotropy and Curie temperature. The simulations will be based on a primary screening detecting the mechanisms that give rise to distorted phases and stabilize them, by adding doping atoms as stabilizers. In a further computation on successfully synthetized compounds, micromagnetic calculations will be used in order to design the optimal microstructure for the given phases that will maximise the coercivity needed for a PM. Extensive experimental processing and characterisation of the selected phases will result in a first proof of principle of the feasibility of NOVAMAG PMs. A multidisciplinary team of magnet experts consisting of chemists, material scientists, physicists and engineers from academia, national labs and industry is assembled to undertake a concerted, systematic and innovative study to overcome the problems involved and develop the next generation RE-free/lean PMs. Currently the demand for these PM s is even higher with the emerging markets of hybrid/electric vehicles and wind mill power systems. The proposed project will provide the fundamental innovations and breakthroughs which will have a major impact in re-establishing the Europe as a leader in the science, technology and commercialization of this very important class of materials and help decrease our dependence on China, which will in turn improve the competitiveness of EU manufacturers.


Patent
NEC Corp and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-09-13

Provided is a magnetic domain wall displacement memory cell, including a recording layer including a magnetic film, the recording layer including: a magnetization reversal region in which magnetization is reversible; and first and second magnetization fixed regions that supply a spin-polarized electron to the magnetization reversal region. The magnetic domain wall displacement memory cell is configured so that a first region in which magnetization reversal occurs due to a first current flowing in a direction parallel to a film surface of the recording layer and a first magnetic field component in the direction parallel to the film surface of the recording layer is formed, and a second region in which no magnetization reversal occurs is formed.


Patent
Advanced Power Device Research Association and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-01-09

A method of producing a semiconductor transistor involving formation of an ohmic electrode on an active layer composed of a GaN-based semiconductor includes a process of forming a first layer 11 composed of tantalum nitride on an active layer 3 and a second layer 12 composed ofAl layered on the first layer 11 and a process of forming ohmic electrodes 9s and 9d in ohmic contact with the active layer 3 by heat treating the first layer 11 and the second layer 12 at a temperature of from 520C to 600C.


An object of the present invention is to provide a low-cost thermoelectric converter element having high productivity and excellent conversion efficiency. A thermoelectric converter element according to the present invention includes a substrate 4, a magnetic film 2 provided on the substrate 4 with a certain magnetization direction A and formed of a polycrystalline magnetically insulating material, and an electrode 3 provided on the magnetic film 2 with a material exhibiting a spin-orbit interaction. When a temperature gradient is applied to the magnetic film 2, a spin current is generated so as to flow from the magnetic film 2 toward the electrode 3. A current I is generated in a direction perpendicular to the magnetization direction A of the magnetic film 2 by the inverse spin Hall effect in the electrode 3.


Patent
Lintec Corporation and Tohoku University | Date: 2014-03-13

Provided are an optical-diffusion film for display which, particularly when applied to a reflective display device, can efficiently diffuse and emit an external light incident from a wide range of angles toward the front of the display device as image display light, and a reflective display device using the optical-diffusion film. Disclosed is an optical-diffusion film for display, which is a single-layered optical-diffusion film obtained by photocuring a composition for optical-diffusion film including two or more kinds of polymerizable compounds having different refractive indices, and in which the film thickness of the optical-diffusion film has a value within the range of 60 to 700 m, and when a coating layer formed by applying a composition for optical-diffusion film in a film form is photocured, and the incident angle of incident light with respect to the normal line of the film plane is varied in the range of 70 to 70 along the travel direction of the coating layer at the time of photocuring, the haze value at each incident angle has a value of 70% or more.


Patent
Tohoku University, Tokyo Electron and Advanced Power Device Research Association | Date: 2012-01-23

A method for fabricating a semiconductor device including GaN (gallium nitride) that composes a semiconductor layer and includes forming a gate insulating film, in which at least one film selected from the group of a SiO_(2 )film and an Al_(2)O_(3 )film is formed on a nitride layer containing GaN by using microwave plasma and the formed film is used as at least a part of the gate insulating film.


Patent
Tohoku University, IHI Corporation and Ihi Inspection And Instrumentation Co. | Date: 2014-01-15

The fuel physical property determination method relating to the first aspect of the present invention includes: a test fuel flame-imaging step of obtaining imaging data by imaging flames formed by supplying a pre-mixed gas containing a test fuel and an oxidant agent, to a test tube in which an internal flow path thereof has a diameter set smaller than a flame-quenching distance at normal temperature; and a physical property determination step of determining a physical property of the test fuel by comparing the imaging data obtained in the test fuel flame-imaging step and imaging data obtained by imaging flames ignited by supplying a pre-mixed gas containing a standard-mixed fuel and an oxidant agent, to the test tube, the standard-mixed fuel having a known physical property.


Patent
Tohoku University, Kake Educational Institution and Kanagawa Prefectural Hospital Organisation Kanagawa Childrens Medical Center | Date: 2015-09-30

The present invention provides an erythropoietin expression-enhancing agent that can cancel the suppression of erythropoietin production or promote erythropoietin production, and a therapeutic or preventive drug for anemia, a liver function-improving agent, an ischemic injury-improving agent, a renal protective agent, and an insulin secretagogue comprising the erythropoietin expression-enhancing agent. The erythropoietin expression-enhancing agent of the present invention comprises one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of compounds represented by the following general formulas (I), (II), and (III) and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof when R^(3) is OH.


Patent
Tohoku University and NEC Corp | Date: 2010-07-20

An alloy composition of Fe_((100-X-Y-Z))B_(X)P_(Y)Cu_(z), where 4X14 atomic %, 0


Patent
Tohoku University, Kake Educational Institution and Kanagawa Prefectural Hospital Organization Kanagawa Chilrdens Medical Center | Date: 2013-11-25

The present invention provides an erythropoietin expression-enhancing agent that can cancel the suppression of erythropoietin production or promote erythropoietin production, and a therapeutic or preventive drug for anemia, a liver function-improving agent, an ischemic injury-improving agent, a renal protective agent, and an insulin secretagogue comprising the erythropoietin expression-enhancing agent. The erythropoietin expression-enhancing agent of the present invention comprises one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of compounds represented by the following general formulas (I), (II), and (III) and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof when R^(3 )is OH.


Patent
Tohoku University and NEC Corp | Date: 2012-05-22

Provided is a thermoelectric conversion element capable of converting both a temperature gradient in an in-plane direction and a temperature gradient in a direction perpendicular to plane into electric power at the same time. The thermoelectric conversion element includes: a substrate; a magnetic film provided on the substrate and formed of a polycrystalline magnetic insulator material that is magnetizable in a predetermined direction having a component parallel to a film surface; and electrodes provided to the magnetic film and made of a material having a spin orbit interaction. The thermoelectric conversion element is configured to be capable of outputting a temperature gradient perpendicular to a surface of the magnetic film as a potential difference in a surface of one of the electrodes and outputting a temperature gradient parallel to the surface of the magnetic film as a potential difference between the electrodes.


Patent
Tohoku University and Advanced Power Device Research Association | Date: 2011-03-02

The semiconductor transistor according the present invention includes an active layer composed of a GaN-based semiconductor and a gate insulating film formed on the active layer. The gate insulating film has a first insulating film including one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of Al_(2)O_(3), HfO_(2), ZrO_(2), La_(2)O_(3), and Y_(2)O_(3 )formed on the active layer, and a second insulating film composed of SiO_(2 )formed on the first insulating film.


Patent
Advanced Power Device Research Association and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-01-09

The semiconductor transistor according the present invention includes an active layer composed of a GaN-based semiconductor and a gate insulating film formed on the active layer. The gate insulating film has a first insulating film including one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of Al_(2)O_(3), HfO_(2), ZrO_(2), La_(2)O_(3), and Y_(2)O_(3) formed on the active layer, and a second insulating film composed of SiO_(2) formed on the first insulating film.


A magnetic element according to the present invention is formed of a layered product having a magnetic insulator film formed on a substrate including a material having no crystal structure. The magnetic insulator film has a columnar crystal structure.


At least an expiratory period during which a user is instructed to take an expiratory action as a respiratory action and an inspiratory period during which the user is instructed to take an inspiratory action as the respiratory action are set. One of enlargement and reduction of a first object is performed during the expiratory period, and the other of the enlargement and the reduction of the first object is performed during the inspiratory period, the first object representing a loop path. During the expiratory period, a second object is caused to move along and complete one full circuit of the path in a time from a beginning to an end of the expiratory period, and during the inspiratory period, the second object is caused to move along and complete one full circuit of the path in a time from a beginning to an end of the inspiratory period.


Patent
Advanced Power Device Research Association and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-12-04

Provided is a method of manufacturing a gallium-nitride-based semiconductor device, comprising forming a first semiconductor layer of a gallium-nitride-based semiconductor; and forming a recessed portion by dry etching a portion of the first semiconductor layer via a microwave plasma process using a bromine-based gas.


Patent
Lintec Corporation and Tohoku University | Date: 2016-03-09

An optical-diffusion film for display which, particularly when applied to a display device using a collimated backlight as a backlight for the display panel, can efficiently diffuse and emit a highly directional light emitted from the collimated backlight toward the front of the display device as image display light, without allowing straight transmission of the highly directional light, and a display device using the optical-diffusion film for display are provided. Disclosed is a single-layered optical-diffusion film having a columnar structure in which plural pillar-shaped objects having a relatively high refractive index are arranged to stand close together in a film thickness direction in a region having a relatively low refractive index, in which the film thickness of the optical-diffusion film has a value within the range of 60 to 700 m, and the haze value obtainable in the case in which light is made incident in the normal line direction of the film plane has a value of 80% or more.


Operation input obtaining means obtains an operation input performed by a player with respect to an input device. Designated position setting means sets a designated position with respect to a virtual game world in accordance with the operation input. Biological signal obtaining means obtains a biological signal from the player. Designated position change means changes the designated position in accordance with the biological signal obtained by the biological signal obtaining means. Game processing means performs a predetermined game process on the basis of the designated position.


Patent
Tohoku University and Advanced Power Device Research Association | Date: 2011-03-02

A method of producing a semiconductor transistor involving formation of an ohmic electrode on an active layer composed of a GaN-based semiconductor includes a process of forming a first layer 11 composed of tantalum nitride on an active layer 3 and a second layer 12 composed of Al layered on the first layer 11 and a process of forming ohmic electrodes 9s and 9d in ohmic contact with the active layer 3 by heat treating the first layer 11 and the second layer 12 at a temperature of from 520 C. to 600 C.


An information processing apparatus (10) includes a training execution section (15) which executes working memory training, a time measurement section (16) which measures cumulative training time during a given period, and a process execution section (17) which executes a process of encouraging a user to perform the working memory training on the basis of a relationship between the cumulative training time during the given period and a first ideal period of time and/or a process of restricting the user from performing the working memory training on the basis of a relationship between the cumulative training time during the given period and a second ideal period of time. The training execution section (15) functions as a display control section (153) which simultaneously provides, for each step of the working memory training, a display for the user to memorize information and a display to output information memorized by the user in a step earlier by steps, the number of which is equal to the number of steps back, an input reception section (151) which receives input provided by the user to output the memorized information, and a determination section (152) which determines whether the information received by the input reception section (151) is correct. The display control section (153) provides displays for a next step if the information is determined to be correct.


Patent
Tohoku University and NEC Corp | Date: 2013-05-15

A nonvolatile logic gate device is configured to include a resistive network of a memory structure in which at least three nonvolatile resistive elements are connected, a reference resistive network as a reference resistance providing a tolerance of the memory structure to a resistance value of the resistive network of the memory structure, a writing part operable to selectively write or rewrite a value of each of the nonvolatile resistive elements in the resistive network into a maximum or a minimum corresponding to a logical value to be read when data are stored into the resistive network, and a logic circuit structure operable to use, as a logical value of the memory structure, a value obtained by comparison between the resistance value of the resistive network and the resistance value of the reference resistive network.


Patent
NEC Corp and Tohoku University | Date: 2016-02-26

An Fe-based nano-crystalline alloy formed from an alloy composition of (FeE)_((100-X-Y-Z))B_(X)P_(Y)Cu_(Z )having an amorphous phase as a main phase, wherein 79100-X-Y-Z86 atomic %, 4X9 atomic %, 1Y10 atomic %, and 0.5Z1.2 atomic %, and wherein (FeE) includes Fe and at least one element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, Cr, Al, Mn, Ag, Zn, Sn, As, Sb, Bi, Y, N, O and a rare-earth element, wherein a combined total of said at least one element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, Cr, Al, Mn, Ag, Zn, Sn, As, Sb, Bi, Y, N, O and a rare-earth element is in an amount of 3 atomic % or less relative to the whole composition.


Patent
Lintec Corporation and Tohoku University | Date: 2014-03-13

An optical-diffusion film for display which, particularly when applied to a display device using a collimated backlight as a backlight for the display panel, can efficiently diffuse and emit a highly directional light emitted from the collimated backlight toward the front of the display device as image display light, without allowing straight transmission of the highly directional light, and a display device using the optical-diffusion film for display are provided. Disclosed is a single layered optical-diffusion film having a columnar structure in which plural pillar-shaped objects having a relatively high refractive index are arranged to stand close together in a film thickness direction in a region having a relatively low refractive index, in which the film thickness of the optical-diffusion film has a value within the range of 60 to 700 m, and the haze value obtainable in the case in which light is made incident in the normal line direction of the film plane has a value of 80% or more.


Patent
Koyoto University and Tohoku University | Date: 2010-08-16

The present invention relates to a sheet for corneal transplants comprising corneal endothelial cells on a gelatin hydrogel, which is obtainable by seeding and culturing corneal endothelial cells on a gelatin hydrogel coated with collagen. The sheet of the present invention is extremely useful as a sheet for corneal transplants not only for its biocompatibility and biodegradability, but also for its high transparency.


Patent
Tohoku University and NEC Corp | Date: 2012-05-22

A thermoelectric conversion apparatus has a substrate and a power generation part. The power generation part has a magnetic layer with magnetization and an electrode layer made of a material exhibiting a spin-orbit interaction and formed on the magnetic layer. The substrate and the power generation part have flexibility. This thermoelectric conversion apparatus further has a cover layer having flexiblity and formed on the substrate so as to cover at least the power generation part.


A delay tolerant network is built with the use of a plurality of information transfer devices each of which includes: a communication unit to communicate to and from another device within a communication range that is connected to the information transfer device; and a storing unit to store and keeps collected notification information, and each of which holds delay tolerant communication by exchanging the collected and kept notification information with another device when the exchange becomes possible. Each information transfer device includes a control unit to exchange environment information with another information transfer device, and to execute deriving processing an assigned range that is assigned autonomously to its own information transfer device, based on the environment information that is kept by its own information transfer device, through a planarization search processing in which a value is evened out between its own information transfer device and other information transfer devices.


Patent
NEC Corp and Tohoku University | Date: 2012-06-13

An alloy composition of Fe_((100-X-Y-Z))B_(X)P_(Y)Cu_(z), where 4 X 14 atomic %, 0 < Y 10 atomic %, and 0.5 Z 2 atomic %. This alloy composition has an amorphous phase as a main phase. This alloy composition is used as a starting material and exposed to a heat-treatment so that nanocrystals comprising no more than 25 nm of bccFe can be crystallized. Thus, an Fe-based nano-crystalline alloy having superior magnetic properties can be obtained.


An object of the present invention is to provide a low-cost thermoelectric converter element having high productivity and excellent conversion efficiency. A thermoelectric converter element according to the present invention includes a substrate 4, a magnetic film 2 provided on the substrate 4 with a certain magnetization direction A and formed of a polycrystalline magnetically insulating material, and an electrode 3 provided on the magnetic film 2 with a material exhibiting a spin-orbit interaction. When a temperature gradient is applied to the magnetic film 2, a spin current is generated so as to flow from the magnetic film 2 toward the electrode 3. A current I is generated in a direction perpendicular to the magnetization direction A of the magnetic film 2 by the inverse spin Hall effect in the electrode 3.


Patent
Sumitomo Electric Industries and Tohoku University | Date: 2015-09-03

A field effect transistor (FET) with a graphene layer as a channel layer is disclosed. The FET provides two gate electrodes, one of which receives the gate bias, while, the other receives a reference bias. An intermediate electrode made of ohmic metal to the graphene layer is provided between the two gate electrodes. The second gate electrode receiving the reference bias suppresses the hole injection into the channel beneath the first gate electrode.


Patent
Advanced Power Device Research Association and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-11-13

Provided is a semiconductor device manufacturing method, comprising forming a first sacrificial layer that contacts at least a portion of a first semiconductor layer and has a higher solid solubility for impurities included in the first semiconductor layer than the first semiconductor layer; annealing the first sacrificial layer and the first semiconductor layer; removing the first sacrificial layer through a wet process; after removing the first sacrificial layer, performing at least one of forming an insulating layer that covers at least a portion of the first semiconductor layer and etching a portion of the first semiconductor layer; and forming an electrode layer that is electrically connected to the first semiconductor layer.


Patent
NEC Corp and Tohoku University | Date: 2014-04-09

Provided is a thermoelectric conversion element capable of converting both a temperature gradient in an in-plane direction and a temperature gradient in a direction perpendicular to plane into electric power at the same time. The thermoelectric conversion element includes: a substrate (4); a magnetic film (2) provided on the substrate (4) and formed of a polycrystalline magnetic insulator material that is magnetizable in a predetermined direction having a component parallel to a film surface; and electrodes (3, 3a, and 3b) provided to the magnetic film (2) and made of a material having a spin orbit interaction. The thermoelectric conversion element is configured to be capable of outputting a temperature gradient perpendicular to a surface of the magnetic film (2) as a potential difference in a surface of one of the electrodes and outputting a temperature gradient parallel to the surface of the magnetic film (2) as a potential difference between the electrodes.


Patent
Tohoku University and NEC Corp | Date: 2013-04-24

A semiconductor device includes: a first magnetic layer (1) disposed on a flat substrate surface; a second magnetic layer (3) disposed above the first magnetic layer (1) and magnetically coupled to the first magnetic layer (1) by magnetostatic coupling or exchange coupling; and a third thin film layer (8) formed between the first magnetic layer (1) and the second magnetic layer (3), the third thin film layer (8) having such a thickness as to avoid inhibiting the magnetic coupling between the first magnetic layer (1) and the second magnetic layer (3).


Patent
Tohoku University and NEC Corp | Date: 2011-11-11

An information representation method for representing an object or a shape includes: dividing a contour shape of an entirety or a part of the object or the shape into one or a plurality of curves; and representing the contour shape of the object or the shape by parameters including a degree of curvature and a positional relationship of each curve obtained by the dividing. Therefore, there is provided an information representation method for an object or a shape, which is capable of robust object recognition against a change in image by geometric transformations and occlusions.


A magnetic element according to the present invention is formed of a layered product having a magnetic insulator film formed on a substrate including a material having no crystal structure. The magnetic insulator film has a columnar crystal structure.


A magnetoresistive device includes a magnetic free layer having first and second surfaces, the magnetic free layer being comprised of a ferromagnetic material having a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, a spin current generation layer contacting the first surface of the magnetic free layer, a tunnel barrier layer having one surface contacting the second surface of the magnetic free layer, a reference layer contacting another surface of the tunnel barrier layer, and a leakage field generation layer including first and second leakage field generation layers each of which is comprised of a ferromagnetic material and generates a leakage field, an in-plane component of the leakage field at an part of the magnetic free layer is formed generating a domain wall having an in-plane magnetization component in the magnetic free layer.


Patent
NEC Corp and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-11-11

A magnetic material includes a structure in which a first magnetic layer 1 and a second magnetic layer 2 are stacked such that each layer is formed at least partially in a stacking direction by substantially one atomic layer. The first magnetic layer contains Co as a principal component. The second magnetic layer includes at least Ni. The magnetic material has magnetic anisotropy in the stacking direction. Preferably, an atomic arrangement within a film surface of the first magnetic layer and the second magnetic layer has six-fold symmetry.


An example system includes a physiological sensor for generating physiological data associated with a user bearing the physiological sensor. The physiological sensor is configured to wirelessly communicate the physiological data. A portable device includes a touch input device; an accelerometer for generating accelerometer data indicative of activity of the user; wireless communication circuitry for receiving the physiological data; memory for storing the accelerometer data and the physiological sensor data; and a vibrator for providing tactile output to the user. The wireless communication circuitry transmits the physiological data and the accelerometer data to a computer device for use in a presentation application.


A storage medium is provided having stored therein an information processing program executable by a computer of an information processing device which performs predetermined processes based on biological parameters acquired from a user. The information processing program causes the computer to function as: first biological parameter acquisition means for acquiring a first biological parameter from the user during a first period; second biological parameter acquisition means for acquiring a second biological parameter from the user, within the first period, during the acquisition of the first biological parameter, or on and after a first time point after the acquisition of the first biological parameter; and first process execution means for executing a first process from the first time point, based on the first biological parameter and the second biological parameter.


A player object is caused to perform a motion in a virtual game world in accordance with information corresponding to a biological signal acquired from a player. Biological signal acquisition means acquires the biological signal from the player. Pulse detection means detects pulse or heartbeat of the player in accordance with the biological signal acquired by the biological signal acquisition means. Player object motion control means causes the player object to discharge a discharge object in the virtual game world when the pulse detection means detects the pulse or the heartbeat.


Patent
Lintec Corporation and Tohoku University | Date: 2016-03-09

Provided are an optical-diffusion film for display which, particularly when applied to a reflective display device, can efficiently diffuse and emit an external light incident from a wide range of angles toward the front of the display device as image display light, and a reflective display device using the optical-diffusion film. Disclosed is an optical-diffusion film for display, which is a single-layered optical-diffusion film obtained by photocuring a composition for optical-diffusion film including two or more kinds of polymerizable compounds having different refractive indices, and in which the film thickness of the optical-diffusion film has a value within the range of 60 to 700 m, and when a coating layer formed by applying a composition for optical-diffusion film in a film form is photocured, and the incident angle of incident light with respect to the normal line of the film plane is varied in the range of -70 to 70 along the travel direction of the coating layer at the time of photocuring, the haze value at each incident angle has a value of 70% or more.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: cerncourier.com

Shinichiro Michizono from KEK has been appointed as associate director for the International Linear Collider (ILC), taking over from Mike Harrison, while Jim Brau of the University of Oregon has replaced Hitoshi Yamamoto as associate director for physics and detectors. The Linear Collider collaboration, which encompasses the ILC and CLIC, has recently been granted a further three-year mandate by the International Committee for Future Accelerators. The council of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), which builds and operates some of the world’s most powerful ground-based telescopes, has appointed Xavier Barcons as its next director general. The 57 year-old astronomer will take up his new position on 1 September 2017, when the current director general Tim de Zeeuw completes his mandate. He began his career as a physicist, completing a PhD on hot plasmas. In October 2016, Jianwei Qiu joined the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility as its new associate director for theoretical and computational physics. Qiu, whose research focus is QCD and its applications in both high-energy particle and nuclear physics, will oversee a broad programme of theoretical research in support of the physics studied with the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). Rende Steerenberg has been appointed head of operations in CERN’s Beams Department, effective from 1 January 2017. He takes over from Mike Lamont, who has been in the role since 2009 and oversaw operations from the LHC’s rollercoaster start-up to its latest record performance. Lamont remains deputy group leader of the Beams Department. Former CERN Director-General Rolf-Dieter Heuer has been appointed Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur (Knight of the Legion of Honour), one of the highest recognitions of achievement in France. Heuer, who is currently president of the German Physical Society (DPG) and president-elect of the SESAME Council, among other roles, was presented with the medal on 22 November at the residence of the French permanent representative in Geneva. The 2017 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics has been awarded to Joseph Polchinski, University of California at Santa Barbara, and Andrew Strominger and Cumrun Vafa of Harvard University. The three winners, who received the $3 million award at a glitzy ceremony in San Francisco on 4 December, have made important contributions to fundamental physics including quantum gravity and string theory. Polchinski was recognised in particular for his discovery of D-branes, while the citation for Strominger and Vafa included their derivation of the Bekenstein–Hawking area-entropy relation, which unified the laws of thermodynamics and black-hole dynamics. Recipients of the previously announced Special Prize in Fundamental Physics – Ronald Drever and Kip Thorne of Caltech and Rainer Weiss of MIT, who were recognised in May along with the entire LIGO team for the discovery of gravitational waves – were also present. A further prize, the $100,000 New Horizons in Physics Prize, went to six early-career physicists: Asimina Arvanitaki (Perimeter Institute), Peter Graham (Stanford University) and Surjeet Rajendran (University of California, Berkeley); Simone Giombi (Princeton University) and Xi Yin (Harvard University); and Frans Pretorius (Princeton). This year’s Breakthrough Prize, which was founded in 2012 by Sergey Brin, Anne Wojcicki, Yuri and Julia Milner, Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan, saw $25 million in prizes awarded for achievements in the life sciences, fundamental physics and mathematics. On 30 November, the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in Bonn, Germany, granted a Humboldt Research Award to Raju Venugopalan, a senior physicist at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University. The €60,000 award recognises Venugopalan’s achievements in theoretical nuclear physics, and comes with the opportunity to collaborate with German researchers at Heidelberg University and elsewhere. US physicist and science policy adviser to the US government, Richard Garwin, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom at a White House ceremony on 22 November. The award is the highest honour that the US government can confer to civilians. Garwin was recognised for his long career in research and invention, which saw him play a leading role in the development of the hydrogen bomb, and for his advice to policy makers. Introducing Garwin, President Obama remarked: “Dick’s not only an architect of the atomic age. Reconnaissance satellites, the MRI, GPS technology, the touchscreen all bear his fingerprints – he even patented a mussel washer for shellfish. Dick has advised nearly every president since Eisenhower, often rather bluntly. Enrico Fermi, also a pretty smart guy, is said to have called Dick the only true genius he ever met.” Fumihiko Suekane of Tohoku University, Japan, has been awarded a 2016 Blaise Pascal Chair to further his research into neutrinos. Established in 1996, and named after the 17th-century French polymath Blaise Pascal, the €200,000 grant allows researchers from abroad to work on a scientific project in an institution in the Ile-de-France region. Suekane will spend a year working at the Astroparticle and Cosmology Laboratory in Paris, where he will focus on R&D for novel neutrino detectors and measurements of reactor neutrinos. In late 2016, theorists Mikhail Danilov, from the Lebedev Institute in Moscow, Sergio Ferrara from CERN and David Gross from the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and the University of California in Santa Barbara were elected as members of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Established in 1724, the body has more than 2000 members. President of the Republic of Poland, Andrzej Duda, visited CERN on 15 November and toured the CERN Control Centre. Chi-­Chang Kao, signed the guestbook with CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti on 23 November. From 28 November to 2 December, more than 200 flavour physicists gathered at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai for the 9th International Workshop on the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa Unitarity Triangle (CKM2016). The workshop focuses on weak transitions of quarks from one flavour to another, as described by the CKM matrix, and on the charge–parity (CP) violation present in these transitions, as visualised by the unitarity triangle (UT). Input from theory, particularly lattice QCD, is vital to fully leverage the power of such measurements. It is an exciting time for flavour physics. The mass scales potentially involved in such weak processes are much higher than those that can be directly probed at the LHC, due to the presence of quantum loops that mediate many of the processes of interest, such as B0 – B0 mixing. Compared with the absence of new particles so far at the energy frontier, LHCb and other B factories already have significant hints of deviations between measurements and Standard Model (SM) predictions. An example is the persistent discrepancy in the measured differential distributions of the decay products of the rare flavour-changing neutral-current process B0 → K*0 μ+ μ–, first reported by the LHCb collaboration in 2015. A highlight of CKM2016 was the presentation of first results of the same distributions from the Belle experiment in Japan, which also included the related but previously unmeasured process B0 → K*0 e+ e–. The Belle results are more compatible with those of LHCb than the SM, further supporting the idea that new physics may be manifesting itself, via interference effects, in these observables. Progress on measuring CP violation in B decays was also reported, with LHCb presenting the first evidence for time-dependent CP violation in the decay of B0 mesons in two separate final states, D+ K– and K+ K–. The latter involves loop diagrams allowing a new-physics-sensitive determination of a UT angle (γ) that can be compared to a tree-level SM determination in the decay B– → D0 K–. For the first time, LHCb also presented results with data from LHC Run 2, which is ultimately expected to increase the size of the LHCb data samples by approximately a factor four. Longer term, the Belle II experiment based at the SuperKEKB collider recently enjoyed its first beam, and will begin its full physics programme in 2018. By 2024, Belle II should have collected 50 times more data than Belle, allowing unprecedented tests of rare B-meson decays and precision CP-violation measurements. On the same timescale, the LHCb upgrade will also be in full swing, with the goal of increasing the data size by least a factor 10 compared to Run 1 and Run 2. Plans for a second LHCb upgrade presented at the meeting would allow LHCb, given the long-term future of the LHC, to run at much higher instantaneous luminosities to yield an enormous data set by 2035. With more data the puzzles of flavour physics will be resolved thanks to the ongoing programme of LHCb, imminent results from rare-kaon-decay experiments (KOTO and NA62), and the Belle II/LHCb upgrade projects. No doubt there will be more revealing results by the time of the next CKM workshop, to be held in Heidelberg in September 2018. While there are many conferences focusing on physics at the high-energy frontier, the triennial PSI workshop at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland concerns searches for new phenomena at non-collider experiments. These are complementary to direct searches at the LHC and often cover a parameter space that is beyond the reach of the LHC or even future colliders. The fourth workshop in this series, PSI2016, took place from 16–21 October and attracted more than 170 physicists. Theoretical overviews covered: precision QED calculations; beyond-the-Standard-Model implications of electric-dipole-moment (EDM) searches; axions and other light exotic particles; flavour symmetries; the muon g-2 problem; NLO calculations of the rare muon decay μ → eeeνν; and possible models to explain the exciting flavour anomalies presently seen in B decays. On the experimental side, several new results were presented. Fundamental neutron physics featured prominently, ranging from cold-neutron-beam experiments to those with stored ultracold neutrons at facilities such as ILL, PSI, LANL, TRIUMF and Mainz. Key experiments are measurements of the neutron lifetime, searches for a permanent EDM, measurements of beta-decay correlations and searches for exotic interactions. The future European Spallation Source in Sweden will also allow a new and much improved search for neutron–antineutron oscillations. Atomic physics and related methods offer unprecedented sensitivity to fundamental-physics aspects ranging from QED tests, parity violation in weak interactions, EDM and exotic physics to dark-matter (DM) and dark-energy searches. With the absence of signals from direct DM searches so far, light and ultralight DM is a focus of several upcoming experiments. Atomic physics also comprises precision spectroscopy of exotic atoms, and several highlight talks included the ongoing efforts at CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator with antihydrogen and with light muonic atoms at J-PARC and at PSI. For antiprotons and nuclei, impressive results from recent Penning-trap mass and g-factor measurements were presented with impacts on CPT tests, bound-state QED tests and more. Major international efforts are under way at PSI (μ → eγ, μ → eee), FNAL and J-PARC (μ → e conversion) devoted to muons and their lepton-flavour violating decays, and the upcoming muon g-2 experiments at FNAL and J-PARC have reported impressive progress. Last but not least, rare kaon decays (at CERN and J-PARC), new long-baseline neutrino oscillation results, developments towards direct neutrino-mass measurements, and CP and CPT tests with B mesons were reported. The field of low-energy precision physics has grown fast over the past few years, and participants plan to meet again at PSI in 2019. The fields of nanomaterials and nanotechnology are quickly evolving, with discoveries frequently reported across a wide range of applications including nanoelectronics, sensor technologies, drug delivery and robotics, in addition to the energy and healthcare sectors. At an academia–industry event on 20–21 October at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany, co-organised by the technology-transfer network HEPTech, delegates explored novel connections between nanotechnology and high-energy physics (HEP). The forum included an overview of the recent experiments at DESY’s hard X-ray source PETRA III, which allows the investigation of physical and chemical processes in situ and under working conditions and serves a large user community in many fields including nanotechnology. Thermal-scanning probe lithography, an increasingly reliable method for rapid and low-cost prototyping of 2D and quasi-3D structures, was also discussed. Much attention was paid to the production and application of nanostructures, where the achievements of the Ion Beam Center at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf in surface nanostructuring and nanopatterning were introduced. UK firm Hardide Coatings Ltd presented its advanced surface-coating technology, the core of which are nano-structured tungsten-carbide-based coatings that have promising applications in HEP and vacuum engineering. Industry also presented ion-track technology, which is being used to synthesise 3D interconnected nanowire networks in micro-batteries or gas sensors, among other applications. Neutron-research infrastructures and large-scale synchrotrons are emerging as highly suitable platforms for the advanced characterisation of micro- and nano-electronic devices, and the audience heard the latest developments from the IRT Nanoelec Platform for Advanced Characterisation of Grenoble. The meeting addressed how collaboration between academia and industry in the nanotechnology arena can best serve the needs of HEP, with CERN presenting applications in gaseous detectors using the charge-transfer properties of graphene. The technology-transfer office at DESY also shared its experience in developing a marketing strategy for promoting the services of the DESY NanoLab to companies. Both academia and industry representatives left the event with a set of contacts and collaboration arrangements. On 24–25 November, academics and leading companies in the field of superconductivity met in Madrid, Spain, to explore the technical challenges of applying new accelerator technology to medicine. Organised by CIEMAT in collaboration with HEPTech, EUCARD2, CDTI, GSI and the Enterprise Europe Network, the event brought together 120 participants from 19 countries to focus on radioisotope production, particle therapy and gantries. Superconductivity has a range of applications in energy, medicine, fusion and high-energy physics (HEP). The latter are illustrated by CERN’s high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), now near construction with superconducting magnets made from advanced Nb Sn technology capable of 12 T fields. The HL-LHC demands greatly advanced superconducting cavities with more efficient and higher-gradient RF systems, plus the development of new devices such as crab cavities that can deflect or rotate single bunches of protons. On the industry side, new superconducting technology is ready to go into production for medical applications. A dedicated session presented novel developments in cyclotron production, illustrated by the AMIT project of CIEMAT (based on a cyclotron with a compact superconducting design that will be able to produce low-to-moderate rates of dose-on-demand 11C and 18F) and the French industry–academia LOTUS project system, which features a compact 12 MeV superconducting helium-free magnet cyclotron suitable for the production of these isotopes in addition to 68Ga. Antaya Science and Technology, meanwhile, reported on the development of a portable high-field superconducting cyclotron for the production of ammonia-13N in near proximity to the PET cameras. The meeting also heard from MEDICIS, the new facility under construction at CERN that will extend the capabilities of the ISOLDE radioactive ion-beam facility for production of radiopharmaceuticals and develop new accelerator technologies for medical applications (CERN Courier October 2016 p28). Concerning particle therapy, industry presented medical accelerators such as the MEVION S250 – a proton-therapy system based on a gantry-mounted 250 MeV superconducting synchrocyclotron that weighs less than 15 tonnes and generates magnetic fields in excess of 10 T. Global medical-technology company IBA described its two main superconducting cyclotrons for particle therapy: the Cyclone 400 for proton/carbon therapy and the S2C2 dedicated to proton therapy, with a particular emphasis on their superconducting coil systems. IBA also introduced the latest developments concerning ProteusONE – a single-room system that delivers the most clinically advanced form of proton-radiation therapy. Researchers from MIT in the US presented a novel compact superconducting synchrocyclotron based on an ironless magnet with a much reduced weight, while the TERA Foundation in Italy is developing superconducting technology for “cyclinacs” – accelerators that combine a cyclotron injector and a linac booster. Finally, the session on gantries covered developments such as a superconducting bending-magnet section for future compact isocentric gantries by researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute, and a superconducting rotating gantry for carbon radiotherapy designed by the Japanese National Institute of Radiological Sciences. With demand for medical isotopes and advanced cancer therapy rising, we can look forward to rich collaborations between accelerator physics and the medical community in the coming years. The fifth in the series of Higgs Couplings workshops, which began just after the Higgs-boson discovery in 2012 to bring together theorists and experimentalists, was held at SLAC on 9–12 November and drew 148 participants from five continents. Discussions focused on lessons from the current round of LHC analyses that could be applied to future data. Modelling of signal and background is already limiting for some measurements, and new theoretical results and strategies were presented. Other key issues were the use of vector-boson fusion production as a tool, and the power and complementarity of diverse searches for heavy Higgs bosons. Two new themes emerged at the meeting. The first was the possibility of exotic decays of the 125 GeV Higgs boson. These include not only Higgs decays to invisible particles but also decays to lighter Higgs particles, light quarks and leptons (possibly with flavour violation) and new, long-lived particles. A number of searches from ATLAS and CMS reported their first results. The workshop also debated the application of effective field theory as a framework for parametrising precise Higgs measurements. The 6th Higgs Couplings meeting will be held in Heidelberg on 6–10 November 2017. We look forward to new ideas for the creative use of the large data samples of Higgs bosons that will become available as the LHC programme continues. The 8th International Conference on Hard and Electromagnetic Probes of High-energy Nuclear Collisions (Hard Probes 2016) was held in Wuhan, China, on 23–27 September. Hard and electromagnetic probes are powerful tools for the study of the novel properties of hot and dense QCD matter created in high-energy nucleus–nucleus collisions, and have provided much important evidence for the formation of quark–gluon plasma (QGP) in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and the LHC. Hard Probe 2016 attracted close to 300 participants from 28 countries. The main topics discussed were: jet production and modification in QCD matter; high transverse-momentum hadron spectra and correlations; jet-induced medium excitations; jet properties in small systems; heavy flavour hadrons and quarkonia; photons and dileptons and initial states and related topics. The most recent experimental progress on hard and electromagnetic probes from the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, PHENIX and STAR collaborations, together with many new exciting theoretical and phenomenological developments, were discussed. The next Hard Probe conference will be held in Aix Les Bains, France, in 2018. The International Symposium on EXOtic Nuclei (EXON-2016), took place from 5–9 September in Kazan, Russia, attracting around 170 nuclear experts from 20 countries. The scientific programme focused on recent experiments on the synthesis and study of new super-heavy elements, the discovery of which demonstrates the efficiency of international co-operation. Interesting results were obtained in joint experiments on chemical identification of elements 112 and 114 performed at JINR (Russia), the GSI (Germany) and the Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland). A vivid example of co-operation with US scientists is an experiment on the synthesis of element 117 held at the cyclotron of JINR. Recently, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry approved the discovery of the new elements with atomic numbers 113 (“nihonian”), 115 (“moscovium”), 117 (“tennessine”) and 118 (“oganesson”). Five laboratories, which are the co-founders of the symposium, are now creating a new generation of accelerators for the synthesis and study of new exotic nuclei. Projects such as SPIRAL2, RIKEN RI Beam Factory, FAIR, DRIBs, NICA and FRIB will allow us to delve further into the upper limits of the periodic table. The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Wigner Research Centre for Physics jointly organised an introduction-to-accelerator-physics course in Budapest, Hungary, from 2–14 October, attended by more than 120 participants spanning 28 nationalities. This year, CAS will organise a specialised course on beam injection, extraction and transfer (to be held in Erice, Sicily, from 10–19 March) and a second specialised course on vacuum for particle accelerators (near Lund, Sweden, from 6–16 June). The next course on advanced-accelerator physics will be held in the UK in early September, and a Joint International Accelerator School on RF technology will be held in Hayama, Japan, from 16–26 October (www.cern.ch/schools/CAS).


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SEC-2011.1.3-3 | Award Amount: 19.77M | Year: 2012

Clearing large civilian areas from anti-personnel landmines and cluster munitions is a difficult problem because of the large diversity of hazardous areas and explosive contamination. A single solution does not exist and many mine action actors have asked for a toolbox from which they could choose the tools best fit to a given situation. Some have built their own toolboxes, usually specific to some precise tasks, such as clearance. The TIRAMISU project aims at providing the foundation for a global toolbox that will cover the main mine action activities, from the survey of large areas to the actual disposal of explosive hazards, including mine risk education. The toolbox produced by the project will provide mine action actors with a large set of tools, grouped into thematic modules, that will help them do their job. These tools will have been designed with the help of end-users and validated by them in mine affected countries. To reach the level of expertise needed the TIRAMISU team includes organisations that were involved in some of the most important European and international research projects in mine action of the last fifteen years. The TIRAMISU partners will build on their past experience of this topic, their long tradition to work with each other, and the strong links they have forged over the years with mine action centres and mine action authorities, demining companies and non-governmental organisations, to bring a toolbox that will represent a step forward in mine action by being the basis for a unifying, comprehensive and modular integrated solution to the clearing of large areas from explosive hazards. The philosophy of the TIRAMISU project is to concentrate most of its efforts, not on already existing technology, but on the most mature technologies and methods that are still to be fielded and on promising and innovating solutions even if they may require more work to be fielded


Patent
Unisantis Electronics Singapore Pte. Ltd. and Tohoku University | Date: 2015-11-25

A memory cell array in a nonvolatile memory is disclosed comprising island semiconductor layers (101) on a substrate (1), wherein the lower parts of the island semiconductor layers (101) serve as source lines (2; SLx) for the memory cells and transistors arranged in a column; a tunnel insulation film (102) on the island semiconductor layers (101); charge accumulation layers (6) on the sidewalls of the island semiconductor layers (101); an insulating film (104) on the charge accumulation layers (6); control gates (7) of the memory cells and read lines (11) of transistors arranged in a row on the insulating film (104); and common source lines (12; CSL) for the transistors arranged in a row and first bit line parts (13) for the memory cells, and second bit line parts (15) for the memory cells, wherein the first and second bit line parts (13, 15) for the memory cells are laid out in columns and the common source lines (12; CSL) for the transistors are laid out in rows.


Patent
Mitsubishi Group and Tohoku University | Date: 2011-10-19

To grow a highly pure nitride crystal having a low oxygen concentration efficiently by an ammonothermal method. A process for producing a nitride crystal, which comprises bringing a reactant gas reactive with ammonia to form a mineralizer, and ammonia into contact with each other to prepare a mineralizer in a reactor or in a closed circuit connected to a reactor; and growing a nitride crystal by an ammonothermal method in the presence of the ammonia and the mineralizer.


Patent
Fujitsu Limited and Tohoku University | Date: 2012-03-07

A ring structure of a predicted target compound which is in a two-dimensional structural formula is arranged so as to be in an identical position as a ring structure of a template produced by superimposing two-dimensional structural formulae of compounds capable of forming a complex with a predetermined enzyme. Among predicted target compounds overlapping with a metabolic target site of the template, predicted target compounds other than those determined as being unable to access a metabolic active center site of the enzyme, or those having the same charge as that of the metabolic active center site, are determined to be metabolizable compounds. Based on the level of contribution of each atom included in the template during a metabolic reaction of the enzyme, a structural formula of a compound obtained after the metabolic reaction of the metabolizable compound whose metabolic target site has been determined is determined.


Patent
Tohoku University, Gunma University and Fuso Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. | Date: 2013-11-26

Disclosed herein is an osteopontin production inhibitor capable of preventing a disease resulting from increased production of osteopontin. The osteopontin production inhibitor contains a dictyopyrone derivative or a dihydrodictyopyrone derivative as an active ingredient. The dictyopyrone derivative is preferably a compound represented by Chemical Formula 1 or 2, and the dihydrodictyopyrone derivative is preferably a compound represented by Chemical Formula 3 or 4.


Patent
Tohoku University and Mitsubishi Group | Date: 2010-01-07

To grow a highly pure nitride crystal having a low oxygen concentration efficiently by an ammonothermal method. A process for producing a nitride crystal, which comprises bringing a reactant gas reactive with ammonia to form a mineralizer, and ammonia into contact with each other to prepare a mineralizer in a reactor or in a closed circuit connected to a reactor; and growing a nitride crystal by an ammonothermal method in the presence of the ammonia and the mineralizer.


Patent
Mitsui Engineering, Shipbuilding Co. and Tohoku University | Date: 2012-12-21

Objects are to provide an additive for a feed which can improve growth performance and meat quality of livestock, and can improve palatability of the feed, a feed and a method for preparing the feed, and the objects can be solved by an additive for a feed which comprises at least one or two or more of a polyphenol derived from EFB, -tocopherol derived from EFB and xyloses derived from EFB, a feed which comprises an additive for a feed being added to a formulating material for a feed in the range of 0.05 to 20% by weight with a dry basis, and a method for preparing the feed.


Patent
Fujikin Incorporated, Tohoku University and Tokyo Electron | Date: 2015-12-21

A pressure type flow rate control apparatus is provided wherein flow rate of fluid passing through an orifice is computed as Qc=KP1 (where K is a proportionality constant) or as Qc=KP2^(m)(P1P2)^(n )(where K is a proportionality constant, m and n constants) by using orifice upstream side pressure P1 and/or orifice downstream side pressure P2. A fluid passage between the downstream side of a control valve and a fluid supply pipe of the pressure type flow rate control apparatus comprises at least 2 fluid passages in parallel, and orifices having different flow rate characteristics are provided for each of these fluid passages, wherein fluid in a small flow quantity area flows to one orifice for flow control of fluid in the small flow quantity area, while fluid in a large flow quantity area flows to the other orifice for flow control of fluid in the large flow quantity area.


Patent
Fujikin Incorporated, Tohoku University and Tokyo Electron | Date: 2010-11-19

A fluid flow rate control method is provided that uses a flow rate range variable type pressure type flow rate control device provided with at least two or more parallel fluid passages disposed between the downstream side of a control valve of the control device and a fluid supply pipe passage, and orifices having different fluid flow rate characteristics are respectively interposed in parallel fluid passages to pass fluid in a first flow rate region through one orifice for flow rate control, and to pass fluid in a second flow rate region through at least another orifice for flow rate control. Flow rate characteristics of the respective orifices are selected so that a maximum controllable flow rate of fluid in the first flow rate region at low flow rate is smaller than 10% of a maximum controllable flow rate in the second flow rate region at high flow rate.


Patent
Tohoku University, Gunma University and Fuso Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. | Date: 2016-01-13

Disclosed herein is an osteopontin production inhibitor capable of preventing a disease resulting from increased production of osteopontin. The osteopontin production inhibitor contains a dictyopyrone derivative or a dihydrodictyopyrone derivative as an active ingredient. The dictyopyrone derivative is preferably a compound represented by Chemical Formula 1 or 2, and the dihydrodictyopyrone derivative is preferably a compound represented by Chemical Formula 3 or 4.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-21-2015 | Award Amount: 5.17M | Year: 2016

Background We propose a holistic view of interrelated frailties: cognitive decline, physical frailty, depression and anxiety, social isolation and poor sleep quality, which are a major burden to older adults and social and health care systems. Early detection and intervention are crucial in sustaining active and healthy ageing (AHA) and slowing or reversing further decline. Aims and Relevance The main aim of my-AHA is to reduce frailty risk by improving physical activity and cognitive function, psychological state, social resources, nutrition, sleep and overall well-being. It will empower older citizens to better manage their own health, resulting in healthcare cost savings. my-AHA will use state-of-the-art analytical concepts to provide new ways of health monitoring and disease prevention through individualized profiling and personalized recommendations, feedback and support. Approach An ICT-based platform will detect defined risks in the frailty domains early and accurately via non-stigmatising embedded sensors and data readily available in the daily living environment of older adults. When risk is detected, my-AHA will provide targeted ICT-based interventions with a scientific evidence base of efficacy, including vetted offerings from established providers of medical and AHA support. These interventions will follow an integrated approach to motivate users to participate in exercise, cognitively stimulating games and social networking to achieve long-term behavioural change, sustained by continued end user engagement with my-AHA. Scale and Sustainability The proposed platform provides numerous incentives to engage diverse stakeholders, constituting a sustainable ecosystem with empowered end users and reliable standardised interfaces for solutions providers, which will be ready for larger scale deployment at project end. The ultimate aim is to deliver significant innovation in the area of AHA by cooperation with European health care organizations, SMEs, NGOs.


Patent
Mitsubishi Group, Tohoku University and Japan Steel Works | Date: 2014-09-29

A first object of the present invention is to provide a method for efficiently growing a nitride single crystal even under low pressure conditions. The present invention relates to a method for producing a nitride single crystal, comprising growing a nitride crystal on the surface of a seed crystal having a hexagonal crystal structure by setting a pressure in a reaction vessel having the seed crystal, a nitrogen-containing solvent, a mineralizer containing a fluorine atom, and a raw material placed therein to 5 to 200 MPa and performing control so that the nitrogen-containing solvent is in at least either a supercritical state or a subcritical state.


Patent
Fujitsu Limited and Tohoku University | Date: 2010-06-30

A ring structure of a predicted target compound which is in a two-dimensional structural formula is arranged so as to be in an identical position as a ring structure of a template produced by superimposing two-dimensional structural formulae of compounds capable of forming a complex with a predetermined enzyme. Among predicted target compounds overlapping with a metabolic target site of the template, predicted target compounds other than those determined as being unable to access a metabolic active center site of the enzyme, or those having the same charge as that of the metabolic active center site, are determined to be metabolizable compounds. Based on the level of contribution of each atom included in the template during a metabolic reaction of the enzyme, a structural formula of a compound obtained after the metabolic reaction of the metabolizable compound whose metabolic target site has been determined is determined.


Patent
Mitsubishi Group, Tohoku University and Japan Steel Works | Date: 2012-10-03

To provide a production method for a nitride crystal, where a nitride crystal can be prevented from precipitating in a portion other than on a seed crystal and the production efficiency of a gallium nitride single crystal grown on the seed crystal can be enhanced. In a method for producing a nitride crystal by an ammonothermal method in a vessel containing a mineralizer-containing solution, out of the surfaces of said vessel and a member provided in said vessel, at least a part of the portion coming into contact with said solution is constituted by a metal or alloy containing one or more atoms selected from the group consisting of tantalum (Ta), tungsten (W) and titanium (Ti), and has a surface roughness (Ra) of less than 1.80 m.


Patent
Mitsubishi Group, Japan Steel Works and Tohoku University | Date: 2012-05-29

To provide a production method for a nitride crystal, where a nitride crystal can be prevented from precipitating in a portion other than on a seed crystal and the production efficiency of a gallium nitride single crystal grown on the seed crystal can be enhanced. In a method for producing a nitride crystal by an ammonothermal method in a vessel containing a mineralizer-containing solution, out of the surfaces of said vessel and a member provided in said vessel, at least a part of the portion coming into contact with said solution is constituted by a metal or alloy containing one or more atoms selected from the group consisting of tantalum (Ta), tungsten (W) and titanium (Ti), and has a surface roughness (Ra) of less than 1.80 m.


Patent
Fujikin Incorporated, Tohoku University and Tokyo Electron | Date: 2015-02-19

A pressure type flow rate control apparatus is provided wherein flow rate of fluid passing through an orifice is computed as Qc=KP1 (where K is a proportionality constant) or as Qc=KP2^(m )(P1P2)^(n )(where K is a proportionality constant, m and n constants) by using orifice upstream side pressure P1 and/or orifice downstream side pressure P2. A fluid passage between the downstream side of a control valve and a fluid supply pipe of the pressure type flow rate control apparatus comprises at least 2 fluid passages in parallel, and orifices having different flow rate characteristics are provided for each of these fluid passages, wherein fluid in a small flow quantity area flows to one orifice for flow control of fluid in the small flow quantity area, while fluid in a large flow quantity area flows to the other orifice for flow control of fluid in the large flow quantity area.


Patent
Tohoku University and Fujikin Incorporated | Date: 2012-08-01

A vaporizer, capable of stabilizing the behavior of pressure inside the vaporizer, includes a chamber having an inlet and an outlet, a heating device that heats the inside of the chamber, a partition wall structure 13 that is provided inside the vaporizer and partitions the liquid material inside the chamber into a plurality of sections, and liquid distribution portions 20 that are provided at the lower portion of the partition wall structure 13 and that allow liquid distribution among the sections partitioned by the partition wall structure 13, and the partition wall structure includes a grid-like, honeycomb-shaped, mesh-like, or pipe-shaped partition wall.


Patent
Mitsubishi Group and Tohoku University | Date: 2012-05-03

A metal oxide film suitable for protection of metals, composed mainly of aluminum. A metal oxide film includes a film of an oxide of a metal composed mainly of aluminum, having a thickness of 10 nm or greater, and exhibiting a moisture release rate from the film of 1E18 mol./cm^(2 )or less. Further, there is provided a process for producing a metal oxide film, wherein a metal composed mainly of aluminum is subjected to anodic oxidation in a chemical solution of 4 to 10 pH value so as to obtain a metal oxide film.


Patent
Tohoku University and Mitsubishi Group | Date: 2010-03-08

A method to make gallium nitride-based material by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxial Growth is provided.


Patent
Fujikin Incorporated, Tohoku University and Tokyo Electron | Date: 2016-06-02

A pressure type flow rate control apparatus is provided wherein flow rate of fluid passing through an orifice is computed as Qc=KP1 (where K is a proportionality constant) or as Qc=KP2^(m)(P1P2)^(n) (where K is a proportionality constant, m and n constants) by using orifice upstream side pressure P1 and/or orifice downstream side pressure P2. A fluid passage between the downstream side of a control valve and a fluid supply pipe of the pressure type flow rate control apparatus comprises at least 2 fluid passages in parallel, and orifices having different flow rate characteristics are provided for each of these fluid passages, wherein fluid in a small flow quantity area flows to one orifice for flow control of fluid in the small flow quantity area, while fluid in a large flow quantity area flows to the other orifice for flow control of fluid in the large flow quantity area.


Patent
Unisantis Electronics Singapore Pte. Ltd. and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-09-18

A nonvolatile semiconductor memory includes memory cells using side walls of island semiconductor layers which avoid lowering of the writing speed and the reading speed. The memory cells comprise an island semiconductor layer (4) formed on a semiconductor substrate, the island semiconductor layer having a drain diffusing layer (5) formed on top thereof, a source diffusion layer (3) formed on the lower side thereof, a charge-storage layer (6) formed on a channel area on the side wall interposed between the drain diffusion layer and the source diffusion layer via a gate insulation film, and a control gate (7) formed on the charge-storage layer. The cells are arranged in matrix. Bit lines (8) connected to the drain diffusion layers are arranged in the column direction, control gate lines are arranged in the row direction, and source lines (2) connected to the source diffusion layers are arranged in the column direction. Common source lines (9) connected to the source lines (2) are formed at every predetermined number of control gate lines, the common source lines are formed of metal, and the common source lines are arranged in the row direction.


Patent
Tohoku University, Gunma University and Fuso Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. | Date: 2015-02-27

The present invention provides a useful medicament for the treatment and/or prophylaxis of a disease associated with the enhancement of OPN production including cancer, which comprises a compound of formula: wherein R^(1), R^(2), R^(3), R^(4), R^(5), R^(6), R^(7), m, n, p, X, and Y are as defined in the specification, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.


Patent
Unisantis Electronics Singapore Pte. Ltd. and Tohoku University | Date: 2012-06-13

A method for fabricating a memory cell array in a nonvolatile memory is disclosed, comprising the steps: forming island semiconductor layers (101) on a substrate (1), wherein the lower parts of the island semiconductor layers (101) serve as source lines (2); forming a tunnel insulation film (102) on the island semiconductor layers (101); forming charge accumulation layers (6) on the sidewalls of the island semiconductor layers (101); forming an insulating film (104) on the charge accumulation layers (6); forming control gates (7) of the memory cells and read lines (11) of transistors on the insulating film (104); forming source diffusion layers (3, 8) and drain diffusion layers (5, 10) in the island semiconductor layers (101); and forming common source lines (12) for the transistors and bit lines (13) for the memory cells, and thereafter forming bit lines (15), wherein the bit lines (13, 15) are laid out in columns and the common source lines (12) are laid out in rows.


Patent
Fujikin Incorporated, Tohoku University and Tokyo Electron | Date: 2010-03-08

[Problem] To provide a regulating valve device having a valve element opened or closed by a working fluid. [Solution to Problem] A valve element 310 has a structure in which a valve head 310a and a valve body 310b are coupled by a valve stem 310c. In the valve box 305, the valve element 310 and a power transmitting member 320a are slidably housed. A first bellows 320b is fixed to the power transmitting member 320a and the valve box 305 to form a first space Us at a position on a side of the power transmitting member 320a opposite the valve element. A second bellows 320c is fixed to the power transmitting member 320a and the valve box 305 to form a second space Ls at a position on a side of the power transmitting member 320a closer to the valve element. According to a ratio of air supplied to the first space Us from a first pipe 320d and air supplied to the second space Ls from a second pipe 320e, the power transmitting member 320a transmits power to the valve head 310a to open or close a transport channel 200a.


Patent
Fujikin Incorporated and Tohoku University | Date: 2011-10-17

A reactor for moisture generation generates high-purity moisture at a catalytic reaction temperature that is lower than an ignition point of hydrogen gas and oxygen gas so hydrogen and oxygen gas are supplied into the reactor having a platinum catalyst layer to catalyze the reaction of the gases without combustion, wherein the reactor maintains high adhesion strength for a long time of the platinum catalyst layer to a barrier layer provided between the base material and the platinum catalyst layer. The reactor includes a reactor main body that has a gas inlet and a moisture outlet, and the Y_(2)O_(3 )barrier layer is formed on at least a part of an internal wall surface of the reactor main body, and the platinum catalyst layer is formed on at least a part of the Y_(2)O_(3 )barrier layer. A film thickness of the Y_(2)O_(3 )barrier layer is preferably 50 nm to 5 m.


Patent
Tohoku University, Kowa Kogyo Co., Japan Basic Material Co., Tsuda Kaiun Co. and Yamanishi Corporation | Date: 2010-03-05

The present invention provides ballast water treatment equipment which can decompose fungicide included in ballast water and reduce the amount of use of fungicide adsorbing material by passing through the ballast water. The ballast water treatment equipment for supplying ballast water to a ballast tank through a fungicide adding device, comprises:


Patent
Unisantis Electronics Singapore Pte. Ltd. and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-10-02

There is provided a semiconductor device formed of a highly integrated high-speed CMOS inverter coupling circuit using SGTs provided on at least two stages. A semiconductor device according to the present invention is formed of a CMOS inverter coupling circuit in which n (n is two or above) CMOS inverters are coupled with each other, each of the n inverters has: a pMOS SGT; an nMOS SGT, an input terminal arranged so as to connect a gate of the pMOS SGT with a gate of the nMOS SGT; an output terminal arranged to connect a drain diffusion layer of the pMOS SGT with a drain diffusion layer of the nMOS SGT in an island-shaped semiconductor lower layer; a pMOS SGT power supply wiring line (21, 33) arranged on a source diffusion layer of the pMOS SGT; and an nMOS SGT (20) power supply wiring line arranged on a source diffusion layer of the nMOS SGT, and an (n-1)th output terminal is connected with an nth input terminal.


Patent
Fujikin Incorporated, Tokyo Electron and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-02-08

A pressure type flow rate control apparatus is provided wherein flow rate of fluid passing through an orifice is computed as Qc=KP1 (where K is a proportionality constant) or as Qc=KP2^(m )(P1P2)^(n )(where K is a proportionality constant, m and n constants) by using orifice upstream side pressure P1 and/or orifice downstream side pressure P2. A fluid passage between the downstream side of a control valve and a fluid supply pipe of the pressure type flow rate control apparatus comprises at least 2 fluid passages in parallel, and orifices having different flow rate characteristics are provided for each of these fluid passages, wherein fluid in a small flow quantity area flows to one orifice for flow control of fluid in the small flow quantity area, while fluid in a large flow quantity area flows to the other orifice for flow control of fluid in the large flow quantity area.


Patent
Tohoku University and Mitsubishi Group | Date: 2010-02-17

A gallium nitride-based material prepared by a vertical Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxial Growth method which has thermal conductivity of at least 2.810^(2 )W/mK at 25 C. is provided.


Patent
Fujikin Incorporated, Tohoku University and Tokyo Electron | Date: 2010-10-29

A control valve device develops opening/closing accuracy of a valve assembly. The valve head 310a is configured to open and close a transfer path formed in the valve housing 305 by transmitting the power to the valve assembly 310 from the power transmission member according to a pressure ratio between working fluid supplied to the first space Us and the second space Ls, respectively. The valve head has a Vickers hardness larger than a Vickers hardness of a valve seat of the transfer path to be in contact with the valve head, and a hardness difference therebetween is set to be about 200 Hv to about 300 Hv.


News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Researchers at Tohoku University believe that it is possible for natural diamonds to form at the base of the Earth's mantle (Fig.1). The formation of such "super-deep" diamonds was simulated using high-pressure and high-temperature experiments by the Japanese research team, led by Fumiya Maeda. Diamonds are evidence that carbon exists deep in the Earth. Most natural diamonds are formed around the depth of 200km. But it's been suggested that some extremely rare diamonds come from as deep as 400km. Such diamonds are called "super-deep" diamonds, and researchers are hoping that they may offer new clues about the deep interior of the Earth. This is because natural diamonds often contain mineral inclusions in their crystals, and these inclusions can reveal the conditions of the environment where the diamonds were formed. The hardness of the diamonds also make them good capsules as they can protect the inclusions from contamination or breakdown when they are brought to the Earth's surface. Although super-deep diamonds can provide good samples to help understand the Earth's deep interior, researchers say they are still uncertain of the real depth and the formation process of these diamonds. Results of their experiment show that super-deep diamonds can form through the reaction of Mg-carbonate and silica minerals. The reaction may occur in cold plates which descend all the way to the base of the mantle (Fig. 2). Details of actual diamond formation in such a deep part of the Earth has so far, never been reported. But researchers plan to combine their recent experimental model with observation and analysis, in the hopes of getting information from natural diamonds that would provide further knowledge about our planet. This study was published in Nature Publishing Group's "Scientific Reports" on January 13, 2017.


Chang H.,Tohoku University | Chang H.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Wu H.,Tohoku University | Wu H.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2013

Graphene, a two-dimensional carbon sheet with one atom thickness and one of the thinnest materials in universe, has inspired huge interest in physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. However, pure graphene sheets are limited for many applications despite their excellent characteristics and scientists face challenges to induce more and controlled functionality. Therefore graphene nanocomposites or hybrids are attracting increasing efforts for real applications in energy and environmental areas by introducing controlled functional building blocks to graphene. In this Review, we first give a brief introduction of graphene's unique physical and chemical properties followed by various preparation and functionalization methods for graphene nanocomposites in the second section. We focus on recent energy-related progress of graphene nanocomposites in solar energy conversion (e.g., photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical devices, artificial photosynthesis) and electrochemical energy devices (e.g., lithium ion battery, supercapacitor, fuel cell) in the third section. We then review the advances in environmental applications of functionalized graphene nanocomposites for the detection and removal of heavy metal ions, organic pollutants, gas and bacteria in the fourth section. Finally a conclusion and perspective is given to discuss the remaining challenges for graphene nanocomposites in energy and environmental science. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Chang H.,Tohoku University | Wu H.,Tohoku University | Wu H.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2013

Graphene, a two-dimensional, single-atom-thick carbon crystal arranged in a honeycomb lattice, shows extraordinary electronic, mechanical, thermal, optical, and optoelectronic properties, and has great potential in next-generation electronics, optics, and optoelectronics. Graphene and graphene-based nanomaterials have witnessed a very fast development of both fundamental and practical aspects in optics and optoelectronics since 2008. In this Feature Article, the synthesis techniques and main electronic and optical properties of graphene-based nanomaterials are introduced with a comprehensive view. Recent progress of graphene-based nanomaterials in optical and optoelectronic applications is then reviewed, including transparent conductive electrodes, photodetectors and phototransistors, photovoltaics and light emitting devices, saturable absorbers for ultrafast lasers, and biological and photocatalytic applications. In the final section, perspectives are given and future challenges in optical and optoelectronic applications of graphene-based nanomaterials are addressed. Graphene, a two-dimensional, single-atom-thick carbon crystal arranged in honeycomb lattices, shows extraordinary electronic, mechanical, thermal, optical, and optoelectronic properties, and has great potential in next-generation electronics, optics, and optoelectronics. Recent progress of graphene-based nanomaterials in optical and optoelectronic applications is reviewed, including transparent conductive electrodes, photodetectors and phototransistors, photovoltaic/light-emitting devices, saturable absorbers for ultrafast lasers, and biological and photocatalytic applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Di Giacomo G.,Concordia Hospital for Special Surgery | Itoi E.,Tohoku University | Burkhart S.S.,San Antonio Orthopaedic Group
Arthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery | Year: 2014

For anterior instability with glenoid bone loss comprising 25% or more of the inferior glenoid diameter (inverted-pear glenoid), the consensus of recent authors is that glenoid bone grafting should be performed. Although the engaging Hill-Sachs lesion has been recognized as a risk factor for recurrent anterior instability, there has been no generally accepted method for quantifying the Hill-Sachs lesion and then integrating that quantification into treatment recommendations, taking into account the geometric interplay of various sizes and various orientations of bipolar (humeral-sided plus glenoid-sided) bone loss. We have developed a method (both radiographic and arthroscopic) that uses the concept of the glenoid track to determine whether a Hill-Sachs lesion will engage the anterior glenoid rim, whether or not there is concomitant anterior glenoid bone loss. If the Hill-Sachs lesion engages, it is called an "off-track" Hill-Sachs lesion; if it does not engage, it is an "on-track" lesion. On the basis of our quantitative method, we have developed a treatment paradigm with specific surgical criteria for all patients with anterior instability, both with and without bipolar bone loss. © 2014 by the Arthroscopy Association of North America.


Patent
Tohoku University and ROHM Semiconductor | Date: 2012-04-12

A ZnO-based semiconductor device includes an n type ZnO-based semiconductor layer, an aluminum oxide film formed on the n type ZnO-based semiconductor layer, and a palladium layer formed on the aluminum oxide film. With this configuration, the n type ZnO-based semiconductor layer and the palladium layer form a Schottky barrier structure.


Patent
Tohoku University and A Gas Inc. | Date: 2010-04-14

Provided are a multilayer ZnO single crystal scintillator wherein the light emitting quantity is increased, and a method for manufacturing such scintillator. A multilayer body composed of ZnO semiconductor layers having different band gaps is manufactured, and a layer having a small band gap is made to have a thickness that permits ionization radiation, such as rays and electronic rays, to enter the layer, thereby the light emitting quantity of the multilayer ZnO single crystal scintillator is greatly increased.


Patent
Sakai Chemical Industry Co., Fuji Ceramics Corporation and Tohoku University | Date: 2010-04-05

Disclosed are a method of producing fine particulate alkali metal niobate in a liquid phase system, wherein the size and shape of the particulate alkali metal niobate can be controlled; and fine particulate alkali metal niobate having a controlled shape and size. One of specifically disclosed is a method of producing a substantially rectangular cuboid particulate alkali metal niobate represented by MNbO_(3 )(1), wherein M represents one element selected from alkaline metals, including specific four steps. Another one of specifically disclosed is particulate alkali metal niobate represented by the formula (1) having a substantially rectangular cuboid shape, wherein the substantially rectangular cuboid shape has a longest side and a shortest side, the length of the longest side represented by an index L_(max )is 0.10 to 25 m, and the length of the shortest side represented by an index L_(min )is 0.050 to 15 m.


Patent
Konica Minolta and Tohoku University | Date: 2015-02-04

It is an object of the present invention to provide a detection method in which background noise is not increased even if a high-luminance fluorescent labeling material is used and which has an improved S/N ratio and high quantitativity and is advantageous for an immunohistological staining method. The present invention provides a detection method which is a method for detecting a specific biological substance using, as a color former, fluorescent substance-encapsulated nanoparticles to whose particle surfaces biological substance-recognizing molecules that specifically recognize a specific biological substance have been bonded, and which has an improved S/N ratio and high quantitativity and is advantageous for an immunohistological staining method because nanoparticles encapsulating no fluorescent substance are used as a blocking agent for preventing the fluorescent substance-encapsulated nanoparticles from being non-specifically adsorbed on a biological substance other than the specific biological substance.


Patent
Tohoku University and Shimadzu Corporation | Date: 2013-11-20

An independent pixel output line (14) is provided for each of two-dimensionally arranged pixels (10) within a pixel area (2a). A plurality of memory sections are connected to each pixel output line (14). In a continuous reading mode, photocharge storage is simultaneously performed at all the pixels, and signals are collectively transferred from the pixels (10) through the pixel output lines (14) to the memory sections, after which the signals held in the memory sections are sequentially read and outputted. In a burst reading mode, the operations of simultaneously storing photocharges at all the pixels and collectively transferring signals from each pixel (10) through the pixel output line (14) to the memory sections are sequentially performed for each of the memory sections to hold signals corresponding to a plurality of frames. When a imaging halt command is given, the holding of new signals is halted, and a plurality of frames of image signals held in the memory sections at that point in time are sequentially read and outputted. Thus, both an ultrahigh-speed imaging operation with a limitation on the number of frames and an imaging mode that is rather slow but has no limitation on the number of frames can be performed.


Patent
Tohoku University and Shimadzu Corporation | Date: 2010-06-02

A pixel output line (14) is independently provided for each of the pixels arranged in a two-dimensionally array within a pixel area so that pixel signals can be sequentially written in a plurality of memory sections (22) through the pixel output lines (14). When a plurality of frames of pixel signals are held in the memory sections (22), the pixel signals corresponding to two arbitrarily selected frames are read and respectively stored in sample-and-hold circuits (61 and 62), and their difference is obtained. Then, the difference signals corresponding to a predetermined range of the image are integrated, and the integrated value is compared with a threshold. If the integrated value exceeds the threshold, it is presumed that a change in an imaging object has occurred, and a pulse generation circuit (66) generates a trigger signal. By controlling the discontinuation and other imaging actions according to this trigger signal, it is possible to correctly take high-speed images of the situation before or after the occurrence of an objective phenomenon.


Patent
Shimadzu Corporation and Tohoku University | Date: 2011-02-08

A transistor (24) which acts as a load-current source for a source follower amplifying transistor (22) for outputting a pixel signal to a pixel output line (40) is provided in each picture element (10), whereby a high bias current is prevented from passing through the high-resistance pixel output line (40), so that a variation in an offset voltage among picture elements is suppressed. Inclusion of the high-resistance pixel output line (40) into the source follower amplification circuit is also avoided, whereby the gain characteristics are prevented from deterioration. Thus, the S/N ratio of the picture element is improved so as to enhance the quality of the images.


Patent
Sakai Chemical Industry Co., Fuji Ceramics Corporation and Tohoku University | Date: 2014-02-27

Disclosed are a method of producing fine particulate alkali metal niobate in a liquid phase system, wherein the size and shape of the particulate alkali metal niobate can be controlled; and fine particulate alkali metal niobate having a controlled shape and size. One of specifically disclosed is a method of producing a substantially rectangular cuboid particulate alkali metal niobate represented by MNbO_(3 )(1), wherein M represents one element selected from alkaline metals, including specific four steps. Another one of specifically disclosed is particulate alkali metal niobate represented by the formula (1) having a substantially rectangular cuboid shape, wherein the substantially rectangular cuboid shape has a longest side and a shortest side, the length of the longest side represented by an index L_(max )is 0.10 to 25 m, and the length of the shortest side represented by an index L_(min )is 0.050 to 15 m.


Patent
Konica Minolta and Tohoku University | Date: 2015-02-04

Provided is a method for staining a tissue enabling highly precise staining, by which the expression amount and/or the location of a biological substance in a tissue sample can be detected with a high quantitativity together with detailed information that can be obtained by bright field observation. The tissue staining method of the present invention is a method for staining a tissue, in which both staining that allows bright field observation and fluorescence staining are carried out for the same specific biological substance.


Patent
Konica Minolta and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-03-27

A medical image processor and a storage medium are shown. According to one implementation, the medical image processor includes the following. An input unit is used to input a cell shape image and a fluorescent image showing expression of a specific protein. A cell nucleus extracting unit extracts a cell nucleus. A fluorescent bright point extracting unit extracts a fluorescent bright point. A region estimating unit sets a predetermined region. When the set region does not overlap with another, it is estimated to include one cell. When a plurality of the set regions overlap, it is estimated to include a plurality of cells. A feature amount calculating unit calculates a feature amount. A determining unit determines whether each estimated cell region is cancer and determines an expression status in the region based on the calculated feature amount. An output unit outputs a determination result.


Patent
Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tohoku University, Shimadzu Corporation and Jeol Ltd. | Date: 2013-04-04

To cover a wide wavelength bandwidth, a spectroscopic apparatus uses three varied line spacing concave diffraction gratings G_(1 )to G_(3), the corresponding energy ranges for G_(1), G_(2), and G_(3 )being 50 to 200, 155 to 350, and 300 to 2200 eV, respectively. In the respective wavelength ranges, the diffraction conditions are satisfied. To provide a high throughput and a high resolution in the respective wavelength regions, the incident angles _(1 )to _(3 )for G_(1 )to G_(3 )measured from the normal line of the diffraction grating are specified to be _(1)<_(2)<_(3). Presupposing the normal lines of all diffraction gratings are superposed upon a common normal line, in order to meet _(1)<_(2)<_(3), the center positions _(1 )to _(3 )for G_(1 )to G_(3 )are set on the normal line (as _(1)<_(2)<_(3)). From G_(1 )to G_(3), one diffraction grating can be selected.


Patent
Hirosaki University, Tohoku University and TOHOKU STEEL Co. | Date: 2014-12-05

A method for producing a magnetostrictive material and a method for increasing the value of magnetostriction can increase the value of magnetostriction of magnetostrictive materials used, for example, in vibration power generation and force sensors utilizing inverse magnetostriction phenomenon. A magnetostrictive material having a value of magnetostriction of 100 ppm or more is produced by melting and casting an alloy material in the composition of range of 67-87 wt % Co with the balance consisting of Fe and unavoidable impurities and then performing hot forging. Furthermore, a magnetostrictive material having a value of magnetostriction of 130 ppm or more can be produced by performing cold rolling after the hot forging. Heat treatment at 400-1000 C. may also be performed after hot working or cold working.


Provided is a photodiode having a high-concentration layer on its surface, in which the high-concentration layer is formed so that the thickness of a non-depleted region is larger than the roughness of an interface between silicon and an insulation film layer, and is smaller than a penetration depth of ultraviolet light.


Patent
Tohoku University and Shimadzu Corporation | Date: 2013-11-13

An independent pixel output line (14) is provided for each of two-dimensionally arranged pixels (10) within a pixel area (2a). A plurality of memory sections are connected to each pixel output line (14). In a continuous reading mode, photocharge storage is simultaneously performed at all the pixels, and signals are collectively transferred from the pixels (10) through the pixel output lines (14) to the memory sections, after which the signals held in the memory sections are sequentially read and outputted. In a burst reading mode, the operations of simultaneously storing photocharges at all the pixels and collectively transferring signals from each pixel (10) through the pixel output line (14) to the memory sections are sequentially performed for each of the memory sections to hold signals corresponding to a plurality of frames. When a imaging halt command is given, the holding of new signals is halted, and a plurality of frames of image signals held in the memory sections at that point in time are sequentially read and outputted. Thus, both an ultrahigh-speed imaging operation with a limitation on the number of frames and an imaging mode that is rather slow but has no limitation on the number of frames can be performed.


Patent
A Gas Inc. and Tohoku University | Date: 2012-04-11

Provided are a multilayer ZnO single crystal scintillator wherein the light emitting quantity is increased, and a method for manufacturing such scintillator. A multilayer body composed of ZnO semiconductor layers having different band gaps is manufactured, and a layer having a small band gap is made to have a thickness that permits ionization radiation, such as rays and electronic rays, to enter the layer, thereby the light emitting quantity of the multilayer ZnO single crystal scintillator is greatly increased.


Patent
Konica Minolta and Tohoku University | Date: 2014-07-23

The present invention provides a biological substance detection method for specifically detecting a biological substance from a pathological specimen, by which method, when immunostaining using a fluorescent label and staining for morphological observation using a staining agent for morphological observation are simultaneously performed, the results of fluorescence observation and immunostaining can be assessed properly even if the fluorescent label and/or the staining agent is/are deteriorated by irradiation with an excitation light. The biological substance detection method according to the present invention is characterized in that the brightness retention rate of an immunostained part is in a range of 80% to 120% in relation to the brightness retention rate of a part stained for morphological observation when the fluorescent label used for the immunostaining is observed.


Patent
Tohoku University and Foundation For Advancement Of International Science | Date: 2012-04-18

The present invention concerns a CMOS semiconductor device comprising at least a pair of n-channel transistor (100n) and a p-channel transistor (100p), in which each of said n-channel and said p-channel transistors is comprised of a channel region, a source region (17,18) formed at one of both sides of said channel region, a drain region (17,18) formed at another one of the both sides of said channel region, two first electrodes (21,22) electrically connected to said source and said drain regions (531,532), respectively, and a second electrode (16) formed on said channel region through a gate insulating film (15), the interface between said channel region and said gate insulating film (15) is made flat at the atomic level, at least contact portions of said first electrodes respectively contacting the source and the drain regions (17) of said n-channel transistor (100n) are formed of a first metal silicide, at least contact portions of said second electrodes respectively contacting the source and the drain regions (18) of said p-channel transistor (100p) are formed of a second metal silicide different from said first metal silicide, and said CMOS semiconductor device is an accumulation-mode transistor.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SPA.2013.2.1-01 | Award Amount: 3.59M | Year: 2013

CROSS DRIVE targets on creating the foundations for collaborative distributed virtual workspaces for European space science. Space exploration missions have produced huge data sets of potentially immense value for research as well as planning and operating future missions. However, currently expert teams, data and tools are fragmented, leaving little scope for unlocking this value through collaborative activities. The question of how to improve data analysis and exploitation of space-based observations can be answered by providing and standardizing new methods and systems for collaborative scientific visualisation and data analysis, and space mission planning and operation. This will not only allow scientist to work together, with each others data and tools, but importantly to do so between missions. The consortium brings together unprecedented expertise from space science, scientific visualisation, virtual reality and collaborative systems. The proposed collaborative workspace encompasses various advanced technological solutions to coordinate central storage, processing and 3D visualization strategies in collaborative immersive virtual environments, to support space data analysis. A specific focus is given to the preparation of the ExoMars 2016 TGO and 2018 rover missions. Three case studies will demonstrate the utility of the workspaces for European space science: Mars atmospheric data analysis, rovers landing site characterization and rover target selection during its real-time operations. The use cases will exploit state-of-the-art science data sets and they will be constructed in view of the ESA ExoMars missions scenarios. Impact on beneficiaries will be maximised both through providing an expandable backbone and reusable standardisation and tools, and three levels of workspace for: scientists directly engaged; other external scientists; and the public.


Patent
Tohoku University and Foundation For Advancement Of International Science | Date: 2011-02-16

With inversion-mode transistors, intrinsic-mode transistors, or semiconductor-layer accumulation-layer current controlled accumulation-mode transistors, variation in threshold voltages becomes large in miniaturized generations due to statistical variation in impurity atom concentrations and thus it is difficult to maintain the reliability of an LSI. Provided is a bulk current controlled accumulation-mode transistor which is formed by controlling the thickness and the impurity atom concentration of a semiconductor layer so that the thickness of a depletion layer becomes greater than that of the semiconductor layer. For example, by setting the thickness of the semiconductor layer to 100nm and setting the impurity concentration thereof to be higher than 210^(17) [cm^(-3)], the standard deviation of variation in threshold values can be made smaller than a power supply voltage-based allowable variation value.


Patent
Tohoku University and Shimadzu Corporation | Date: 2010-06-23

A floating diffusion region is formed at an edge of a light-receiving surface of an embedded photodiode, with a transfer gate electrode located therebetween. A first region, with radially extending portions centered on the FD region, and a second region, located to the outside of the first region, are created in the substantially sector-shaped light-receiving surface. A dopant whose conductivity type is the same as the signal charges to be collected in the first region are introduced, whereby an electric field for moving the signal charges from the radially extending sections towards the center is created due to a three-dimensional field effect. As a result, the charge-transfer time is reduced. Additionally, since a circuit element in the subsequent stage can be placed adjacent to the floating diffusion region, the parasitic capacitance of the floating diffusion region can be reduced and a highly sensitive element can be obtained.


Patent
Mitaya Manufacturing Co. and Tohoku University | Date: 2012-07-02

The present invention provides an evaluation aid which can be used as a phantom (imitation lesion) when a digital X-ray dynamic image thereof is taken and then evaluation is carried out through the digital X-ray dynamic image, and especially an evaluation aid which can be used for evaluating image qualities of a digital X-ray dynamic image for X-ray absorption parts having different X-ray absorption ratios, and an evaluation device provided with such an evaluation aid. The evaluation aid of the present invention is adapted to be used for taking a digital X-ray dynamic image thereof through which evaluation is carried out, and contains a fixed plate (plate-like body) including a plurality of regions having different X-ray absorption ratios; a rotating disk (movable body) having a plurality of wires (wire rods), the rotating disk capable of rotating (moving) with respect to the fixed plate so that the plurality of wires traverse X-ray with which the fixed plate is irradiated; and a driving motor (driving portion) which rotates (moves) the rotating disk with respect to the fixed plate. It is preferred that thicknesses and/or constituent materials of the plurality of regions of the fixed plate are different from each other, so that these regions have the different X-ray absorption ratios.


Patent
Tohoku University and Foundation For Advancement Of International Science | Date: 2011-02-16

A multilayer wiring board 100 comprises a first wiring region 101 where wirings 103a and insulating layers 104a and 104b are alternately laminated, and a second wiring region 102 where a thickness H2 of an insulating layer 104 is twice or more a thickness H1 of the insulating layer in the first wiring region 101 and a width W2 of a wiring 103b is twice or more a width W1 of the wiring in the first wiring region 101. The first wiring region 101 and the second wiring region 102 are integrally formed on the same board.


A retainer for use in measuring a force generated between a photocurable resin and a pressing member by a detector includes: a pressing member that has light transmission characteristics and is pressed to the photocurable resin; and a light irradiation block that is provided between the detector and the pressing member and irradiates light emitted from an external light source onto the pressing member in a state of being not contacting a light source and an optical transmission line including an optical fiber.


Patent
Konica Minolta and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-07-17

Provided are a biomagnetism measuring device, a biomagnetism measuring system, and a biomagnetism measuring method, which measure biomagnetism with high precision using magnetic sensors that can be used at room temperature. According to the embodiment, biomagnetism is measured based on output signals which correspond to changes in the resistance of tunneling magnetoresistance elements (TMR elements 67). A magnetic sensor which outputs a single unit output signal is configured of a TMR array (68), which comprises TMR elements arrayed in a lattice between input and output electrodes. Each magnetic sensor is positioned in either a single-axis direction or in mutually intersecting two-axis or three-axis directions, and is brought close to a portion of the surface of a subject (i.e., the head). A plurality of said magnetic sensors are distributed upon said portion of the surface of the subject, whereupon the output signals are obtained from the plurality of magnetic sensors, and the biomagnetism emitted from the portion of the surface of the subject is measured based on the output signals.


Patent
Konica Minolta and Tohoku University | Date: 2015-02-04

The aim of the present invention lies in enabling a practitioner to quantitatively ascertain the amount of expression of a specified protein in a tissue section. An image processor (2A) comprises a control unit (21), and when a ROI of an object being analysed is specified by means of an operating unit (22) from a cell form image showing the form of cells in a tissue section (bright-field image or fluorescent image), the control unit (21) extracts the cell nucleus region from the bright-field image or fluorescent image, and extracts a fluorescent bright point showing expression of the specified protein from the fluorescent image. A feature value showing the amount of expression of the specified protein in the designated ROI is then calculated and output on the basis of the fluorescent bright point and the region of the cell nucleus present in the ROI designated by the operating unit (22).


Patent
Tohoku University and Mitaya Manufacturing Co. | Date: 2014-05-14

The present invention provides an evaluation aid which can be used as a phantom (imitation lesion) when a digital X-ray dynamic image thereof is taken and then evaluation is carried out through the digital X-ray dynamic image, and especially an evaluation aid which can be used for evaluating image qualities of a digital X-ray dynamic image for X-ray absorption parts having different X-ray absorption ratios, and an evaluation device provided with such an evaluation aid. The evaluation aid of the present invention is adapted to be used for taking a digital X-ray dynamic image thereof through which evaluation is carried out, and contains a fixed plate (plate-like body) including a plurality of regions having different X-ray absorption ratios; a rotating disk (movable body) having a plurality of wires (wire rods), the rotating disk capable of rotating (moving) with respect to the fixed plate so that the plurality of wires traverse X-ray with which the fixed plate is irradiated; and a driving motor (driving portion) which rotates (moves) the rotating disk with respect to the fixed plate. It is preferred that thicknesses and/or constituent materials of the plurality of regions of the fixed plate are different from each other, so that these regions have the different X-ray absorption ratios.


Patent
Tohoku University, ROHM Semiconductor, Tokyo Electron and Ube Industries | Date: 2010-02-10

An organometal material gas is supplied into a low electron temperature and high density plasma excited by microwaves to form a thin film of a compound on a substrate as a film forming object. In this case, the temperature of a supply system for the organometal material gas is controlled by taking advantage of the relationship between the vapor pressure and temperature of the organometal material gas.


An electric double-layer capacitor is provided which is larger in electrostatic capacitance, and can be much higher in rated voltage, than that in the prior art using a liquid electrolyte solely composed of an ionic liquid. Having an electrolyte and electrodes, the capacitor incorporates an atom encapsulated fullerene or an atom encapsulated fullerene salt in the electrolyte. The electrolyte can either be a liquid solution or a solid. With the electrolyte being a solid, cations of the atom encapsulated fullerene or atom encapsulated fullerene salt may either be made movable or static in the electrolyte.


Patent
Konica Minolta and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-07-10

A biological substance detection method for detecting a biological substance specifically in a pathological specimen, comprising a step of immunologically staining the pathological specimen using a fluorescent label, a step of staining the pathological specimen with a staining reagent for morphology observation purposes (eosin) to observe the morphology of the pathological specimen, a step of irradiating the stained pathological specimen with excited light to cause the emission of a fluorescent and detecting the biological substance in the pathological specimen. In the step of immunologically staining the pathological specimen, a special fluorescent particle for which the excitation wavelength appears in a region that is different from the excitation wavelength region of eosin is used as the fluorescent label.


Regions where metastatic cancer cells can exist are detected with high accuracy in a sentinel lymph node. Quantum dots are injected into the vicinity of a cancer in a living body, thereby identifying the location of the sentinel lymph node by means of fluorescence. Subsequently, the sentinel lymph node is extracted. With respect to the sentinel lymph node extracted with quantum dots injected, structural analysis is conducted by means of precision fluorescence measurement which uses a confocal fluorescence microscope for monomolecular observation. Specifically, the fluorescence intensity is measured with respect to each of multiple areas in the sentinel lymph nodes, and out of the multiple areas measured, one or more areas are detected as afferent lymph vessel inflow regions in descending order of fluorescence intensity.


Patent
Tohoku University and Shimadzu Corporation | Date: 2011-03-23

A burst reading memory section (200) and continuous reading memory section (210) are independently provided for each of the two-dimensionally arrayed pixels (10). The burst reading memory section (200) has capacitors (25001-25104) capable of holding a plurality of signals. The continuous reading memory section (210) has only one capacitor 213. Signal output lines for the two memory sections are separately provided. When a signal produced by photoelectric conversion at the pixel (10) is outputted on a pixel output line (14), the signal can be simultaneously written in the capacitor at both memory sections (200, 201), after which the signals can be separately extracted to the outside at different timings. Therefore, a series of images taken at extremely short intervals of time during a short period of time can be obtained at an arbitrary timing without impeding a continuous image-acquiring operation at a low frame rate. Accordingly, both an ultrahigh-speed imaging operation having a limitation on the number of frames and an imaging that is rather slow but has no limitation on the number of frames can be simultaneously performed.


Patent
Sakai Chemical Industry Co., Tohoku University and Fuji Ceramics Corporation | Date: 2012-02-15

Disclosed are a method of producing fine particulate alkali metal niobate in a liquid phase system, wherein the size and shape of the particulate alkali metal niobate can be controlled; and fine particulate alkali metal niobate having a controlled shape and size. One of specifically disclosed is a method of producing a substantially rectangular cuboid particulate alkali metal niobate represented by MNbO_(3) (1), wherein M represents one element selected from alkaline metals, including specific four steps. Another one of specifically disclosed is particulate alkali metal niobate represented by the formula (1) having a substantially rectangular cuboid shape, wherein the substantially rectangular cuboid shape has a longest side and a shortest side, the length of the longest side represented by an index L_(max) is 0.10 to 25 m, and the length of the shortest side represented by an index L_(min) is 0.050 to 15 m.


Patent
Dexerials Corporation and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-05-01

Provided are a heat-absorbing material having high heat resistance and high wavelength selectivity, and a process for producing the same. The heat-absorbing material includes: a heat-resistant metal having the substantially same periodic structure in the light incidence plane as the wavelength of sunlight having a specific wavelength in the wavelength regions of visible light and near-infrared rays; and a cermet formed on the light incidence plane of the heat-resistant metal. Thus, there can be achieved desirable absorption and radiation characteristics being such that absorption is performed in the visible light region meanwhile reflection is performed in the infrared region. Furthermore, the cermet does not need complicated film-formation control, and therefore, the high heat resistance can be maintained.


Patent
Tohoku University and Foundation For Advancement Of International Science | Date: 2010-06-16

An object of the present invention is to provide a cathode body having a high intensity, a high efficiency, and a long life. The cathode body of the present invention is manufactured by forming, on a cylindrical cup formed of a metal alloy containing lanthanum oxide and having a high thermal conductivity, a LaB_(6) film using a magnetron sputtering apparatus capable of sputtering at a low electron temperature.


Patent
Tohoku University and Konica Minolta | Date: 2012-09-04

The present invention provides a biological substance detection method for specifically detecting a biological substance from a pathological specimen, by which method, when immunostaining using a fluorescent label and staining for morphological observation using a staining agent for morphological observation are simultaneously performed, the results of fluorescence observation and immunostaining can be assessed properly even if the fluorescent label and/or the staining agent is/are deteriorated by irradiation with an excitation light. The biological substance detection method according to the present invention is characterized in that the brightness retention rate of an immunostained part is in a range of 80% to 120% in relation to the brightness retention rate of apart stained for morphological observation when the fluorescent label used for the immunostaining is observed.


Patent
Sakai Chemical Industry Co., Fuji Ceramics Corporation and Tohoku University | Date: 2010-04-05

Disclosed are a method of producing fine particulate alkali metal niobate in a liquid phase system, wherein the size and shape of particles of the fine particulate alkali metal niobate can be controlled; and fine particulate alkali metal niobate having a controlled shape and size. Specifically disclosed are a method of producing particulate sodium-potassium niobate represented by the formula (1): Na_(x)K_((1-x))NbO_(3 )(1), the method including four specific steps, wherein a high-concentration alkaline solution containing Na^(+) ion and K^(+) ion is used as an alkaline solution; and particulate sodium-potassium niobate having a controlled shape and size.


Patent
Konica Minolta and Tohoku University | Date: 2014-07-16

The present invention provides a biological substance detection method for specifically detecting a biological substance from a pathological specimen, by which method, when immunostaining using a fluorescent label and staining for morphological observation using a staining agent for morphological observation are simultaneously performed, the results of fluorescence observation and immunostaining can be assessed properly even if the fluorescent label and/or the staining agent is/are deteriorated by irradiation with an excitation light. The biological substance detection method according to the present invention is characterized in that the brightness retention rate of an immunostained part is in a range of 80% to 120% in relation to the brightness retention rate of a part stained for morphological observation when the fluorescent label used for the immunostaining is observed.


Patent
Konica Minolta and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-03-28

The present invention provides a staining method in which the fluorescent staining properties in a fluorescently-immunostained specimen are not reduced even when an oil-based mounting medium is used. The present invention also provides a method of preventing deterioration of a fluorescent label caused by irradiation with excitation light and improving the light resistance in a fluorescently-immunostained specimen obtained by the staining method. The biological substance detection method according to the present invention is a biological substance detection method for specifically detecting a biological substance from a pathological specimen, which includes the steps of: immunostaining the specimen with a fluorescent label; immobilizing the thus stained specimen; and mounting the thus immobilized specimen using a mounting medium including an organic solvent not freely miscible with water. In the biological substance detection method, the above-described mounting medium further includes a discoloration inhibitor.


Patent
Sakai Chemical Industry Co., Fuji Ceramics Corporation and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-12-19

Disclosed are a method of producing fine particulate alkali metal niobate in a liquid phase system, wherein the size and shape of particles of the fine particulate alkali metal niobate can be controlled; and fine particulate alkali metal niobate having a controlled shape and size. Specifically disclosed are a method of producing particulate sodium-potassium niobate represented by the formula (1): Na_(x)K_((1-x))NbO_(3 )(1), the method including four specific steps, wherein a high-concentration alkaline solution containing Na^(+) ion and K^(+) ion is used as an alkaline solution; and particulate sodium-potassium niobate having a controlled shape and size.


Patent
Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Jeol Ltd., Shimadzu Corporation and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-10-09

To cover a wide wavelength bandwidth, a spectroscopic apparatus uses three varied line spacing concave diffraction gratings G_(1) to G_(3), the corresponding energy ranges for G_(1), G_(2), and G_(3) being 50 to 200, 155 to 350, and 300 to 2200 eV, respectively. In the respective wavelength ranges, the diffraction conditions are satisfied. To provide a high throughput and a high resolution in the respective wavelength regions, the incident angles _(1) to _(3) for G_(1) to G_(3) measured from the normal line of the diffraction grating are specified to be _(1) < _(2) < _(3). Presupposing the normal lines of all diffraction gratings are superposed upon a common normal line, in order to meet _(1) < _(2) < _(3), the center positions _(1) to _(3) for G_(1) to G_(3) are set on the normal line (as _(1) < _(2) < _(3)). From G_(1) to G_(3), one diffraction grating can be selected.


Patent
Tohoku University and Konica Minolta | Date: 2011-03-15

A tissue staining method which comprises: staining a tissue with a staining reagent wherein a biosubstance recognition site is bonded to particles carrying multiple fluorescent substances accumulated therein; in the stained tissue, counting fluorescent points or measuring fluorescent brightness; and evaluating the expression level of a biosubstance, which matches the biosubstance recognition site, in the aforesaid tissue on the basis of the number of the fluorescent points or fluorescent brightness that was measured.


Patent
Shimadzu Corporation and Tohoku University | Date: 2012-05-16

A floating diffusion region (13) is formed at an edge of a light-receiving surface of an embedded photodiode, with a transfer gate electrode (12) located therebetween. A first region (111), with radially extending portions centered on the FD region (13), and a second region (112), located to the outside of the first region, are created in the substantially sector-shaped light-receiving surface. A dopant whose conductivity type is the same as the signal charges to be collected in the first region (111) are introduced, whereby an electric field for moving the signal charges from the radially extending sections towards the center is created due to a three-dimensional field effect. As a result, the charge-transfer time is reduced. Additionally, since a circuit element in the subsequent stage can be placed adjacent to the floating diffusion region (13), the parasitic capacitance of the floating diffusion region (13) can be reduced and a highly sensitive element can be obtained. Thus, it is possible to improve the detection sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio of a solid-state image sensor capable of taking images at ultrahigh speeds (at one million frames per second or higher) without losing the speediness of the imaging operation.


Patent
Konica Minolta and Tohoku University | Date: 2015-02-04

The aim of the present invention lies in making it possible to efficiently discern a cancerous region in which a specified protein is overexpressed from within a whole tissue section image. A control unit (21) of an image processor (2A) extracts a cell nucleus region from a bright-field image in which a tissue section slide is captured, and estimates, as the cell region, a circular region having a predetermined radius including the expression region of the specified protein around a cell membrane from the centre of gravity of each cell nucleus region extracted. Furthermore, the control unit (21) extracts a fluorescent bright point from a fluorescent image captured in the same field of vision. The control unit (21) then calculates and outputs a feature value relating to each cell region on the basis of the fluorescent bright point and the cell nucleus contained in each estimated cell region, determines whether or not each estimated cell region is cancerous and determines the state of expression of the specified protein in a region which is deemed to be cancerous, on the basis of the calculated feature value, and outputs a determination result.


Patent
Konica Minolta and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-07-03

A semiconductor nanoparticle assembly including semiconductor nanoparticles having a core/shell structure, and wherein the semiconductor nanoparticles are bonded by means of amide bonds.


Patent
Tohoku University and Konica Minolta | Date: 2011-03-15

A semiconductor nanoparticle assembly including semiconductor nanoparticles having a core/shell structure, and wherein the semiconductor nanoparticles are bonded by means of amide bonds.


Patent
Tohoku University and Shimadzu Corporation | Date: 2010-05-26

A pixel area with a two-dimensional array of pixels (10) each including a photodiode and a memory area (3a) on which memory sections for holding signals produced by the pixels for continuously recordable frames are separately provided on a semiconductor substrate. All the pixels simultaneously perform a photocharge storage operation, and the signals produced by the photocharge storage are extracted in parallel through mutually independent pixel output lines (14). In a plurality of memory sections connected to one pixel output line, a sample-and-hold transistor of a different memory section is turned on for each exposure cycle so as to sequentially hold signals in a capacitor of each memory section. After the continuous imaging is completed, all the pixel are sequentially read. Unlike CCD cameras, the present sensor does not simultaneously drive all the gate loads. Therefore, the sensor consumes less power yet can be driven at high speeds. The separation between the memory area and pixel area prevents signals from deterioration due to an intrusion of excessive photocharges. As a result, the sensor can perform imaging operations at higher speeds than ever before and yet capture images with higher qualifies.


Patent
Konica Minolta and Tohoku University | Date: 2015-02-04

The present invention provides a staining method in which the fluorescent staining properties in a fluorescently-immunostained specimen are not reduced even when an oil-based mounting medium is used. The present invention also provides a method of preventing deterioration of a fluorescent label caused by irradiation with excitation light and improving the light resistance in a fluorescently-immunostained specimen obtained by the staining method. The biological substance detection method according to the present invention is a biological substance detection method for specifically detecting a biological substance from a pathological specimen, which comprises the steps of: immunostaining the specimen with a fluorescent label; immobilizing the thus stained specimen; and mounting the thus immobilized specimen using a mounting medium comprising an organic solvent not freely miscible with water. In the biological substance detection method, the above-described mounting medium further comprises a discoloration inhibitor.


Patent
Tohoku University and Konica Minolta | Date: 2011-08-30

A biological substance detection method for detecting a biological substance specifically in a pathological specimen, comprising a step of immunologically staining the pathological specimen using a fluorescent label, a step of staining the pathological specimen with a staining reagent for morphology observation purposes (eosin) to observe the morphology of the pathological specimen, a step of irradiating the stained pathological specimen, with excited light to cause the emission of a fluorescent and detecting the biological substance in the pathological specimen. In the step of immunologically staining the pathological specimen, a special fluorescent particle for which the excitation wavelength appears in a region that is different from the excitation wavelength region of eosin is used as the fluorescent label.


Patent
Mitaya Manufacturing Co. and Tohoku University | Date: 2011-07-26

The present invention provides an evaluation aid which can be used as a phantom (imitation lesion) when a digital X-ray image thereof is taken and then evaluation is carried out through the digital X-ray image, and especially an evaluation aid which can be used for easily evaluating image qualities of a digital X-ray image for X-ray absorption parts having different X-ray absorption ratios at once. The evaluation aid of the present invention is adapted to be used for taking a digital X-ray image thereof through which evaluation is carried out, and contains a substrate (plate-like body) including a plurality of regions having different X-ray absorption ratios; and step members provided on the plate-like body so as to correspond to the plurality of regions, respectively, each step member including a plurality of subregions having different X-ray absorption ratios. It is preferred that thicknesses and/or constituent materials of the plurality of regions of the substrate are different from each other, so that these regions have the different X-ray absorption ratios.


Patent
Tohoku University and Mitaya Manufacturing Co. | Date: 2013-06-05

The present invention provides an evaluation aid which can be used as a phantom (imitation lesion) when a digital X-ray image thereof is taken and then evaluation is carried out through the digital X-ray image, and especially an evaluation aid which can be used for easily evaluating image qualities of a digital X-ray image for X-ray absorption parts having different X-ray absorption ratios at once. The evaluation aid of the present invention is adapted to be used for taking a digital X-ray image thereof through which evaluation is carried out, and contains a substrate (plate-like body) including a plurality of regions having different X-ray absorption ratios; and step members provided on the plate-like body so as to correspond to the plurality of regions, respectively, each step member including a plurality of subregions having different X-ray absorption ratios. It is preferred that thicknesses and/or constituent materials of the plurality of regions of the substrate are different from each other, so that these regions have the different X-ray absorption ratios.


A semiconductor nanoparticle aggregate containing semiconductor nanoparticles with a core/shell structure is formed by controlling with physical energy the aggregation state of an agglomerate from agglomerated semiconductor nanoparticles.


Patent
Konica Minolta and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-03-27

A medical image processor and storage medium are shown. According to one implementation, a medical image processor includes an input unit, an operation unit, a cell nucleus extracting unit, a fluorescent bright point extracting unit, a feature amount calculating unit, and an output unit. The input unit is used to input a cell shape image showing a shape of a cell and a fluorescent image showing expression of a specific protein as a fluorescent bright point. The operation unit is used to specify an analysis target region. The cell nucleus extracting unit extracts a region of a cell nucleus. The fluorescent bright point extracting unit extracts a fluorescent bright point. The feature amount calculating unit calculates a feature amount showing an expression amount of the specific protein. The output unit outputs the calculated feature amount.


Patent
Konica Minolta and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-03-25

It is an object of the present invention to provide a detection method in which background noise is not increased even if a high-luminance fluorescent labeling material is used and which has an improved S/N ratio and high quantitativity and is advantageous for an immunohistological staining method. The present invention provides a detection method which is a method for detecting a specific biological substance using, as a color former, fluorescent substance-encapsulated nanoparticles to whose particle surfaces biological substance-recognizing molecules that specifically recognize a specific biological substance have been bonded, and which has an improved S/N ratio and high quantitativity and is advantageous for an immunohistological staining method because nanoparticles encapsulating no fluorescent substance are used as a blocking agent for preventing the fluorescent substance-encapsulated nanoparticles from being non-specifically adsorbed on a biological substance other than the specific biological substance.


Patent
Tohoku University and Shimadzu Corporation | Date: 2013-03-26

A plurality of photodiodes arrayed in a one-dimensional form are divided into a plurality of groups. The structure of an antireflection coating is changed for each group so that all the surfaces of the photodiodes belonging to each group are covered with an antireflection coating having a transmittance characteristic which shows a maximum transmittance within a range of wavelengths of light to be received by those photodiodes. In particular, a SiO_(2 )coating layer on the silicon substrate and an Al_(2)O_(3 )coating layer are common to all the photodiodes, while the structure of the upper layers are modified with respect to the wavelength. Within an ultraviolet wavelength region, the coating structure is more finely changed with respect to the wavelength. By such a design, the transmittance can be improved while making the best efforts to avoid a complex manufacturing process.


Patent
Tohoku University and Konica Minolta | Date: 2012-09-04

It is an object of the present invention to provide a tissue staining method that makes it possible to observe both information on the morphology of a tissue and information on a biological substance such as an antigen molecule to be detected on a single section and in a single view field. The present invention provides a tissue staining method, including carrying out (A) a HE (hematoxylin-eosin) staining, and (B) a histochemical staining, serially on a single tissue section, wherein the histochemical staining is defined as a histochemical technique for detecting a biological substance to be detected in a tissue in a visible manner by use of a binding reaction between the biological substance to be detected and a probe biological substance capable of binding specifically to the biological substance to be detected.


Patent
Tohoku University and Foundation For Advancement Of International Science | Date: 2011-03-09

A semiconductor device manufacturing method includes the steps of ion-implanting a p-type or an n-type impurity into a Si layer portion to become a p-type or an n-type contact region of a semiconductor device, forming a metal film for a contact on a surface of the contact region without performing heat treatment for activating implanted ions after the ion-implanting step, and forming a silicide of a metal of the metal film by causing the metal to react with the Si layer portion by heating. It is desired to simultaneously perform the step of forming the silicide and the step of activating the implanted ions by heat treatment after the metal film is formed.


Patent
Shimadzu Corporation and Tohoku University | Date: 2015-02-04

A plurality of photodiodes arrayed in a one-dimensional form are divided into a plurality of groups. The structure (the material and/or thickness of the coating) of an antireflection coating is changed for each group so that all the surfaces of the photodiodes belonging to each group are covered with an antireflection coating having a transmittance characteristic which shows a maximum transmittance within a range of wavelengths of light to be received by those photodiodes. In particular, a SiO_(2) coating layer (104) on the silicon substrate (102) and an Al_(2)O_(3) coating layer (105) are common to all the photodiodes, while the structure of the upper layers are modified with respect to the wavelength. Within an ultraviolet wavelength region, the coating structure is more finely changed with respect to the wavelength. By such a design, the transmittance (the rate at which incident light reaches a photoelectric conversion region) can be improved while making the best efforts to avoid a complex manufacturing process. As a result, high levels of sensitivity can be achieved without omission even within the ultraviolet wavelength region in a spectrometric measurement system using a photodiode array detector.


Patent
Shimadzu Corporation and Tohoku University | Date: 2015-08-26

A logical gate circuit (5) and four stages of flip flips (4a-4d) are assigned to each pixel (1). A controller (7) inputs four phase identification signals into the logical gate circuit (5) and also inputs a start signal STR into a shift register (4) synchronously with the four mutually different phases defined by the phase identification signals. During one round of scanning all the pixels (1) for a readout control, if an enable signal ENBL is set to 0 while an output of a phase identification circuit (110) is 1, a charge accumulation time at the pixel (1) concerned becomes equal to a readout period T. If the enable signal ENBL is set to 1 while the output of the phase identification circuit (110) is 1, electric charges accumulated in a photodiode (11) until that point are entirely discarded, so that the charge accumulation time becomes shorter than the readout period T. Thus, the charge accumulation time at each pixel (1) can be controlled to ensure an adequate SN ratio while avoiding signal saturation at some pixels even if the light source has a bright line at a specific wavelength.


Patent
Konica Minolta and Tohoku University | Date: 2014-07-16

It is an object of the present invention to provide a tissue staining method that makes it possible to observe both information on the morphology of a tissue and information on a biological substance such as an antigen molecule to be detected on a single section and in a single view field. The present invention provides a tissue staining method, including carrying out (A) a HE (hematoxylin-eosin) staining, and (B) a histochemical staining, serially on a single tissue section, wherein the histochemical staining is defined as a histochemical technique for detecting a biological substance to be detected in a tissue in a visible manner by use of a binding reaction between the biological substance to be detected and a probe biological substance capable of binding specifically to the biological substance to be detected.


Patent
Tohoku University and Shimadzu Corporation | Date: 2010-06-02

An independent pixel output line (14) is provided for each of two-dimensionally arranged pixels (10) within a pixel area (2a). A plurality of memory sections are connected to each pixel output line (14). In a continuous reading mode, photocharge storage is simultaneously performed at all the pixels, and signals are collectively transferred from the pixels (10) through the pixel output lines (14) to the memory sections, after which the signals held in the memory sections are sequentially read and outputted. In a burst reading mode, the operations of simultaneously storing photocharges at all the pixels and collectively transferring signals from each pixel (10) through the pixel output line (14) to the memory sections are sequentially performed for each of the memory sections to hold signals corresponding to a plurality of frames. When a imaging halt command is given, the holding of new signals is halted, and a plurality of frames of image signals held in the memory sections at that point in time are sequentially read and outputted. Thus, both an ultrahigh-speed imaging operation with a limitation on the number of frames and an imaging mode that is rather slow but has no limitation on the number of frames can be performed.


Patent
Tohoku University and Shimadzu Corporation | Date: 2011-02-23

A pixel output line (14) is provided for each of the pixels (10) two-dimensionally arrayed in a pixel area (2a or 2b). The pixel output lines (114) are extended to a memory area (3a or 3b), and a memory unit (20) is connected to each of those lines. The memory unit (20) includes a writing-side transistor (21), a reading-side transistor (22) and a plurality of memory sections (24) for holding signals for 104 image frames. A photocharge storage operation is simultaneously performed at all the pixels, and the thereby produced signals are outputted to the pixel output lines (14). In the memory unit (20), with the writing-side transistor (21) in the ON state, the sampling transistor of a different memory section (24) is sequentially turned on for each exposure cycle so as to sequential hold a signal in the capacitor of each memory section (24). After a burst imaging operation is completed, all the pixel signals are sequentially read. Unlike CCDs, the present device does not simultaneously drive all gate loads, so that it can be driven at high speeds with low power consumption. Thus, the burst imaging can be performed at higher speeds than ever before.


Patent
Sakai Chemical Industry Co., Tohoku University and Fuji Ceramics Corporation | Date: 2012-02-15

Disclosed are a method of producing fine particulate alkali metal niobate in a liquid phase system, wherein the size and shape of particles of the fine particulate alkali metal niobate can be controlled; and fine particulate alkali metal niobate having a controlled shape and size. Specifically disclosed are a method of producing particulate sodium-potassium niobate represented by the formula (1): Na_(x)K_((1-x))NbO_(3) (1), the method including four specific steps, wherein a high-concentration alkaline solution containing Na^(+) ion and K^(+) ion is used as an alkaline solution.; and particulate sodium-potassium niobate having a controlled shape and size.


Patent
Tokuyama Corporation, Tohoku University and Kabushiki Kaisha Kobe Seiko Sho | Date: 2010-08-18

A radiation detecting apparatus of the present invention is an apparatus comprising a scintillator for converting incident radiation into ultraviolet radiation having a wavelength of 220 nm or less, the scintillator being composed of, for example, Nd-doped LaF_(3) crystals; and a diamond thin film sensor for guiding the resulting ultraviolet radiation and converting it into an electrical signal, the radiation detecting apparatus being adapted to transform the incident radiation to the electrical signal. The radiation detecting apparatus can detect radiation, such as X-rays, rays, rays, rays, or neutron rays, with high sensitivity. The radiation detecting apparatus also has a fast response, is very easy to downsize, has high resistance to radiation, and can be preferably used in the medical field, the industrial field, or the security field.


Patent
Tohoku University and Shimadzu Corporation | Date: 2010-06-02

A floating diffusion (331) is created substantially at center of the light-receiving surface of an embedded photodiode (31), with a gate electrode of a transfer transistor (32) surrounding the floating diffusion. The concentration (or depth) of impurities in a p^(+)-type semiconductor region, n-type semiconductor region or p-well region is changed in an inclined form so that a potential gradient being inclined downwards from the circumference to the center is created when an appropriate bias voltage is applied to the pn junction. The photocharges produced by incident light are rapidly moved along the potential gradient toward the center. Even in the case where the photocharge storage time is short, the photocharges can be efficiently collected since the maximum moving distance from the circumference of the photodiode (31) to the floating diffusion (331). Thus, the photocharges produced by the photodiode (31) are efficiently utilized, whereby the detection sensitivity is improved.


Patent
Konica Minolta and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-07-10

A tissue staining method which comprises: staining a tissue with a staining reagent wherein a biosubstance recognition site is bonded to particles carrying multiple fluorescent substances accumulated therein; in the stained tissue, counting fluorescent points or measuring fluorescent brightness; and evaluating the expression level of a biosubstance, which matches the biosubstance recognition site, in the aforesaid tissue on the basis of the number of the fluorescent points or fluorescent brightness that was measured.


Patent
Konica Minolta and Tohoku University | Date: 2013-03-26

Provided is a method for staining a tissue enabling highly precise staining, by which the expression amount and/or the location of a biological substance in a tissue sample can be detected with a high quantitativity together with detailed information that can be obtained by bright field observation. The tissue staining method of the present invention is a method for staining a tissue, in which both staining that allows bright field observation and fluorescence staining are carried out for the same specific biological substance.


Provided is a photodiode having a high-concentration layer on its surface, in which the high-concentration layer is formed so that the thickness of a non-depleted region is larger than the roughness of an interface between silicon and an insulator layer, and is smaller than a penetration depth of ultraviolet light.


Patent
Tohoku University and Foundation For Advancement Of International Science | Date: 2010-10-06

A CMOS semiconductor device comprising at least a pair of n-channel transistor (100n) and a p-channel transistor (100p), characterized in that:each of said n-channel and said p-channel transistors is comprised of a channel region, a source region (17,18) formed at one of both sides of said channel region, a drain region (17,18) formed at another one of the both sides of said channel region, two first electrodes (21,22) electrically connected to said source and said drain regions (531,532), respectively, and a second electrode (16) formed on said channel region through a gate insulating film (15),the interface between said channel region and said gate insulating film (15) is made flat at the atomic level,at least contact portions of said first electrodes respectively contacting the source and the drain regions (17) of said n-channel transistor (100n) are formed of a first metal silicide, andat least contact portions of said second electrodes respectively contacting the source and the drain regions (18) of said p-channel transistor (100p) are formed of a second metal silicide different from said first metal silicide.


Patent
Tohoku University and Shimadzu Corporation | Date: 2013-10-28

A logical gate circuit (5) and four stages of flip flips (4a-4d) are assigned to each pixel (1). A controller (7) inputs four phase identification signals into the logical gate circuit (5) and also inputs a start signal STR into a shift register (4) synchronously with the four mutually different phases defined by the phase identification signals. During one round of scanning all the pixels (1) for a readout control, if an enable signal ENBL is set to 0 while an output of a phase identification circuit (110) is 1, a charge accumulation time at the pixel (1) concerned becomes equal to a readout period T. If the enable signal ENBL is set to 1 while the output of the phase identification circuit (110) is 1, electric charges accumulated in a photodiode (11) until that point are entirely discarded, so that the charge accumulation time becomes shorter than the readout period T. Thus, the charge accumulation time at each pixel (1) can be controlled to ensure an adequate SN ratio while avoiding signal saturation at some pixels even if the light source has a bright line at a specific wavelength.


News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

Scientists in Japan have developed a molecular robot that can start and stop its shape-changing function in response to a specific DNA signal. A research group from Tohoku University and the Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology have developed a molecular robot consisting of biomolecules including DNA and protein. The researchers created the robot by integrating molecular machines into an artificial cell membrane, representing the first time a molecular robotic system has been able to recognize signals and control its shape-changing function. This advancement could mean that molecular robots could function in a way similar to living organisms. A molecular robot is an artificial molecular system that is built by integrating molecular machines. Researchers said such a system could lead to a bio-inspired robot designed on a molecular basis. The robot developed in Japan is about one millionth of a meter—similar to the size of human cells— and consists of a molecular actuator composed of protein and a molecular clutch composed of DNA. The robot can change the shape of its body with the actuator, while the transmission of the force generated by the actuator can be controlled by the molecular clutch. “We constructed an amoeba-like molecular robot that can express continuous shape change in response to specific signal molecules,” the study states. “The robot is composed of a body, an actuator and an actuator-controlling device. “The body is a vesicle made from a lipid bilayer and the actuator consists of proteins, kinesin, and microtubules. We made the clutch using designed DNA molecules.” Through experiments, the research group demonstrated that the molecular robot could start and stop the shape-changing behavior in response to a specific DNA signal. “With more than 20 chemicals at varying concentrations, it took us a year and a half to establish good conditions for working our molecular robots,” Shin-ichiro Nomura, an associate professor at Tohoku University’s Graduate School of Engineering and lead of the study, said in a statement. “It was exciting to see the robot shape-changing motion through the microscope. “It meant our designed DNA clutch worked perfectly, despite the complex conditions inside the robot,” he added. The breakthrough is also expected to significantly expand the possibilities of robotics engineering and could lead to developments that could help solve various medical issues by using a treatment robot for live culturing cells and a monitoring robot for checking environmental pollution. “The paper by Nomura and coworkers represents a major step towards the development of autonomous soft microrobots,” Friedrich Simmel, Ph.D., a professor at the Technische Universität München in Germany, said in a statement. “Based on this achievement, in the future similar systems could be developed that display artificial phototaxis or chemotaxis, or similar 'intelligent' behavior.” The study was published in Science Robotics


News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

Scientists in Japan have developed a molecular robot that can start and stop its shape-changing function in response to a specific DNA signal. A research group from Tohoku University and the Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology have developed a molecular robot consisting of biomolecules including DNA and protein. The researchers created the robot by integrating molecular machines into an artificial cell membrane, representing the first time a molecular robotic system has been able to recognize signals and control its shape-changing function. This advancement could mean that molecular robots could function in a way similar to living organisms. A molecular robot is an artificial molecular system that is built by integrating molecular machines. Researchers said such a system could lead to a bio-inspired robot designed on a molecular basis. The robot developed in Japan is about one millionth of a meter—similar to the size of human cells— and consists of a molecular actuator composed of protein and a molecular clutch composed of DNA. The robot can change the shape of its body with the actuator, while the transmission of the force generated by the actuator can be controlled by the molecular clutch. “We constructed an amoeba-like molecular robot that can express continuous shape change in response to specific signal molecules,” the study states. “The robot is composed of a body, an actuator and an actuator-controlling device. “The body is a vesicle made from a lipid bilayer and the actuator consists of proteins, kinesin, and microtubules. We made the clutch using designed DNA molecules.” Through experiments, the research group demonstrated that the molecular robot could start and stop the shape-changing behavior in response to a specific DNA signal. “With more than 20 chemicals at varying concentrations, it took us a year and a half to establish good conditions for working our molecular robots,” Shin-ichiro Nomura, an associate professor at Tohoku University’s Graduate School of Engineering and lead of the study, said in a statement. “It was exciting to see the robot shape-changing motion through the microscope. “It meant our designed DNA clutch worked perfectly, despite the complex conditions inside the robot,” he added. The breakthrough is also expected to significantly expand the possibilities of robotics engineering and could lead to developments that could help solve various medical issues by using a treatment robot for live culturing cells and a monitoring robot for checking environmental pollution. “The paper by Nomura and coworkers represents a major step towards the development of autonomous soft microrobots,” Friedrich Simmel, Ph.D., a professor at the Technische Universität München in Germany, said in a statement. “Based on this achievement, in the future similar systems could be developed that display artificial phototaxis or chemotaxis, or similar 'intelligent' behavior.” The study was published in Science Robotics


News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A research group at Tohoku University and Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology has developed a molecular robot consisting of biomolecules, such as DNA and protein. The molecular robot was developed by integrating molecular machines into an artificial cell membrane. It can start and stop its shape-changing function in response to a specific DNA signal. This is the first time that a molecular robotic system has been able to recognize signals and control its shape-changing function. What this means is that molecular robots could, in the near future, function in a way similar to living organisms. Using sophisticated biomolecules such as DNA and proteins, living organisms perform important functions. For example, white blood cells can chase bacteria by sensing chemical signals and migrating toward the target. In the field of chemistry and synthetic biology, elemental technologies for making various molecular machines, such as sensors, processors and actuators, are created using biomolecules. A molecular robot is an artificial molecular system that is built by integrating molecular machines. The researchers believe that realization of such a system could lead to a significant breakthrough - a bio-inspired robot designed on a molecular basis. The molecular robot developed by the research group is extremely small - about one millionth of a meter - similar in size to human cells. It consists of a molecular actuator, composed of protein, and a molecular clutch, composed of DNA (Fig. 1 A). The shape of the robot's body (artificial cell membrane) can be changed by the actuator, while the transmission of the force generated by the actuator can be controlled by the molecular clutch (bottom of Fig. 1 A). The research group demonstrated through experiments that the molecular robot could start and stop the shape-changing behavior in response to a specific DNA signal (Fig. 1 B). "With more than 20 chemicals at varying concentrations, it took us a year and a half to establish good conditions for working our molecular robots," says Associate Professor Shin-ichiro Nomura at Tohoku University's Graduate School of Engineering, who led the study. "It was exciting to see the robot shape-changing motion through the microscope. It meant our designed DNA clutch worked perfectly, despite the complex conditions inside the robot." The realization of a molecular robot whose components are designed at a molecular level and who can function in a small and complicated environment, such as the human body, is expected to significantly expand the possibilities of robotics engineering. The results of this study could lead to technological developments that could help solve important medical issues - such as a treatment robot for live culturing cells and a monitoring robot for checking environmental pollution. "The paper by Nomura and coworkers represents a major step towards the development of autonomous soft microrobots," says Dr. Friedrich Simmel, professor at the Technische Universität München. "Based on this achievement, in the future similar systems could be developed that display artificial phototaxis or chemotaxis, or similar 'intelligent' behavior." The research results were published in Science Robotics - a science magazine published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science - on March 1, 2017. It was supported by the JSPS KAKENHI, AMED-CREST and Tohoku University-DIARE.


Yamaya M.,Tohoku University
Pulmonary Medicine | Year: 2012

Infection with respiratory viruses, including rhinoviruses, influenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus, exacerbates asthma, which is associated with processes such as airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and mucus hypersecretion. In patients with viral infections and with infection-induced asthma exacerbation, inflammatory mediators and substances, including interleukins (ILs), leukotrienes and histamine, have been identified in the airway secretions, serum, plasma, and urine. Viral infections induce an accumulation of inflammatory cells in the airway mucosa and submucosa, including neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils. Viral infections also enhance the production of inflammatory mediators and substances in airway epithelial cells, mast cells, and other inflammatory cells, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, RANTES, histamine, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Viral infections affect the barrier function of the airway epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. Recent reports have demonstrated augmented viral production mediated by an impaired interferon response in the airway epithelial cells of asthma patients. Several drugs used for the treatment of bronchial asthma reduce viral and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from airway epithelial cells infected with viruses. Here, I review the literature on the pathogenesis of the viral infection-induced exacerbation of asthma and on the modulation of viral infection-induced airway inflammation. © 2012 Mutsuo Yamaya.


Sax N.,Tohoku University
Pharmaceutical research | Year: 2013

Liposomes encapsulating perfluoropropane gas, termed acoustic liposomes (ALs), which can serve both for ultrasound (US) imaging and US-mediated gene delivery, have been reported. However, the echogenicity of ALs decreases within minutes in vivo due to gas diffusion and leakage, hindering time-consuming procedures such as contrast-enhanced 3D US imaging and raising the need for improvement of their stability. The stability of ALs preparations incorporating increasing ratios of anionic / unsaturated phospholipids, polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated phospholipid and cholesterol was investigated by measurement of their reflectivity over time using a high-frequency US imaging system, both in vitro and in vivo. The retention of echogenicity of ALs in vitro is enhanced with increasing molar ratios of PEGylated lipids. Addition of 10 molar percent of an anionic phospholipid resulted in a 31% longer half-life, while cholesterol had the opposite effect. Assessment of the stability of an optimized composition showed a more than 2-fold increase of the detection half-life in mice. Presence of a PEG coating not only serves to provide "stealth" properties in vivo, but also contributes to the retention of the encapsulated gas. The optimized ALs reported here can be used as a contrast agent for lengthier imaging procedures.


Kitamoto T.,Tohoku University
Acta neuropathologica communications | Year: 2014

Dura mater graft-associated Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (dCJD) can be divided into two subgroups that exhibit distinct clinical and neuropathological features, with the majority represented by a non-plaque-type of dCJD (np-dCJD) and the minority by a plaque-type of dCJD (p-dCJD). The two distinct phenotypes of dCJD had been considered to be unrelated to the genotype (methionine, M or valine, V) at polymorphic codon 129 of the PRNP gene or type (type 1 or type 2) of abnormal isoform of prion protein (PrPSc) in the brain, while these are major determinants of clinicopathological phenotypes of sporadic CJD (sCJD). The reason for the existence of two distinct subgroups in dCJD had remained elusive. Recent progress in research of the pathogenesis of dCJD has revealed that two distinct subgroups of dCJD are caused by infection with different PrPSc strains from sCJD, i.e., np-dCJD caused by infection with sCJD-MM1/MV1, and p-dCJD caused by infection with sCJD-VV2 or -MV2. These studies have also revealed previously unrecognized problems as follows: (i) the numbers of p-dCJD patients may increase in the future, (ii) the potential risks of secondary infection from dCJD, particularly from p-dCJD, may be considerable, and (iii) the effectiveness of the current PrPSc decontamination procedures against the PrPSc from p-dCJD is uncertain. To prevent secondary infection from p-dCJD, the establishment of effective decontamination procedures is an urgent issue. In this review, we summarize the past and future problems surrounding dCJD.


Suzuki T.,Tohoku University | Yamamoto M.,Tohoku University
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2015

Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) is a master regulator of cellular responses against environmental stresses. Nrf2 induces the expression of detoxification and antioxidant enzymes, and Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1), an adaptor subunit of Cullin 3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase, regulates Nrf2 activity. Keap1 also acts as a sensor for oxidative and electrophilic stresses. Keap1 retains multiple sensor cysteine residues that detect various stress stimuli. Increasing attention has been paid to the roles that Nrf2 plays in the protection of our bodies against drug toxicity and stress-induced diseases. On the other hand, Nrf2 is found to promote both oncogenesis and cancer cell resistance against chemotherapeutic drugs. Thus, although Nrf2 acts to protect our body from deleterious stresses, cancer cells hijack the Nrf2 activity to support their malignant growth. Nrf2 has emerged as a new therapeutic target, and both inducers and inhibitors of Nrf2 are awaited. Studies challenging the molecular basis of the Keap1-Nrf2 system functions are now critically important to improve translational studies of the system. Indeed, recent studies identified cross talk between Nrf2 and other signaling pathways, which provides new insights into the mechanisms by which the Keap1-Nrf2 system serves as a potent regulator of our health and disease. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc.


Terada M.,Tohoku University
Current Organic Chemistry | Year: 2011

Chiral phosphoric acids derived from axially chiral biaryls and analogous chiral Brønsted acids have emerged as an attractive and widely applicable class of enantioselective organocatalysts for a variety of organic transformations. In this account article, we review our recent achievements and related works in the development of enantioselective carbon-carbon bond forming reactions using these axially chiral phosphoric acids and their analogues as chiral Brønsted acid catalysts. The contents are arranged according to the type of (pro)electrophiles, including imines, hemiaminal ethers, carbonyl compounds, and electron-rich double bonds, followed by specific reaction types. Further application to phosphoric acid/metal complex-combined catalytic systems is also highlighted. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


Fukasawa Y.,Tohoku University
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012

Although decomposer fungi have been recognized to play important roles in forest carbon and nutrient cycling as well as soil humus formation, their effects on forest dynamics, such as tree regeneration, are far less well understood than the effects of symbiotic and pathogenic fungi. In this study, I focused on tree regeneration on fallen woody debris, " nurse logs" I examined the effects of wood decomposer fungi on species composition and population densities of tree seedlings (height <50. cm) established on these logs. In an abandoned tract of coppice forest in Honshu, Japan, a thick litter layer had accumulated on the forest floor and seedlings of the small-seeded pioneer tree species Clethra barbinervis (Ericales) were found to be preferentially established on rotting fallen logs of the Japanese red pine Pinus densiflora. C. barbinervis seedling establishment was considerably reduced on soil probably because there were impediments to colonization on the ground, such as the thick litter layer, which was less well developed on logs. In contrast, larger-seeded species such as Aphananthe aspera, Carpinus spp., Quercus serrata, and Rhus trichocarpa preferentially established on soil. Characteristics of wood decomposition by fungi varied among logs, and this variability significantly influenced C. barbinervis seedling density. Seedling density was significantly higher on brown-rotted logs than that on logs belonging to other decay types. Wood pH was lower in brown-rotted logs than that in logs belonging to other decay types and was negatively correlated with seedling density. Thus, pine coarse woody debris and the functional diversity of wood inhabiting fungi influence the establishment of diverse tree seedlings in this abandoned Japanese coppice forest. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Greer A.L.,University of Cambridge | Greer A.L.,Tohoku University | Cheng Y.Q.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Ma E.,Johns Hopkins University
Materials Science and Engineering R: Reports | Year: 2013

Shear-banding is a ubiquitous plastic-deformation mode in materials. In metallic glasses, shear bands are particularly important as they play the decisive role in controlling plasticity and failure at room temperature. While there have been several reviews on the general mechanical properties of metallic glasses, a pressing need remains for an overview focused exclusively on shear bands, which have received tremendous attention in the past several years. This article attempts to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review on the rapid progress achieved very recently on this subject. We describe the shear bands from the inside out, and treat key materials-science issues of general interest, including the initiation of shear localization starting from shear transformations, the temperature and velocity reached in the propagating or sliding band, the structural evolution inside the shear-band material, and the parameters that strongly influence shear-banding. Several new discoveries and concepts, such as stick-slip cold shear-banding and strength/plasticity enhancement at sub-micrometer sample sizes, will also be highlighted. The understanding built-up from these accounts will be used to explain the successful control of shear bands achieved so far in the laboratory. The review also identifies a number of key remaining questions to be answered, and presents an outlook for the field. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Mack J.,Tohoku University | Kobayashi N.,Tohoku University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011

The most common strategy for the formation of low symmetry Pc's based on peripheral substitution and/or fused ring modification is to carry out condensation reactions with two different precursors to form compounds with AAAA, AAAB, AABB, ABAB, ABBB, and BBBB structures. The effect of lowering the symmetry is more pronounced, in the case of partial peripheral fused ring substitution. Typically, when there is a red shift of the Q band based on a destabilization of the HOMO, there will also be a decrease in the first oxidation potential, since it is easier to remove an electron. Conversely, a stabilization of the LUMO makes it easier to add an electron and, hence, leads to a decrease in the first reduction potential. The symmetry of radially symmetric phthalocyanines with AAAA structures can be lowered by introducing structural modifications.


Yamazaki S.,Tohoku University
Nature communications | Year: 2013

Erythropoietin regulates erythropoiesis in a hypoxia-inducible manner. Here we generate inherited super-anaemic mice (ISAM) as a mouse model of adult-onset anaemia caused by erythropoietin deficiency. ISAM express erythropoietin in the liver but lack erythropoietin production in the kidney. Around weaning age, when the major erythropoietin-producing organ switches from the liver to the kidney, ISAM develop anaemia due to erythropoietin deficiency, which is curable by administration of recombinant erythropoietin. In ISAM severe chronic anaemia enhances transgenic green fluorescent protein and Cre expression driven by the complete erythropoietin-gene regulatory regions, which facilitates efficient labelling of renal erythropoietin-producing cells. We show that the majority of cortical and outer medullary fibroblasts have the innate potential to produce erythropoietin, and also reveal a new set of erythropoietin target genes. ISAM are a useful tool for the evaluation of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and to trace the dynamics of erythropoietin-producing cells.


Kataoka H.,Tohoku University
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology | Year: 2015

Gustav Senn analyzed for the first time light-induced movement and arrangement of chloroplasts. Using many plant species he performed physiological analyses of chloroplast migration in response to external stimuli, with emphasis on light. He determined light paths within a cell by measuring refractive indices and optical thickness of cellular compartments and confirmed that chloroplasts migrate towards the region where the light intensity is optimum. After 6 to 7 years' concentrated study, Senn published the famous monograph "Die Gestalts- und Lageveränderung der Pflanzen- Chromatophoren" (The Changes in Shape and Position of Plant Chloroplasts) in 1908. This book has stimulated many plant physiologists and photobiologists, because Senn not only thoroughly classified and defined various types of light-induced chloroplast migration but also already described possible interaction of different photoreceptor systems in Mougeotia more than 50 years before the discovery of phytochrome. This book also contains still useful experimental hints and overlooked findings on the interaction between light and other factors, such as temperature, water content, and nourishment. After publishing this book, Senn retreated from the study of chloroplasts and became a researcher of the Greek philosopher, Theophrastus. In this review, I introduce his biographical background and then summarize some of his key research accomplishment. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.


Sugiyama N.S.,Tohoku University
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2012

The consistency relation between non-linear parameters f NL and τ NL characterizing Non-Gaussianity generated in the super horizon scale have been emerged as a useful tool to rule out a large class of inflationary models all at once. In our previous work, we extended the Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality up to 1-loop corrections. In this paper, we further extend the inequality up to all loop corrections, and found that it takes the same expression with the original Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality, τ NL ((6/5)f NL) 2, where the equality is not satisfied in the case of single field models any more. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl.


Aortic stiffening often precedes cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain obscure. We hypothesized that such abnormalities could be attributable to altered central blood flow dynamics. In 296 patients with uncomplicated hypertension, Doppler velocity pulse waveforms were recorded at the proximal descending aorta and carotid artery to calculate the reverse/forward flow ratio and diastolic/systolic flow index, respectively. Tonometric waveforms were recorded on the radial artery to estimate aortic pressure and characteristic impedance (Z0) and to determine carotid-femoral (aortic) and carotid-radial (peripheral) pulse wave velocities. In all subjects, the aortic flow waveform was bidirectional, comprising systolic forward and diastolic reverse flows. The aortic reverse/forward flow ratio (35±10%) was positively associated with parameters of aortic stiffness (including pulse wave velocity, Z0, and aortic/peripheral pulse wave velocity ratio), independent of age, body mass index, aortic diameter, and aortic pressure. The carotid flow waveform was unidirectional and bimodal with systolic and diastolic maximal peaks. There was a positive relationship between the carotid diastolic/systolic flow index (28±9%) and aortic reverse/forward flow ratio, which remained significant after adjustment for aortic stiffness and other related parameters. The Bland-Altman plots showed a close time correspondence between aortic reverse and carotid diastolic flow peaks. In conclusion, aortic stiffness determines the extent of flow reversal from the descending aorta to the aortic arch, which contributes to the diastolic antegrade flow into the carotid artery. This hemodynamic relationship constitutes a potential mechanism linking increased aortic stiffness, altered flow dynamics, and increased stroke risk in hypertension. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.


Lee U.,Tohoku University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

We discuss non-radial modes in mass-accreting and rapidly rotating neutron stars for the coherent frequency detected in a millisecond X-ray pulsar XTE J1751-305. The spin frequency of the pulsar is νspin ≅ 435Hz and the identified frequency is νosc = 0.572 7595 × νspin. Assuming that the frequency detected is that in the corotating frame of the star, we examine r and g modes in the surface layer of accreting matter composed mostly of helium, inertial and r modes in the fluid core, and toroidal modes in the solid crust. We find that the r modes of ľ = m = 1 and 2 excited by ε-mechanism in the surface layer can give the ratio κ = νosc/νspin ≃ 0.57 at νspin = 435Hz, where m and ľ are the azimuthal wavenumber and the harmonic degree of the modes. We also suggest a toroidal crust mode and a core r mode destabilized by gravitational wave emission for the observed ratio κ. We find that the amplitude of the core r mode of ľ = m = 2 can be amplified at the surface layer by a large factor famp ∼ 102 at νspin = 435Hz for a M = 1.4M⊙ neutron-star model. This amplification, however, may not be large enough for the r-mode amplitude to be consistent with an estimation byMahmoodifar & Strohmayer (2013).


Otsuki J.,Tohoku University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

The Kondo lattice model describes a quantum phase transition between the antiferromagnetic state and heavy-fermion states. Applying the dual-fermion approach, we explore possible superconductivities emerging due to the critical antiferromagnetic fluctuations. The d-wave pairing is found to be the leading instability only in the weak-coupling regime. As the coupling is increased, we observe a change of the pairing symmetry into a p-wave spin-singlet pairing. The competing superconductivities are ascribed to crossover between small and large Fermi surfaces, which occurs with the formation of heavy quasiparticles. © 2015 American Physical Society. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Snyder J.,Johns Hopkins University | Fujita T.,Tohoku University | Chen M.W.,Tohoku University | Erlebacher J.,Johns Hopkins University
Nature Materials | Year: 2010

The improvement of catalysts for the four-electron oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR; O2 +4H+ +4e- →2H 2O) remains a critical challenge for fuel cells and other electrochemical-energy technologies. Recent attention in this area has centred on the development of metal alloys with nanostructured compositional gradients (for example, core-shell structure) that exhibit higher activity than supported Pt nanoparticles (Pt-C; refs 1-7). For instance, with a Pt outer surface and Ni-rich second atomic layer, Pt3Ni(111) is one of the most active surfaces for the ORR (ref. 8), owing to a shift in the d-band centre of the surface Pt atoms that results in a weakened interaction between Pt and intermediate oxide species, freeing more active sites for O2 adsorption. However, enhancements due solely to alloy structure and composition may not be sufficient to reduce the mass activity enough to satisfy the requirements for fuel-cell commercialization, especially as the high activity of particular crystal surface facets may not easily translate to polyfaceted particles. Here we show that a tailored geometric and chemical materials architecture can further improve ORR catalysis by demonstrating that a composite nanoporous Ni-Pt alloy impregnated with a hydrophobic, high-oxygen-solubility and protic ionic liquid has extremely high mass activity. The results are consistent with an engineered chemical bias within a catalytically active nanoporous framework that pushes the ORR towards completion. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Ohnishi N.,Tohoku University
High Energy Density Physics | Year: 2012

A radiation hydrodynamics code has been developed for more accurate prediction of laser-produced low-density ablation plasmas with appropriately describing anisotropic radiation field by using Monte-Carlo technique for variable Eddington tensor with reasonable computational loads. The Eddington tensor estimated by thousand of sample particles per single fluid step can reproduce the anisotropic radiation field in the low-density region and will not result in large computational consumption. Prediction of the emitted light from ablation plasma can be corrected by the proposed method. Ablation structure sustained by a compact radiation source, which is sometimes found in experiments of collisionless shock relevant to laboratory astrophysics, may also be changed by anisotropic transfer computation in optically thin region. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Ide H.,Tohoku University
Developmental Dynamics | Year: 2012

Background: Although urodela amphibians completely regenerate amputated limbs, the potency of limb regeneration in mammalians is very low. In mice and humans, a digit tip regenerates, but no regeneration beyond the digit joint occurs. In this article, we describe the induction of bone formation by BMPs in the forearm, a more proximal region, of neonatal mice. Distal halves of the radius and ulna were removed from limbs amputated at the wrist level in advance, and gelatin rods containing BMPs were grafted in the space of the forearm. BMP-7 and BMP-2 were effective. Results: The induction of bone formation depended on the amount of BMP-7 in grafted gelatin gels. BMP-7 at over 320 ng/limb induced long bones within 10 days. Cartilage formation was always observed before the bone formation as in the case of normal limb development. The origin of cells responsive to BMP-7 is not clear, but the formation of large bone tissues in a relatively short time suggests a wide distribution of precursor cells in the limbs. Grafting of dye-stained mesenchymal tissue fragments suggested that mesenchymal tissues other than the dermis, bone, and joint cartilage are responsive to BMP-7 and form cartilage/bone. Two long bones induced were arranged in parallel fashion in many cases like the radius and ulna. An agonist of hedgehog promoted the formation of bones in the presence of BMP-7. Furthermore, bone elements were fused to stump bones to form a single bone. Conclusions: The results suggest the potency of bone pattern regeneration in the amputated forearm of a neonatal mouse. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Autophagy is a bulk degradation system in all eukaryotic cells and regulates a variety of biological activities in higher eukaryotes. Recently involvement of autophagy in the regulation of the secretory pathway has also been reported, but the molecular mechanism linking autophagy with the secretory pathway remains largely unknown. Here we show that Atg16L1, an essential protein for canonical autophagy, is localized on hormone-containing dense-core vesicles in neuroendocrine PC12 cells and that knockdown of Atg16L1 causes a dramatic reduction in the level of hormone secretion independently of autophagic activity. We also find that Atg16L1 interacts with the small GTPase Rab33A and that this interaction is required for the dense-core vesicle localization of Atg16L1 in PC12 cells. Our findings indicate that Atg16L1 regulates not only autophagy in all cell types, but also secretion from dense-core vesicles, presumably by acting as a Rab33A effector, in particular cell types.


Rikiishi H.,Tohoku University
Cancer Biology and Therapy | Year: 2012

The survival rates of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) have not improved significantly despite multi-modality therapy, including surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Recently, molecular targeted agents have shown significant improvement in clinical outcomes; for example, in chronic myelogeneous leukemia with imatinib, breast cancer with trastuzumab, colon cancer with bevacizumab and cetuximab, and renal cell cancer with sorafenib and sunitinib. In HNSCC, the epidermal growth factor receptor antibody cetuximab has shown promising results in combination with radiation. Targeted agents including cetuximab induce stresses to activate prosurvival autophagy. Combining autophagy inhibitors with agents that induce autophagy as a prosurvival response may therefore increase their therapeutic efficacy. Whether autophagy contributes to the prosurvival response or to the antitumor effect of chemotherapeutic drugs is largely unknown. This review will discuss the possible role of autophagy as a novel target for anticancer therapy agents in HNSCC. © 2012 Landes Bioscience.


Sato Y.,Tohoku University
Vascular Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Angiogenesis is thought to be regulated by the local balance between angiogenesis stimulators and angiogenesis inhibitors. A number of endogenous regulators of angiogenesis have been found in the body. We recently isolated vasohibin-1 (VASH1) as a negative feedback regulator of angiogenesis produced by endothelial cells, and VASH2 as a homologue of VASH1 thereafter. We found that VASH1 was expressed in endothelial cells to terminate angiogenesis, whereas VASH2 promoted angiogenesis, in the mouse model of angiogenesis. This mini-review will focus on the vasohibin family in relation to the regulation of angiogenesis. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Masamune A.,Tohoku University
Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine | Year: 2014

Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive infammatory disease in which pancreatic secretory parenchyma is destroyed and replaced by fbrous tissue, eventually leading to malnutrition and diabetes. Alcohol is the leading cause in Western countries, but genetic factors are also implicated. Since the identification of mutations in the cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) gene as a cause of hereditary pancreatitis in 1996, we have seen great progress in our understanding of the genetics of pancreatitis. It has been established that mutations in the genes related to the activation and inactivation of trypsin(ogen) such as PRSS1, serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) and chymotrypsin C (CTRC) genes are associated with pancreatitis. In 2013, carboxypeptidase A1 (CPA1) was identified as a novel pancreatitis susceptibility gene. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in pancreatic acinar cells resulting from the mis-folding of mutated pancreatic enzymes has been shown to act as a novel mechanism underlying the susceptibility to pancreatitis. In Japan, the nationwide survey revealed 171 patients (96 males and 75 females) with hereditary pancreatitis in 59 families based on the European Registry of Hereditary Pancreatitis and Familial Pancreatic Cancer criteria. Because about 30% of families with hereditary pancreatitis do not carry mutations in any of the known pancreatitis susceptibility genes, other yet unidentified genes might be involved. Next generation sequencers can perform billions of sequencing reactions with a read length of 150-250 nucleotides. Comprehensive analysis using next generation sequencers will be a promising strategy to identify novel pancreatitis-associated genes and further clarify the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. © 2014 Tohoku University Medical Press.


So T.,Tohoku University | Croft M.,La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2013

Activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt (protein kinase B) is a common response triggered by a range of membrane-bound receptors on many cell types. In T lymphocytes, the PI3K-Akt pathway promotes clonal expansion, differentiation, and survival of effector cells and suppresses the generation of regulatory T cells. PI3K activation is tightly controlled by signals through the T cell receptor (TCR) and the co-stimulatory receptor CD28, however sustained and periodic signals from additional co-receptors are now being recognized as critical contributors to the activation of this pathway. Accumulating evidence suggests that many members of the Tumor Necrosis Factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, TNFR2 (TNFRSF1B), OX40 (TNFRSF4), 4-1BB (TNFRSF9), HVEM (TNFRSF14), and DR3 (TNFRSF25), that are constitutive or inducible on T cells, can directly or indirectly promote activity in the PI3K-Akt pathway. We discuss recent data which suggests that ligation of one TNFR family molecule organizes a signalosome, via TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) adapter proteins in T cell membrane lipid microdomains, that results in the subsequent accumulation of highly concentrated depots of PI3K and Akt in close proximity to TCR signaling units. We propose this may be a generalizable mechanism applicable to other TNFR family molecules that will result in a quantitative contribution of these signalosomes to enhancing and sustaining PI3K and Akt activation triggered by the TCR. We also review data that other TNFR molecules, such as CD40 (TNFRSF5), RANK (TNFRSF11A), FN14 (TNFRSF12A), TACI (TNFRSF13B), BAFFR (TNFRSF13C), and NGFR (TNFRSF16), contribute to the activation of this pathway in diverse cell types through a similar ability to recruit PI3K or Akt into their signaling complexes. © 2013 So and Croft.


Wilks A.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Ikeda-Saito M.,Tohoku University
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2014

ConspectusThe eukaryotic heme oxygenases (HOs) (E.C. 1.14.99.3) convert heme to biliverdin, iron, and carbon monoxide (CO) in three successive oxygenation steps. Pathogenic bacteria require iron for survival and infection. Extracellular heme uptake from the host plays a critical role in iron acquisition and virulence. In the past decade, several HOs required for the release of iron from extracellular heme have been identified in pathogenic bacteria, including Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Neisseriae meningitides, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacterial enzymes were shown to be structurally and mechanistically similar to those of the canonical eukaryotic HO enzymes. However, the recent discovery of the structurally and mechanistically distinct noncanonical heme oxygenases of Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has expanded the reaction manifold of heme degradation. The distinct ferredoxin-like structural fold and extreme heme ruffling are proposed to give rise to the alternate heme degradation products in the S. aureus and M. tuberculosis enzymes. In addition, several "heme-degrading factors" with no structural homology to either class of HOs have recently been reported. The identification of these "heme-degrading proteins" has largely been determined on the basis of in vitro heme degradation assays. Many of these proteins were reported to produce biliverdin, although no extensive characterization of the products was performed. Prior to the characterization of the canonical HO enzymes, the nonenzymatic degradation of heme and heme proteins in the presence of a reductant such as ascorbate or hydrazine, a reaction termed "coupled oxidation", served as a model for biological heme degradation. However, it was recognized that there were important mechanistic differences between the so-called coupled oxidation of heme proteins and enzymatic heme oxygenation. In the coupled oxidation reaction, the final product, verdoheme, can readily be converted to biliverdin under hydrolytic conditions. The differences between heme oxygenation by the canonical and noncanonical HOs and coupled oxidation will be discussed in the context of the stabilization of the reactive FeIII-OOH intermediate and regioselective heme hydroxylation. Thus, in the determination of heme oxygenase activity in vitro, it is important to ensure that the reaction proceeds through successive oxygenation steps. We further suggest that when bacterial heme degradation is being characterized, a systems biology approach combining genetics, mechanistic enzymology, and metabolite profiling should be undertaken. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Katoh Y.,Tohoku University | Omura Y.,Kyoto University
Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics | Year: 2013

By a series of self-consistent electron hybrid code simulations, we study the effect of the background magnetic field inhomogeneity on the generation process of whistler-mode chorus emissions. Chorus with rising tones are generated through nonlinear wave-particle interactions occurring around the magnetic equator. The mirror force plays an important role in the nonlinear interactions, and the spatial inhomogeneity of the background magnetic field is a key parameter of the chorus generation process. We have conducted numerical experiments with different spatial inhomogeneities to understand properties of the chorus generation process. We assume the same initial condition of energetic electrons at the magnetic equator in all simulation runs. The simulation results reveal that the spectral characteristics of chorus significantly vary depending on the magnetic field inhomogeneity. Whistler-mode emissions are generated and propagate away from the equator in all simulation runs, but distinct chorus elements with rising tones are only reproduced in the cases of small inhomogeneities. In the simulation that had the smallest inhomogeneity, we find excitation of broadband hiss-like emission (BHE) whose amplitudes are comparable to discrete chorus elements found in other simulation runs. The BHE consists of many wave elements with rising tones nonlinearly triggered in the region close to the magnetic equator. We show that the small spatial inhomogeneity of the background magnetic field results in the small threshold amplitude for the nonlinear wave growth and allows the triggering process of rising tone elements to emerge easily in the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Wakamatsu Y.,Tohoku University
Development Growth and Differentiation | Year: 2011

Cranial sense organs and a subset of cranial sensory neurons are generated from placodes, thickenings of the ectoderm. Pax3 has been known as a marker for ophthalmic trigeminal placode specification, and also an important regulator of trigeminal placode neuron differentiation. In this study, I show that Pax6 is initially expressed in the preplacodal region at the level of ophthalmic trigeminal placode, and that this expression gradually regresses in a medial-to-lateral direction as Pax3 expression expands in the same direction. Misexpression studies revealed that Pax6 represses Pax3 expression indirectly as a transcriptional activator in a cell-autonomous manner. Pax3-misexpression represses Pax6 expression in an indirect fashion, suggesting that unknown factor(s) downstream of Pax3 may repress Pax6 expression, and thereby allow an expansion of Pax3-positive ophthalmic trigeminal placode region. These results indicate that the mutual repression between Pax3 and Pax6 has important roles in the specification and the positioning of the ophthalmic trigeminal placode. © 2011 The Author. Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2011 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.


Nakagawa Y.,Tohoku University | Tamura M.,Tohoku University | Tomishige K.,Tohoku University
ACS Catalysis | Year: 2013

Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are important platform chemicals in biorefinery. Reduction of furfural or HMF with H2 over heterogeneous catalysts is the simplest way to convert the oxygen-rich compounds. However, the process can involve many types of reactions such as hydrogenation of the C=O bond, hydrogenation of the furan ring, C-O hydrogenolysis, rearrangement, C-C dissociation, and polymerization. Hydrogenation reactions are most studied in line with hydrogenations of other α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, and it becomes possible to produce each product selectively: furfuryl alcohol, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, 2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan, or 2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran. Total reduction of side substituents to give 2-methylfuran or 2,5-dimethylfuran is another well-known reaction. Rearrangement and C-O hydrogenolysis reactions have been recently investigated, and they can give useful products such as cyclopentanone, 1,5-pentanediol, and 1,6-hexanediol. Ongoing studies of the reaction mechanisms are also reviewed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Shimokawa H.,Tohoku University
Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology | Year: 2010

The endothelium plays an important role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis by synthesizing and releasing several vasodilating substances, including vasodilator prostaglandins, nitric oxide (NO), and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). Since the first report on the existence of EDHF, several substances/mechanisms have been proposed for the nature of EDHF, including epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (metabolites of arachidonic P450 epoxygenase pathway), K ions, and electrical communications through myoendothelial gap junctions. We have demonstrated that endothelium-derived hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an EDHF in animals and humans. For the synthesis of H2O2/EDHF, endothelial NO synthase system that is functionally coupled with Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase plays a crucial role. Importantly, endothelium-derived H2O2 plays important protective roles in the coronary circulation, including coronary autoregulation, protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, and metabolic coronary vasodilatation. Indeed, our H2O2/EDHF theory demonstrates that endothelium-derived H2O2, another reactive oxygen species in addition to NO, plays important roles as a redox-signaling molecule to cause vasodilatation as well as cardioprotection. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge on H2O 2/EDHF regarding its identification and mechanisms of synthesis and actions. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Watanabe N.,Tohoku University
Methods in Enzymology | Year: 2012

Cells must rapidly remodel the actin filament network to achieve various cellular functions. Actin filament turnover is a dynamic process that plays crucial roles in cell adhesion, locomotion, cytokinesis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, tissue remodeling, etc., and is regulated by cell signaling cascades. Success in elucidating dynamic biological processes such as actin-based motility relies on the means enabling real time monitoring of the process. The invention of live-cell fluorescence single-molecule imaging has opened a window for direct viewing of various actin remodeling processes. In general, assembly and dissociation of actin and its regulators turned out to occur at the faster rates than previously estimated by biochemical and structural analyses. Cells undergo such fast continuous exchange of the components perhaps not only to drive actin remodeling but also to facilitate rapid response in many other cell mechanics and signaling cascades. This chapter describes how epifluorescence single-molecule imaging which visualizes deeper area than the TIRF microscopy is achieved in XTC cells, the currently best platform for this approach. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Unemoto A.,Tohoku University | Matsuo M.,Tohoku University | Orimo S.-I.,Tohoku University
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2014

Complex hydrides have energy storage-related functions such as i) solid-state hydrogen storage, ii) electrochemical Li storage, and iii) fast Li- and Na-ionic conductions. Here, recent progress on the development of fast Li-ionic conductors based on the complex hydrides is reported. The validity of using them as electrolytes in all-solid-state lithium rechargeable batteries is also examined. Not only coated oxides but also bare sulfides are found to be applicable as positive electrode active materials. Results related to fast Na-ionic conductivity in the complex hydrides are presented. In the last section, the future prospects for battery assemblies with high-energy densities, and Mg ion batteries with the liquid and the solid-state electrolytes are discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Matsui J.,Yamagata University | Kikuchi R.,Tohoku University | Miyashita T.,Tohoku University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

Development of multicolored electrochromic materials is important to realize their applications in electronic devices such as full color electronic paper. One method to increase the number of colors in an electrochromic device is by color mixing. A simple method for color mixing involves two electrochromes deposited at different working electrodes. Selective control of the redox state of each electrochrome allows the generation of both the individual electrochrome colors and a mixture of the two colors. In this paper we report a new strategy that enables color mixing using a single working electrode. A trilayer film composed of an ultrathin layer of a ruthenium complex sandwiched between two layers of Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles was prepared on an ITO electrode using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry of the films indicate that the redox state of PB located at the top and bottom layer can be independently controlled using a single working electrode. In this way a mixture of the colors of PB and Prussian yellow could be produced without the necessity for multiple electrodes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Suryanarayana C.,University of Central Florida | Inoue A.,Tohoku University
International Materials Reviews | Year: 2013

The current status of research and development in Fe-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is reviewed. Bulk metallic glasses are relatively new materials possessing a glassy structure and large section thickness. These materials have an exciting combination of properties such as high mechanical strength, good thermal stability, large supercooled liquid region and potential for easy forming. Ever since the first synthesis of an Fe-based BMG in an Fe-Al-Ga-P-C-B system in 1995, there has been intense activity on the synthesis and characterisation of Fe-based BMGs. These BMGs exhibit some unique characteristics which have not been obtained in conventional Fe-based crystalline alloys. This uniqueness has led to practical uses of these bulk glassy alloys as soft magnetic and structural materials. This review presents the recent results on the glassforming ability, structure, thermal stability, mechanical properties, corrosion behaviour, soft magnetic properties and applications of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys developed during the last 15 years. This review also highlights the advanced analysis of their properties which has contributed significantly to the progress in understanding and developing of the Fe-based BMGs. The future prospects of Fe-based BMGs have also been presented. © 2013 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining and ASM International.


Polymer micro-and nano-particles have attracted much attention because of their promise for a variety of applications. This focus review introduces an emerging method for producing nanostructured polymer particles, called self-organized precipitation (SORP), and gives an overview of controlling the internal structure of polymer particles by using various polymer blends and block-copolymer systems. The possible applications and future prospects of this technology are also discussed. © 2013 The Society of Polymer Science, Japan (SPSJ) All rights reserved.


Kubota K.,Tohoku University
Microbes and Environments | Year: 2013

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a standard technique in environmental microbiology. More than 20 years have passed since this technique was first described, and it is currently used for the detection of ribosomal RNA, messenger RNA, and functional genes encoded on chromosomes. This review focuses on the advancement and applications of FISH combined with catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD, also known as tyramide signal amplification or TSA), in the detection of environmental microorganisms. Significant methodological improvements have been made in CARD-FISH technology, including its combination with other techniques and instruments.


Harada R.,Tohoku University
European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging | Year: 2013

Extensive deposition of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although several PET imaging agents have been developed for in vivo detection of senile plaques, no PET probe is currently available for selective detection of neurofibrillary tangles in the living human brain. Recently, [(18)F]THK-523 was developed as a potential in vivo imaging probe for tau pathology. The purpose of this study was to compare the binding properties of [(18)F]THK-523 and other amyloid imaging agents, including PiB, BF-227 and FDDNP, to synthetic protein fibrils and human brain tissue. In vitro radioligand binding assays were conducted using synthetic amyloid β(42) and K18ΔK280-tau fibrils. Nonspecific binding was determined by the addition of unlabelled compounds at a concentration of 2 μM. To examine radioligand binding to neuropathological lesions, in vitro autoradiography was conducted using sections of AD brain. [(18)F]THK-523 showed higher affinity for tau fibrils than for Aβ fibrils, whereas the other probes showed a higher affinity for Aβ fibrils. The autoradiographic analysis indicated that [(18)F]THK-523 accumulated in the regions containing a high density of tau protein deposits. Conversely, PiB and BF-227 accumulated in the regions containing a high density of Aβ plaques. These findings suggest that the unique binding profile of [(18)F]THK-523 can be used to identify tau deposits in AD brain.


Uchida N.,Tohoku University | Matsuzawa T.,Tohoku University
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2013

Slow (aseismic) slip that accommodates part of the long-term plate motion on subduction megathrusts is thought to be strongly related to the occurrence of large earthquakes on the same fault zone. However, the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the aseismic slip before major earthquakes and of accelerated postseismic afterslip are largely unconstrained. We estimate cumulative offsets of small repeating earthquakes that are interpreted to reflect the in situ aseismic slip history on the subduction zone offshore northeastern Japan. These data reveal contrasting aseismic slip patterns between the coseismic rupture area of the Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake and surrounding portions of the subduction thrust. The rupture area is characterised by low and variable slip rates before 2008, and the slip stopped almost completely after the earthquake. The region surrounding the rupture area exhibited higher aseismic fault slip rates before the earthquake and clear postseismic slip of up to 1.6. m within 9 months following the main shock. The frictional fault properties and complete relief of ambient stress in the central rupture zone of the main shock probably control the observed distribution. The postseismic slip shows a more abrupt increase in the region closer to the source, suggesting outwards propagation of afterslip. Small but distinct increases in the slip rate in the ~3. yr before the earthquake near the area of large coseismic slip suggests preseismic unfastening of the locked area in the last stage of the earthquake cycle. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Zhao D.,Tohoku University | Yamamoto Y.,Tohoku University | Yanada T.,Tohoku University
Gondwana Research | Year: 2013

A new global P-wave tomography model is determined using a flexible-grid parameterization. This new model better reveals the mantle structure under the polar regions than the previous tomographic models. The subducting slabs are generally imaged clearly as high-velocity (high-V) zones. The young slabs are still subducting in the upper mantle and the mantle transition zone (MTZ), whereas the old and ancient slabs are either stagnant in the MTZ or have subducted down to the lower mantle, even reaching the core-mantle boundary. Low-velocity (low-V) anomalies are generally revealed in the mantle under the hotspot regions. It seems that a variety of mantle upwelling (plumes) exist. Some strong plumes are visible in the whole mantle under the long-living hotspots, such as those in south-central Pacific, Africa, Hawaii and Iceland, whereas weak plumes are visible in only some depth range under the minor hotspots. Under the intraplate volcanoes in East Eurasia, Bering Sea and West Alaska, significant low-V anomalies are revealed in the upper mantle, which may reflect hot and wet upwelling associated with corner flows in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant Pacific slab in the MTZ and perhaps deep slab dehydration as well. The subduction-triggered magmatism in the BMW may be a new class of mantle plumes. We also used the new global model to investigate the influence of whole-mantle heterogeneity on the determination of upper-mantle tomography under Japan with a teleseismic inversion method. The results show that the mantle heterogeneities outside the target volume of regional tomography can cause significant changes (~. 0.2-0.4. s) to the observed relative travel-time residuals of a distant earthquake. The pattern of regional tomography remains the same even after correcting for the whole-mantle heterogeneity, but there are some changes in the amplitude of velocity anomalies in the regional tomography. Hence it is necessary to correct for the mantle heterogeneities outside the target volume so as to obtain a better regional tomography. © 2012 International Association for Gondwana Research.


Fukumoto Y.,Tohoku University | Shimokawa H.,Tohoku University
Circulation Journal | Year: 2011

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a fatal disease caused by small pulmonary artery obstruction from vascular proliferation and remodeling. PH is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and increased pulmonary vascular resistance, frequently leading to right-sided heart failure and death. The classification of PH has been recently updated to include 5 major categories of the disorder, are as: Group 1, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); Group 2, PH due to left heart disease; Group 3, PH due to lung diseases and/or hypoxia; Group 4, chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH); and Group 5, others. Recently, significant progress has been made in the understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of PH. Regarding the pathophysiology of the disorder, direct evidence for Rho-kinase activation in the pulmonary artery from PAH patients has been provided. Regarding diagnosis, optical coherence tomography is useful as a new differential diagnostic tool for distal type CTEPH vs. PAH. Regarding treatment, in addition to the conventional therapy, several new drugs are under clinical trial, including fasudil (a Rho-kinase inhibitor), riosiguat (a soluble guanylate cyclase activator), and imatinib (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor). In addition, pulmonary angioplasty and intensive immunosuppressive therapy may be effective for CTEPH and connective tissue disease-associated PAH, respectively. We briefly review the recent progress in the management of PH.


Mori E.,Tohoku University | Ikeda M.,Kumamoto University | Kosaka K.,Yokohama City University
Annals of Neurology | Year: 2012

Objective: Because cholinergic deficits are prominent in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), we investigated the effects of a cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, in such patients in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory phase 2 trial. Methods: One-hundred forty patients with DLB, recruited from 48 specialty centers in Japan, were randomly assigned to receive placebo or 3, 5, or 10mg of donepezil hydrochloride daily for 12 weeks (n = 35, 35, 33, and 37, respectively). Effects on cognitive function were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and several domain-specific neuropsychological tests. Changes in behavior were evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, caregiver burden using the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, and global function using the Clinician's Interview-Based Impression of Change-plus Caregiver Input (CIBIC-plus). Safety measures included the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III. Results: Donepezil at 5 and 10mg/day was significantly superior to placebo on both the MMSE (5mg: mean difference, 3.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-5.3; p < 0.001; 10 mg: mean difference, 2.4; 95% CI, 0.9-3.9; p = 0.001) and CIBIC-plus (p < 0.001 for each); 3mg/day was significantly superior to placebo on CIBIC-plus (p < 0.001), but not on the MMSE (p = 0.017). Significant improvements were found also in behavioral measures (p < 0.001) at 5 and 10mg/day and caregiver burden (p = 0.004) at 10 mg/day. The safety results were consistent with the known profile of donepezil and similar among groups. Interpretation: Donepezil at 5 and 10mg/day produces significant cognitive, behavioral, and global improvements that last at least 12 weeks in DLB patients, reducing caregiver burden at the highest dose. Donepezil is safe and well tolerated. © 2012 American Neurological Association.


Kurosawa S.,Tohoku University
Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology | Year: 2012

Purpose of review: Along with the increasing population of elderly people in developed countries, anesthesiologists have increasing opportunities to anesthetize cancer patients in their routine work. However, no guideline of anesthesia procedures for cancer patients is available even though guidelines of operative procedures have been formulated for different types of cancer. This review provides Recent findings related to the optimal choice of anesthetics and adequate anesthesia management for cancer patients. Recent findings: The intrinsic weapon fighting cancer cells is competent immune cells, particularly CD4 + T helper 1-type cells, CD8 + cytotoxic T cells, and natural killer cells. However, surgical inflammation, some anesthetics, and inadvertent anesthesia management suppress these effector cells and induce suppressive immune cells, which render cancer patients susceptible to tumor recurrence and metastasis after surgery. Summary: Accumulated basic and clinical data suggest that total intravenous anesthesia with propofol, cyclooxygenase antagonists, and regional anesthesia can decrease negative consequences associated with perioperative immunosuppression. Volatile anesthesia, systemic morphine administration, unnecessary blood transfusions, intraoperative hypoxia, hypotension, hypothermia, and hyperglycemia should be avoided. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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