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Sendai, Japan

Tohoku Pharmaceutical University is a private university in Sendai, Miyagi, Japan, established in 1949. The predecessor of the school was founded in 1939. Wikipedia.

Kanatsu Y.,Tohoku Pharmaceutical University
Journal of biochemistry | Year: 2012

Gangliosides mediate neuronal differentiation and maturation and are indispensable for the maintenance of brain function and survival. As part of our ongoing efforts to understand signaling pathways related to ganglioside function, we recently demonstrated that neuronal cells react to exogenous gangliosides GT1b and GD1b. Both of these gangliosides are enriched in the synapse-forming area of the brain and induce Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores, activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and activation of cdc42 to promote reorganization of cytoskeletal actin and dendritic differentiation. Here, we show that bradykinin B2 receptors transduce these reactions as a mediator for ganglioside glycan signals. The B2 antagonist Hoe140 inhibited ganglioside-induced CaMKII activation, actin reorganization and early development of axon- and dendrite-like processes of primary cultured hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we confirmed by yeast reporter assay that major b-series gangliosides, GT1b, GD1b and GD3, stimulated B2 bradykinin receptors. We hypothesize that this B2 receptor-mediated ganglioside signal transduction pathway is one mechanism that modulates neuronal differentiation and maturation. Source

Inokuchi J.-I.,Tohoku Pharmaceutical University
FEBS Letters | Year: 2010

A new concept, that " metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, are membrane microdomain disorders caused by aberrant expression of gangliosides" , has arisen. By examining this working hypothesis, we demonstrate the molecular pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance focusing on the interaction between insulin receptor and gangliosides in microdomains and propose the new therapeutic strategy "membrane microdomain ortho-signaling therapy". © 2009 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Source

Miyagi T.,Tohoku Pharmaceutical University | Yamaguchi K.,Miyagi Cancer Center Research Institute
Glycobiology | Year: 2012

Sialic acids are terminal acidic monosaccharides, which influence the chemical and biological features of glycoconjugates. Their removal catalyzed by a sialidase modulates various biological processes through change in conformation and creation or loss of binding sites of functional molecules. Sialidases exist widely in vertebrates and also in a variety of microorganisms. Recent research on mammalian sialidases has provided evidence for great importance of these enzymes in various cellular functions, including lysosomal catabolism, whereas microbial sialidases appear to play roles limited to nutrition and pathogenesis. Four types of mammalian sialidases have been identified and characterized to date, designated as NEU1, NEU2, NEU3 and NEU4. They are encoded by different genes and differ in major subcellular localization and enzymatic properties including substrate specificity, and each has been found to play a unique role depending on its particular properties. This review is an attempt to concisely summarize current knowledge concerning mammalian sialidases, with an especial focus on their properties and physiological and pathological roles in cellular functions. © 2012 The Author. Source

OBJECTIVE:: Currently, normative means and ranges of blood pressure (BP) and pulse rates in Japanese newborns are not available. The objective of the present study was to estimate BP, pulse rate, and their distribution among Japanese newborns. METHODS:: Using oscillometric devices, arm or calf BP and pulse rate levels were obtained from 3148 infants born between 2007 and 2014, consecutively at Suzuki Memorial Hospital, Iwanuma, Japan. Of those, data from 2628 full-term, singleton newborns with BP measured on day 3 after birth were analyzed. RESULTS:: Arm SBP/DBP and pulse rate in the reference group (n?=?2628) were 70.5?±?7.4/44.3?±?6.7?mmHg and 117.3?±?16.6?bpm, respectively. The 5–95th percentiles were 58–83?mmHg for SBP, 35–57?mmHg for DBP, and 91–145?bpm for pulse rate. Similar values were obtained from calf measurements. In multiple regression analysis, birth weight and spontaneous cephalic delivery were positively and light/deep sleep was inversely associated with higher arm SBP/DBP (P?≤?0.04), whereas sex, Apgar score, gestational age, and motherʼs age did not significantly affect BP levels (P?≥?0.06). Male sex, gestational age, spontaneous cephalic delivery, and light/deep sleep were inversely associated with higher pulse rate (P?≤?0.02). CONCLUSION:: The present study is the first to show the distributions of Asian newborns’ BP levels and pulse rate. The assessment of newborns’ BP levels and pulse rate should consider birth weight, gestational age after birth, and actual condition at BP measurement. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Inokuchi J.-I.,Tohoku Pharmaceutical University
Proceedings of the Japan Academy Series B: Physical and Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

Since I was involved in the molecular cloning of GM3 synthase (SAT-I), which is the primary enzyme for the biosynthesis of gangliosides in 1998, my research group has been concentrating on our efforts to explore the physiological and pathological implications of gangliosides especially for GM3. During the course of study, we demonstrated the molecular pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance focusing on the interaction between insulin receptor and gangliosides in membrane microdomains and propose a new concept: Life style-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, are a membrane microdomain disorder caused by aberrant expression of gangliosides. We also encountered an another interesting aspect indicating the indispensable role of gangliosides in auditory system. After careful behavioral examinations of SAT-I knockout mice, their hearing ability was seriously impaired with selective degeneration of the stereocilia of hair cells in the organ of Corti. This is the first observation demonstrating a direct link between gangliosides and hearing functions. © 2011 The Japan Academy. Source

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