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Shimbata T.,Nippon Flour Mills Company | Inokuma T.,Nippon Flour Mills Company | Sunohara A.,Nippon Flour Mills Company | Vrinten P.,Bioriginal Food and Science Corporation | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Sweet wheat (SW), which lacks functional granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) and starch synthase IIa (SSIIa), accumulates high levels of free sugars in immature seeds. Here, we examined the effects of the lack of these two enzymes on mature kernel composition.Whole grain flour ofSW had higher levels of sugars, particularly maltose, slightly higher ash and protein content, approximately two to three times higher lipid levels, and about twice as much total dietary fiber as parental or wild-type lines. Considerably higher levels of low-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (LMW-SDF), largely consisting of fructan, were also detected in SW. Although there were no differences in total amino acid levels, the free amino acid content of SW was approximately 4-fold higher than that of wild type, and the levels of certain free amino acids such as proline were particularly high. Thus, we were able to clearly demonstrate that the lack of GBSSI and SSIIa caused dramatic changes in mature seed composition in SW. These compositional changes suggest that SW flour may provide health benefits when used as a food ingredient. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Inokuma T.,Nippon Flour Mills Company | Vrinten P.,Bioriginal Food and Science Corporation | Shimbata T.,Nippon Flour Mills Company | Sunohara A.,Nippon Flour Mills Company | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

In hexaploid crops, such as bread wheat, it should be possible to fine-tune phenotypic traits by identifying wild-type and null genes from each of the three genomes and combining them in a calculated manner. Here, we demonstrate this with gene combinations for two starch synthesis genes, SSIIa and GBSSI. Lines with inactive copies of both enzymes show a very dramatic change in phenotype, so to create intermediate phenotypes, we used marker-assisted selection to develop near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying homozygous combinations of null alleles. For both genes, gene dosage effects follow the order B > D ≥ A; therefore, we completed detailed analysis of starch characteristics for NIL 3-3, which is null for the B-genome copy of the SSIIa and GBSSI genes, and NIL 5-5, which has null mutations in the B- and D-genome-encoded copies of both of these genes. The effects of the combinations on phenotypic traits followed the order expected on the basis of genotype, with NIL 5-5 showing the largest differences from the wild type, while NIL 3-3 characteristics were intermediate between NIL 5-5 and the wild type. Differences among genotypes were significant for many starch characteristics, including percent amylose, chain length distribution, gelatinization temperature, retrogradation, and pasting properties, and these differences appeared to translate into improvements in end-product quality, since bread made from type 5-5 flour showed a 3 day lag in staling. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

Hoshino T.,Iwate University | Nakamura T.,Tohoku National Agriculture Research Center | Seimiya Y.,Iwate University | Kamada T.,Iwate University | And 9 more authors.
Plant Breeding | Year: 2010

Foxtail millet, common millet and Japanese barnyard millet have traditionally been important food sources in East Asian countries. Although waxy types of foxtail and common millet have been identified, a waxy mutant of the allohexaploid crop Japanese barnyard millet has not yet been reported. However, several Japanese landraces have been identified that have approximately half the level of amylose found in other varieties. We employed one of the low amylose landraces, `Noge-Hie', to produce waxy Japanese barnyard millet using a γ-radiation treatment. The seeds from a single M2 plant stained red-brown with iodine solution, indicating the starch in the seeds lacked amylose. Colorimetric tests indicated that amylose was not present in endosperm tissue of the mutant, and analysis of starch granule bound proteins showed that waxy (Wx) protein was absent from the starch granules. The waxy trait was stably inherited in subsequent generations. Additionally, a PCR-based analysis demonstrated the presence of three separate waxy genes in the millet, and indicated that the low amylose landraces carry a deletion in one of these three genes. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

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