Ishikuro M.,Tohoku Fukushi University
Home healthcare now | Year: 2016
The self-measurement of blood pressure (BP) at home is useful in predicting the level of target organ damage and in managing hypertension. Nurses are essential practitioners for managing hypertension; however, it is unclear whether they have adequate knowledge of home BP management. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of home BP measurement among Japanese nurses. A questionnaire regarding home BP measurement was distributed among nurses and collected by mail. A total of 6,002 (61.8%) responses were eligible for the study. The proportion of participants who correctly recognized the reference values for clinic BP and home BP was 9.9% and 2.8%. Midwives and those working for the government had the highest proportion of correct responses of reference values among all nursing subgroups. Participants who thought that home BP gave the most important BP information were 62.7%. About 60% of the participants who recommended home BP measurement to hypertensive patients preferred to recommend an upper-arm cuff device. Our findings suggested that more knowledge of home BP measurement among nurses is warranted.
Yabuki Y.,Tohoku University |
Ohizumi Y.,University of Shizuoka |
Ohizumi Y.,Tohoku University |
Ohizumi Y.,Yokohama College of Pharmacy |
And 4 more authors.
Neuroscience | Year: 2014
Nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavonoid found in citrus fruit peel, reportedly improves memory impairment in rodent models. Here we report its effect on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced motor and cognitive deficits. Nobiletin administration (50mg/kg i.p.) for 2 consecutive weeks improved motor deficits seen in MPTP-induced Parkinson model mice by 2weeks, an effect that continued until 2weeks after drug withdrawal. Drug treatment promoted similar rescue of MPTP-induced cognitive impairment at equivalent time points. Nonetheless, nobiletin treatment did not block loss of dopaminergic neurons seen in the MPTP-treated mouse midbrain, nor did it rescue decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein levels seen in the striatum or hippocampal CA1 region of these mice. Interestingly, nobiletin administration (50mg/kg i.p.) rescued reduced levels of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) autophosphorylation and phosphorylation at Thr-34 of dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein-32 (DARPP-32) in striatum and hippocampal CA1 to levels seen in sham-operated mice. Likewise, CaMKII- and cAMP kinase-dependent TH phosphorylation was significantly restored by nobiletin treatment. MPTP-induced reduction of dopamine contents in the striatum and hippocampal CA1 region was improved by nobiletin administration (50mg/kg i.p.). Acute intraperitoneal administration of nobiletin also enhanced dopamine release in striatum and hippocampal CA1, an effect partially inhibited by treatment with nifedipine (a L-type Ca2+ channel inhibitor) or NNC 55-0396 (a T-type Ca2+ channel inhibitor) and completely abolished by combined treatment with both. Overall, our study describes a novel nobiletin activity in brain and suggests that nobiletin rescues motor and cognitive dysfunction in MPTP-induced Parkinson model mice, in part by enhancing dopamine release. © 2013 IBRO.
Kawachi Y.,Tohoku Fukushi University |
Gyoba J.,Tohoku University
Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics | Year: 2013
We employed audiovisual stream/bounce displays, in which two moving objects with crossing trajectories are more likely to be perceived as bouncing off, rather than streaming through, each other when a brief sound is presented at the coincidence of the two objects. However, Kawachi and Gyoba (Perception 35:1289-1294, 2006b) reported that the presence of an additional moving object near the two objects altered the perception of a bouncing event to that of a streaming event. In this study, we extended this finding and examined whether alteration of the event perception could be induced by the visual context, such as by occluded object motion near the stream/bounce display. The results demonstrated that even when the sound was presented, the continuous occluded motion strongly biased observers' percepts toward the streaming percept during a short occlusion interval (approximately 100 ms). In contrast, when the continuous occluded motion was disrupted by introducing a spatiotemporal gap in the motion trajectory or by removing occlusion cues such as deletion/accretion, the bias toward the streaming percept declined. Thus, we suggest that a representation of object motion generated under a limited occlusion interval interferes with audiovisual event perception. © 2013 Psychonomic Society, Inc.
Ogawa S.,Tohoku Fukushi University
NeuroImage | Year: 2012
A brief description of events that led to the finding of BOLD effect in brain images is presented. This is a recollection of what were in this author's mind in pre-1992 period. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Morimoto R.,Tohoku University |
Hirose T.,Tohoku University |
Satoh F.,Tohoku University |
Totsune K.,Tohoku University |
Totsune K.,Tohoku Fukushi University
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience | Year: 2011
Adrenomedullin 2/intermedin (AM2/IMD) is a new member of the calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family. CGRP, adrenomedullin (AM), and AM2/IMD share the receptor system consisting of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP). The CRLR/RAMP2 or CRLR/RAMP3 complex forms the AM receptor, whereas the CRLR/RAMP1 forms the CGRP receptor. AM2/IMD binds non-selectively to all three CRLR/RAMP complexes. AM2/IMD has various actions, such as a potent vasodilator action and a protective action against oxidative stress, like AM and CGRP. When administered intracerebroventricularly, AM2/IMD stimulates the sympathetic nervous system and increases blood pressure. In human hypothalamus, AM2/IMD is expressed in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei and colocalized with arginine vasopressin. Anterior pituitary cells were diffusely immunostained for AM2/IMD. AM2/IMD stimulates the release of ACTH, prolactin, and oxytocin, but suppresses GH release. Some of these pituitary actions of AM2/IMD have been supposed to be mediated by an unidentified unique receptor for AM2/IMD. In the adrenal gland, immunoreactive (IR)-AM2/IMD and IR-AM were detected in the medulla, while the degree of IR-AM2/IMD and IR-AM in the cortex was relatively weak or undetectable. Furthermore, AM2/IMD and AM were expressed in adrenocortical tumors, such as aldosterone-secreting adenomas, and pheochromocytomas. CRLR and RAMPs are expressed in the hypothalamus, pituitaries, adrenal glands, and adrenal tumors. Thus, AM2/IMD is expressed in every endocrine organ of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis together with its receptor. AM2/IMD may act as a neurotransmitter or modulator in the brain and as a paracrine/autocrine regulator in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
News Article | September 26, 2016
The roar can be deafening. Cooling fans and power supplies whoosh and whine from rows and rows of supercomputers at the main data center of the Texas Advanced Computing Center in Austin. The power bill at TACC can reach over a million dollars a year to keep the machines humming. But there's a stranger in town that might change how data centers power their systems. A new kind of advanced computing system called Hikari (Japanese for the word "light") came online at TACC late August, 2016. What's new is that Hikari runs on solar power and high voltage direct current, or HVDC. Hikari is a microgrid that supports a supercomputer, a first for the U.S. By day solar panels that shade a TACC parking lot provide nearly all of Hikari's power, up to 208 kilowatts. At night it switches back to conventional AC power from the utility grid. "The Hikari project is a Japan and Texas collaboration project, and it aims to demonstrate the potential of the HVDC system," said Toshihiro Hayashi, assistant manager in the engineering divisions of NTT FACILITIES, INC., Japan. Engineers of the Hikari HVDC power feeding system predict it will save 15 percent compared to conventional systems. "The 380 volt design reduces the number of power conversions when compared to AC voltage systems," said James Stark, director of Engineering and Construction at the Electronic Environments Corporation(EEC), a Division of NTT FACILITIES, INC.. "What's interesting about that," Stark added, "is the computers themselves - the supercomputer, the blade servers, cooling units, and lighting - are really all designed to run on DC voltage. By supplying 380 volts DC to Hikari instead of having an AC supply with conversion steps, it just makes a lot more sense. That's really the largest technical innovation." Data centers in the U.S. consumed an estimated 70 billion kilowatt hours in 2014, which represents about 1.8 percent of total U.S. electricity consumption. That's according to a June 2016 Department of Energy report by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. High Voltage Direct Current also allows for ease in connection to renewable energy, solar for Hikari but potentially other sources like wind and hydrogen fuel cells. "That's really one of our main focuses, trying to make data centers more sustainable so that we're reducing overall power consumption within an industry that has traditionally consumed a lot of power," James Stark said. With sustainability comes reliability. This held true for another NTT FACILITIES, INC. project called the Sendai Microgrid on the fateful day of the Tohoku earthquake, March 11, 2011. The Sendai Microgrid was equipped with gas engines, a fuel cell, and a photovoltaic array. It continued to supply power and heat to facilities at Tohoku Fukushi University for hospital patients and elderly nursing home residents despite days of blackouts from the catastrophic damage to the district's energy supply system caused by the earthquake. "This microgrid power supply system activated very well after the earthquake," Hayashi said. "It showed that it's a very highly reliable energy system." Another NTT FACILITIES project leading to Hikari is the Tsukuba Research and Development Center, a HVDC microgrid that generates 70 kilowatts for a modular data center. "We have various experiences in Japan of having this HVDC system," Hayashi said. These projects, including Hikari, are supported by NEDO, the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, a public agency of Japan. The Hikari project partners are NEDO, NTT FACILITIES, INC., and the University of Texas at Austin through the Texas Advanced Computing Center. The collaboration started with a visit to TACC by engineers at NTT FACILITIES, INC. in early 2014, fresh off the heels of basic studies they'd done for installing HVDC at U.S. sites. TACC also shares a strong interest in developing new technologies, including energy savings. "We're very interested in UT Austin's motto," said Hayashi, "which is 'what starts here changes the world.' We very much agree with this motto." Hayashi's team worked with TACC to develop feasibility studies of the Hikari HVDC project from December 2014 to May 2015. This effort led to a Memorandum of Understanding between the State of Texas and NEDO in August of 2015. NTT FACILITIES, INC. worked with EEC to build out Hikari, which completed the system installation late August 2016. "If there wasn't such partnership, we wouldn't have launched this project. I would like to express my gratitude to NEDO for establishing the partnership," Hayashi said. The Hikari supercomputer cluster consists of 432 Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE) Apollo 8000 XL730f servers coupled with HPE DL380 and DL360 nodes that are interconnected with a first-of-its-kind Mellanox End-to-End EDR InfinBand at 100 gigabytes per second. Over 10,000 cores from "Haswell" Xeon processors will deliver more than 400 teraflops. The Hikari project also aims to demonstrate energy efficiency through more than just HVDC. The HPE Apollo 8000 systems use a warm water-based liquid cooling system that eliminates the need for fans within the nodes and reduces the energy that would normally be required for water refrigeration and excess heat removal. The solar energy that would have been used for powering fans and chillers can be used for computational work. When it reaches production later in 2017, Hikari will be used by the University of Texas medical researchers to make progress on diseases like cancer and disorders like autism. "We really hope this project will demonstrate the efficiency advantages of using 380 volt DC, not only in data centers, but in any commercial building," James Stark said. "The hope is that the research that comes out of this demonstration project will help to open the door to more widespread use of 380 volt systems throughout data centers and commercial buildings worldwide."
Okamoto-Mizuno K.,Tohoku Fukushi University
Journal of physiological anthropology | Year: 2012
The thermal environment is one of the most important factors that can affect human sleep. The stereotypical effects of heat or cold exposure are increased wakefulness and decreased rapid eye movement sleep and slow wave sleep. These effects of the thermal environment on sleep stages are strongly linked to thermoregulation, which affects the mechanism regulating sleep. The effects on sleep stages also differ depending on the use of bedding and/or clothing. In semi-nude subjects, sleep stages are more affected by cold exposure than heat exposure. In real-life situations where bedding and clothing are used, heat exposure increases wakefulness and decreases slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. Humid heat exposure further increases thermal load during sleep and affects sleep stages and thermoregulation. On the other hand, cold exposure does not affect sleep stages, though the use of beddings and clothing during sleep is critical in supporting thermoregulation and sleep in cold exposure. However, cold exposure affects cardiac autonomic response during sleep without affecting sleep stages and subjective sensations. These results indicate that the impact of cold exposure may be greater than that of heat exposure in real-life situations; thus, further studies are warranted that consider the effect of cold exposure on sleep and other physiological parameters.
Sugimoto K.,Tohoku Fukushi University
Clinical Neuropharmacology | Year: 2011
Objective: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a condition accompanied by oral burning symptoms, including glossal pain (glossodynia) without a detectable cause. Although BMS is a chronic-pain syndrome, only one self-controlled pilot study and some case reports have reported that milnacipran is effective for the treatment of chronic pain, including that caused by BMS. However, these papers assessed only pain, and the dosage of prescribed milnacipran varied from 30 to 150 mg/d in each patient. In this study, the dosage of prescribed milnacipran was set at 60 mg/d for 12 weeks for all patients, and depression and quality of life (QOL) were assessed in addition to pain. Methods: Twelve patients with glossodynia participated in this study. Milnacipran was initiated at a dosage of 15 mg/d and then raised gradually to 60 mg/d after 4 weeks of treatment; this dose was continued until the end of the study (total of 12 weeks). The evaluation included the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Visual Analog Scale score for pain evaluation, the General Oral Health Assessment Index for oral-related QOL evaluation, and the Medical Outcomes Study's 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) for whole QOL evaluation. RESULTS: The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score decreased significantly after treatment with a 60-mg/d dosage of milnacipran for 12 weeks. However, the Visual Analog Scale pain, General Oral Health Assessment Index, and SF-36 scores did not change. Conclusions: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-institution trial of milnacipran will be essential to determine its effectiveness for the treatment of BMS. © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Kim S.-G.,University of Pittsburgh |
Ogawa S.,Tohoku Fukushi University |
Ogawa S.,Gachon University
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism | Year: 2012
After its discovery in 1990, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used to map brain activation in humans and animals. Since fMRI relies on signal changes induced by neural activity, its signal source can be complex and is also dependent on imaging parameters and techniques. In this review, we identify and describe the origins of BOLD fMRI signals, including the topics of (1) effects of spin density, volume fraction, inflow, perfusion, and susceptibility as potential contributors to BOLD fMRI, (2) intravascular and extravascular contributions to conventional gradient-echo and spin-echo BOLD fMRI, (3) spatial specificity of hemodynamic-based fMRI related to vascular architecture and intrinsic hemodynamic responses, (4) BOLD signal contributions from functional changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and cerebral metabolic rate of O 2 utilization (CMRO 2), (5) dynamic responses of BOLD, CBF, CMRO 2, and arterial and venous CBV, (6) potential sources of initial BOLD dips, poststimulus BOLD undershoots, and prolonged negative BOLD fMRI signals, (7) dependence of stimulus-evoked BOLD signals on baseline physiology, and (8) basis of resting-state BOLD fluctuations. These discussions are highly relevant to interpreting BOLD fMRI signals as physiological means. © 2012 ISCBFM All rights reserved.
Kawachi Y.,Tohoku Fukushi University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016
The present study investigated the influence of an auditory tone on the localization of visual objects in the stream/bounce display (SBD). In this display, two identical visual objects move toward each other, overlap, and then return to their original positions. These objects can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other. In this study, the closest distance between object centers on opposing trajectories and tone presentation timing (none, 0 ms, ± 90 ms, and ± 390 ms relative to the instant for the closest distance) were manipulated. Observers were asked to judge whether the two objects overlapped with each other and whether the objects appeared to stream through, bounce off each other, or reverse their direction of motion. A tone presented at or around the instant of the objects' closest distance biased judgments toward "non-overlapping," and observers overestimated the physical distance between objects. A similar bias toward direction change judgments (bounce and reverse, not stream judgments) was also observed, which was always stronger than the non-overlapping bias. Thus, these two types of judgments were not always identical. Moreover, another experiment showed that it was unlikely that this observed mislocalization could be explained by other previously known mislocalization phenomena (i.e., representational momentum, the Fröhlich effect, and a turn-point shift). These findings indicate a new example of crossmodal mislocalization, which can be obtained without temporal offsets between audiovisual stimuli. The mislocalization effect is also specific to a more complex stimulus configuration of objects on opposing trajectories, with a tone that is presented simultaneously. The present study promotes an understanding of relatively complex audiovisual interactions beyond simple one- To-one audiovisual stimuli used in previous studies. © 2016 Yousuke Kawachi. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.