Kawachi Y.,Tohoku Fukushi University |
Kawabe T.,Nippon Telegraph and Telephone |
Gyoba J.,Tohoku University
i-Perception | Year: 2011
We examined how stream/bounce event perception is affected by motion correspondence based on the surface features of moving objects passing behind an occlusion. In the stream/bounce display two identical objects moving across each other in a two-dimensional display can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other at coincidence. Here, surface features such as colour (Experiments 1 and 2) or luminance (Experiment 3) were switched between the two objects at coincidence. The moment of coincidence was invisible to observers due to an occluder. Additionally, the presentation of the moving objects was manipulated in duration after the feature switch at coincidence. The results revealed that a postcoincidence duration of approximately 200 ms was required for the visual system to stabilize judgments of stream/bounce events by determining motion correspondence between the objects across the occlusion on the basis of the surface feature. The critical duration was similar across motion speeds of objects and types of surface features. Moreover, controls (Experiments 4a-4c) showed that cognitive bias based on feature (colour/luminance) congruency across the occlusion could not fully account for the effects of surface features on the stream/bounce judgments. We discuss the roles of motion correspondence, visual feature processing, and attentive tracking in the stream/bounce judgments. © 2011 Y. Kawachi, T. Kawabe, J. Gyoba.
News Article | September 26, 2016
The roar can be deafening. Cooling fans and power supplies whoosh and whine from rows and rows of supercomputers at the main data center of the Texas Advanced Computing Center in Austin. The power bill at TACC can reach over a million dollars a year to keep the machines humming. But there's a stranger in town that might change how data centers power their systems. A new kind of advanced computing system called Hikari (Japanese for the word "light") came online at TACC late August, 2016. What's new is that Hikari runs on solar power and high voltage direct current, or HVDC. Hikari is a microgrid that supports a supercomputer, a first for the U.S. By day solar panels that shade a TACC parking lot provide nearly all of Hikari's power, up to 208 kilowatts. At night it switches back to conventional AC power from the utility grid. "The Hikari project is a Japan and Texas collaboration project, and it aims to demonstrate the potential of the HVDC system," said Toshihiro Hayashi, assistant manager in the engineering divisions of NTT FACILITIES, INC., Japan. Engineers of the Hikari HVDC power feeding system predict it will save 15 percent compared to conventional systems. "The 380 volt design reduces the number of power conversions when compared to AC voltage systems," said James Stark, director of Engineering and Construction at the Electronic Environments Corporation(EEC), a Division of NTT FACILITIES, INC.. "What's interesting about that," Stark added, "is the computers themselves - the supercomputer, the blade servers, cooling units, and lighting - are really all designed to run on DC voltage. By supplying 380 volts DC to Hikari instead of having an AC supply with conversion steps, it just makes a lot more sense. That's really the largest technical innovation." Data centers in the U.S. consumed an estimated 70 billion kilowatt hours in 2014, which represents about 1.8 percent of total U.S. electricity consumption. That's according to a June 2016 Department of Energy report by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. High Voltage Direct Current also allows for ease in connection to renewable energy, solar for Hikari but potentially other sources like wind and hydrogen fuel cells. "That's really one of our main focuses, trying to make data centers more sustainable so that we're reducing overall power consumption within an industry that has traditionally consumed a lot of power," James Stark said. With sustainability comes reliability. This held true for another NTT FACILITIES, INC. project called the Sendai Microgrid on the fateful day of the Tohoku earthquake, March 11, 2011. The Sendai Microgrid was equipped with gas engines, a fuel cell, and a photovoltaic array. It continued to supply power and heat to facilities at Tohoku Fukushi University for hospital patients and elderly nursing home residents despite days of blackouts from the catastrophic damage to the district's energy supply system caused by the earthquake. "This microgrid power supply system activated very well after the earthquake," Hayashi said. "It showed that it's a very highly reliable energy system." Another NTT FACILITIES project leading to Hikari is the Tsukuba Research and Development Center, a HVDC microgrid that generates 70 kilowatts for a modular data center. "We have various experiences in Japan of having this HVDC system," Hayashi said. These projects, including Hikari, are supported by NEDO, the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, a public agency of Japan. The Hikari project partners are NEDO, NTT FACILITIES, INC., and the University of Texas at Austin through the Texas Advanced Computing Center. The collaboration started with a visit to TACC by engineers at NTT FACILITIES, INC. in early 2014, fresh off the heels of basic studies they'd done for installing HVDC at U.S. sites. TACC also shares a strong interest in developing new technologies, including energy savings. "We're very interested in UT Austin's motto," said Hayashi, "which is 'what starts here changes the world.' We very much agree with this motto." Hayashi's team worked with TACC to develop feasibility studies of the Hikari HVDC project from December 2014 to May 2015. This effort led to a Memorandum of Understanding between the State of Texas and NEDO in August of 2015. NTT FACILITIES, INC. worked with EEC to build out Hikari, which completed the system installation late August 2016. "If there wasn't such partnership, we wouldn't have launched this project. I would like to express my gratitude to NEDO for establishing the partnership," Hayashi said. The Hikari supercomputer cluster consists of 432 Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE) Apollo 8000 XL730f servers coupled with HPE DL380 and DL360 nodes that are interconnected with a first-of-its-kind Mellanox End-to-End EDR InfinBand at 100 gigabytes per second. Over 10,000 cores from "Haswell" Xeon processors will deliver more than 400 teraflops. The Hikari project also aims to demonstrate energy efficiency through more than just HVDC. The HPE Apollo 8000 systems use a warm water-based liquid cooling system that eliminates the need for fans within the nodes and reduces the energy that would normally be required for water refrigeration and excess heat removal. The solar energy that would have been used for powering fans and chillers can be used for computational work. When it reaches production later in 2017, Hikari will be used by the University of Texas medical researchers to make progress on diseases like cancer and disorders like autism. "We really hope this project will demonstrate the efficiency advantages of using 380 volt DC, not only in data centers, but in any commercial building," James Stark said. "The hope is that the research that comes out of this demonstration project will help to open the door to more widespread use of 380 volt systems throughout data centers and commercial buildings worldwide."
Okamoto-Mizuno K.,Tohoku Fukushi University |
Mizuno K.,Tohoku Fukushi University
Journal of Physiological Anthropology | Year: 2012
The thermal environment is one of the most important factors that can affect human sleep. The stereotypical effects of heat or cold exposure are increased wakefulness and decreased rapid eye movement sleep and slow wave sleep. These effects of the thermal environment on sleep stages are strongly linked to thermoregulation, which affects the mechanism regulating sleep. The effects on sleep stages also differ depending on the use of bedding and/or clothing. In semi-nude subjects, sleep stages are more affected by cold exposure than heat exposure. In real-life situations where bedding and clothing are used, heat exposure increases wakefulness and decreases slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. Humid heat exposure further increases thermal load during sleep and affects sleep stages and thermoregulation. On the other hand, cold exposure does not affect sleep stages, though the use of beddings and clothing during sleep is critical in supporting thermoregulation and sleep in cold exposure. However, cold exposure affects cardiac autonomic response during sleep without affecting sleep stages and subjective sensations. These results indicate that the impact of cold exposure may be greater than that of heat exposure in real-life situations; thus, further studies are warranted that consider the effect of cold exposure on sleep and other physiological parameters. © 2012 Okamoto-Mizuno and Mizuno.
Okamoto-Mizuno K.,Tohoku Fukushi University
Journal of physiological anthropology | Year: 2012
The thermal environment is one of the most important factors that can affect human sleep. The stereotypical effects of heat or cold exposure are increased wakefulness and decreased rapid eye movement sleep and slow wave sleep. These effects of the thermal environment on sleep stages are strongly linked to thermoregulation, which affects the mechanism regulating sleep. The effects on sleep stages also differ depending on the use of bedding and/or clothing. In semi-nude subjects, sleep stages are more affected by cold exposure than heat exposure. In real-life situations where bedding and clothing are used, heat exposure increases wakefulness and decreases slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. Humid heat exposure further increases thermal load during sleep and affects sleep stages and thermoregulation. On the other hand, cold exposure does not affect sleep stages, though the use of beddings and clothing during sleep is critical in supporting thermoregulation and sleep in cold exposure. However, cold exposure affects cardiac autonomic response during sleep without affecting sleep stages and subjective sensations. These results indicate that the impact of cold exposure may be greater than that of heat exposure in real-life situations; thus, further studies are warranted that consider the effect of cold exposure on sleep and other physiological parameters.
Fujii T.,Tohoku Fukushi University
Clinical Neurology | Year: 2013
Memory can be divided into several types, although all of them involve three successive processes: encoding, storage, and retrieval. In terms of the duration of retention, neurologists classify memory into immediate, recent, and remote memories, whereas psychologists classify memory into short-term and long-term memories. In terms of the content, episodic, semantic, and procedural memories are considered to be different types of memory. Furthermore, researchers on memory have proposed relatively new concepts of memory, i.e., working memory and prospective memory. This article first provides explanations for these several types of memory. Next, neuropsychological characteristics of amnesic syndrome are briefly outlined. Finally, how several different types of memory are affected (or preserved) in patients with amnesic syndrome is described.
Sugimoto K.,Tohoku Fukushi University
Clinical Neuropharmacology | Year: 2011
Objective: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a condition accompanied by oral burning symptoms, including glossal pain (glossodynia) without a detectable cause. Although BMS is a chronic-pain syndrome, only one self-controlled pilot study and some case reports have reported that milnacipran is effective for the treatment of chronic pain, including that caused by BMS. However, these papers assessed only pain, and the dosage of prescribed milnacipran varied from 30 to 150 mg/d in each patient. In this study, the dosage of prescribed milnacipran was set at 60 mg/d for 12 weeks for all patients, and depression and quality of life (QOL) were assessed in addition to pain. Methods: Twelve patients with glossodynia participated in this study. Milnacipran was initiated at a dosage of 15 mg/d and then raised gradually to 60 mg/d after 4 weeks of treatment; this dose was continued until the end of the study (total of 12 weeks). The evaluation included the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Visual Analog Scale score for pain evaluation, the General Oral Health Assessment Index for oral-related QOL evaluation, and the Medical Outcomes Study's 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) for whole QOL evaluation. RESULTS: The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score decreased significantly after treatment with a 60-mg/d dosage of milnacipran for 12 weeks. However, the Visual Analog Scale pain, General Oral Health Assessment Index, and SF-36 scores did not change. Conclusions: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-institution trial of milnacipran will be essential to determine its effectiveness for the treatment of BMS. © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Kim S.-G.,University of Pittsburgh |
Ogawa S.,Tohoku Fukushi University |
Ogawa S.,Gachon University
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism | Year: 2012
After its discovery in 1990, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used to map brain activation in humans and animals. Since fMRI relies on signal changes induced by neural activity, its signal source can be complex and is also dependent on imaging parameters and techniques. In this review, we identify and describe the origins of BOLD fMRI signals, including the topics of (1) effects of spin density, volume fraction, inflow, perfusion, and susceptibility as potential contributors to BOLD fMRI, (2) intravascular and extravascular contributions to conventional gradient-echo and spin-echo BOLD fMRI, (3) spatial specificity of hemodynamic-based fMRI related to vascular architecture and intrinsic hemodynamic responses, (4) BOLD signal contributions from functional changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and cerebral metabolic rate of O 2 utilization (CMRO 2), (5) dynamic responses of BOLD, CBF, CMRO 2, and arterial and venous CBV, (6) potential sources of initial BOLD dips, poststimulus BOLD undershoots, and prolonged negative BOLD fMRI signals, (7) dependence of stimulus-evoked BOLD signals on baseline physiology, and (8) basis of resting-state BOLD fluctuations. These discussions are highly relevant to interpreting BOLD fMRI signals as physiological means. © 2012 ISCBFM All rights reserved.
Okamoto-Mizuno K.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology |
Okamoto-Mizuno K.,Tohoku Fukushi University |
Tsuzuki K.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2010
The effects of season on sleep and skin temperature (Tsk) in 19 healthy, elderly volunteers were investigated. Measurements were obtained in summer, winter, and fall, and activity levels were monitored using a wrist actigraph system for five consecutive days. The temperature and humidity of the bedrooms of the subjects' homes were measured continuously for five days. During actigraphic measurement, Tsk during sleep was measured for two nights. The bedroom temperature and humidity significantly increased in summer compared to winter and fall. In summer, the total sleep time decreased (mean ± SE min; summer, 350.8 ± 15.7; winter, 426.5 ± 14.2; fall, 403.2 ± 16.4) and wakefulness increased (P < 0.003) compared to those in fall or winter. The sleep efficiency index that was derived from wrist actigraphy was significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in summer (81.4 ± 2.9%) compared with winter (91.6 ± 1.3%) or fall (90.2 ± 1.2%). The forehead Tsk significantly increased, while the chest and thigh Tsks were decreased in summer compared to those in fall or winter. These results suggest that, in the elderly, sleep is disturbed in summer more than in other seasons, and that this disturbance is related to fluctuations in Tsk. © 2009 ISB.
Kawachi Y.,Tohoku Fukushi University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016
The present study investigated the influence of an auditory tone on the localization of visual objects in the stream/bounce display (SBD). In this display, two identical visual objects move toward each other, overlap, and then return to their original positions. These objects can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other. In this study, the closest distance between object centers on opposing trajectories and tone presentation timing (none, 0 ms, ± 90 ms, and ± 390 ms relative to the instant for the closest distance) were manipulated. Observers were asked to judge whether the two objects overlapped with each other and whether the objects appeared to stream through, bounce off each other, or reverse their direction of motion. A tone presented at or around the instant of the objects' closest distance biased judgments toward "non-overlapping," and observers overestimated the physical distance between objects. A similar bias toward direction change judgments (bounce and reverse, not stream judgments) was also observed, which was always stronger than the non-overlapping bias. Thus, these two types of judgments were not always identical. Moreover, another experiment showed that it was unlikely that this observed mislocalization could be explained by other previously known mislocalization phenomena (i.e., representational momentum, the Fröhlich effect, and a turn-point shift). These findings indicate a new example of crossmodal mislocalization, which can be obtained without temporal offsets between audiovisual stimuli. The mislocalization effect is also specific to a more complex stimulus configuration of objects on opposing trajectories, with a tone that is presented simultaneously. The present study promotes an understanding of relatively complex audiovisual interactions beyond simple one- To-one audiovisual stimuli used in previous studies. © 2016 Yousuke Kawachi. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Nakamura Ikeda R.,Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare |
Fukai K.,Okayama University |
Okamoto Mizuno K.,Tohoku Fukushi University
Midwifery | Year: 2012
Objective: to assess the bed climate of infants in their homes in Japan. Design: descriptive, exploratory, non-experimental research design. Setting: the data were collected at the participants' homes under normal circumstances. Participants: nineteen healthy infants between the ages of two and five months. Their mothers, who joined a parenting class organised by a maternity clinic in Okayama, Japan, consented to participate in this study. Measurements and findings: we visited the infants' homes and interviewed their mothers concerning the types and use of bedding. The temperature and relative humidity of the bed climate at the back and foot of the bedding, and in the room were measured every minute for four consecutive days. Differences among the bed climates measured during three seasons (spring, summer, and autumn) were assessed by one-way analysis of variance. The bed temperature was higher for infants than for adults. No significant difference in temperature was noted among the three seasons. The bed temperature was about 36.0 °C when waterproof sheets and futon mattresses for children or adult were used. The average relative humidity of the bed climate at the back was highest in summer, followed by that in spring and autumn; the differences were significant. The use of waterproof sheets and futon mattresses for children in summer increased the relative humidity to 80% or more. The use of infant beds, sunoko drainboards, and cotton futon mattresses in summer was effective in reducing the bed humidity. Conclusions: these results suggest that nurse-midwives should advise the parents on comfortable bed climates for their infants, as well as how to select and use bedding for them. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.