Fujii T.,Tohoku Fukushi University
Clinical Neurology | Year: 2013
Memory can be divided into several types, although all of them involve three successive processes: encoding, storage, and retrieval. In terms of the duration of retention, neurologists classify memory into immediate, recent, and remote memories, whereas psychologists classify memory into short-term and long-term memories. In terms of the content, episodic, semantic, and procedural memories are considered to be different types of memory. Furthermore, researchers on memory have proposed relatively new concepts of memory, i.e., working memory and prospective memory. This article first provides explanations for these several types of memory. Next, neuropsychological characteristics of amnesic syndrome are briefly outlined. Finally, how several different types of memory are affected (or preserved) in patients with amnesic syndrome is described.
Okamoto-Mizuno K.,Tohoku Fukushi University
Journal of physiological anthropology | Year: 2012
The thermal environment is one of the most important factors that can affect human sleep. The stereotypical effects of heat or cold exposure are increased wakefulness and decreased rapid eye movement sleep and slow wave sleep. These effects of the thermal environment on sleep stages are strongly linked to thermoregulation, which affects the mechanism regulating sleep. The effects on sleep stages also differ depending on the use of bedding and/or clothing. In semi-nude subjects, sleep stages are more affected by cold exposure than heat exposure. In real-life situations where bedding and clothing are used, heat exposure increases wakefulness and decreases slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. Humid heat exposure further increases thermal load during sleep and affects sleep stages and thermoregulation. On the other hand, cold exposure does not affect sleep stages, though the use of beddings and clothing during sleep is critical in supporting thermoregulation and sleep in cold exposure. However, cold exposure affects cardiac autonomic response during sleep without affecting sleep stages and subjective sensations. These results indicate that the impact of cold exposure may be greater than that of heat exposure in real-life situations; thus, further studies are warranted that consider the effect of cold exposure on sleep and other physiological parameters.
Okamoto-Mizuno K.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology |
Okamoto-Mizuno K.,Tohoku Fukushi University |
Tsuzuki K.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2010
The effects of season on sleep and skin temperature (Tsk) in 19 healthy, elderly volunteers were investigated. Measurements were obtained in summer, winter, and fall, and activity levels were monitored using a wrist actigraph system for five consecutive days. The temperature and humidity of the bedrooms of the subjects' homes were measured continuously for five days. During actigraphic measurement, Tsk during sleep was measured for two nights. The bedroom temperature and humidity significantly increased in summer compared to winter and fall. In summer, the total sleep time decreased (mean ± SE min; summer, 350.8 ± 15.7; winter, 426.5 ± 14.2; fall, 403.2 ± 16.4) and wakefulness increased (P < 0.003) compared to those in fall or winter. The sleep efficiency index that was derived from wrist actigraphy was significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in summer (81.4 ± 2.9%) compared with winter (91.6 ± 1.3%) or fall (90.2 ± 1.2%). The forehead Tsk significantly increased, while the chest and thigh Tsks were decreased in summer compared to those in fall or winter. These results suggest that, in the elderly, sleep is disturbed in summer more than in other seasons, and that this disturbance is related to fluctuations in Tsk. © 2009 ISB.
Kim S.-G.,University of Pittsburgh |
Ogawa S.,Tohoku Fukushi University |
Ogawa S.,Gachon University
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism | Year: 2012
After its discovery in 1990, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used to map brain activation in humans and animals. Since fMRI relies on signal changes induced by neural activity, its signal source can be complex and is also dependent on imaging parameters and techniques. In this review, we identify and describe the origins of BOLD fMRI signals, including the topics of (1) effects of spin density, volume fraction, inflow, perfusion, and susceptibility as potential contributors to BOLD fMRI, (2) intravascular and extravascular contributions to conventional gradient-echo and spin-echo BOLD fMRI, (3) spatial specificity of hemodynamic-based fMRI related to vascular architecture and intrinsic hemodynamic responses, (4) BOLD signal contributions from functional changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and cerebral metabolic rate of O 2 utilization (CMRO 2), (5) dynamic responses of BOLD, CBF, CMRO 2, and arterial and venous CBV, (6) potential sources of initial BOLD dips, poststimulus BOLD undershoots, and prolonged negative BOLD fMRI signals, (7) dependence of stimulus-evoked BOLD signals on baseline physiology, and (8) basis of resting-state BOLD fluctuations. These discussions are highly relevant to interpreting BOLD fMRI signals as physiological means. © 2012 ISCBFM All rights reserved.
Sugimoto K.,Tohoku Fukushi University
Clinical Neuropharmacology | Year: 2011
Objective: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a condition accompanied by oral burning symptoms, including glossal pain (glossodynia) without a detectable cause. Although BMS is a chronic-pain syndrome, only one self-controlled pilot study and some case reports have reported that milnacipran is effective for the treatment of chronic pain, including that caused by BMS. However, these papers assessed only pain, and the dosage of prescribed milnacipran varied from 30 to 150 mg/d in each patient. In this study, the dosage of prescribed milnacipran was set at 60 mg/d for 12 weeks for all patients, and depression and quality of life (QOL) were assessed in addition to pain. Methods: Twelve patients with glossodynia participated in this study. Milnacipran was initiated at a dosage of 15 mg/d and then raised gradually to 60 mg/d after 4 weeks of treatment; this dose was continued until the end of the study (total of 12 weeks). The evaluation included the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Visual Analog Scale score for pain evaluation, the General Oral Health Assessment Index for oral-related QOL evaluation, and the Medical Outcomes Study's 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) for whole QOL evaluation. RESULTS: The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score decreased significantly after treatment with a 60-mg/d dosage of milnacipran for 12 weeks. However, the Visual Analog Scale pain, General Oral Health Assessment Index, and SF-36 scores did not change. Conclusions: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-institution trial of milnacipran will be essential to determine its effectiveness for the treatment of BMS. © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.