Tochimoto Tenkaido Co.

Kita-ku, Japan

Tochimoto Tenkaido Co.

Kita-ku, Japan
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Cai M.,Kyung Hee University | Shin B.Y.,Kyung Hee University | Kim D.H.,Kyung Hee University | Kim J.M.,Kyung Hee University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2011

Aim of the study: Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK), a traditional herbal prescription composed of Rehmannia glutinosa var. purpurae, Panax ginseng, Poria cocos, Lycium chinense, Aquillaria agallocha and honey, has been used to treat age-related symptoms, such as amnesia or dementia, and has been shown to ameliorate scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. However, the effects of KOK on transient cerebral global ischemia-induced brain damage are unclear. Materials and methods: Transient cerebral global ischemia was induced by occluding the bilateral common carotid artery for 5 min followed by reperfusion for 7 days. KOK (0.25, 0.5, 1, or 2 g/kg) was administered orally immediately after reperfusion and once a day over the next 7 days. Y-maze or novel object recognition tasks were to analyze learning and memory capabilities at 4 or 5 days after reperfusion, respectively. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry were used for evaluation of the effect of KOK on neuronal degeneration. Results: Histochemical studies showed that KOK increased the number of viable cells detected by Nissl staining and decreased the number of degenerated neuronal cells detected by Fluoro-Jade B staining in the hippocampal CA1 region. In the immunohistochemical study, the sub-chronic KOK administration attenuated the ischemia-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes and the increase of cytokine IL-1β (P < 0.05). In addition, KOK administration significantly attenuated the ischemia-induced cognitive impairments observed in the Y-maze and novel object recognition tasks (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These findings suggest that the neuroprotective effects of KOK may be mediated by its anti-inflammatory activities, resulting in the attenuation of memory impairment. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kojoma M.,Health Sciences University of Hokkaido | Hayashi S.,Japan National Institute of Biomedical Innovation | Shibata T.,Japan National Institute of Biomedical Innovation | Yamamoto Y.,Tochimoto Tenkaido Co. | Sekizaki H.,Health Sciences University of Hokkaido
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin | Year: 2011

Cultivated licorice plants (Glycyrrhiza uralensis FISCH.) contain smaller amounts of the triterpene saponin glycyrrhizin than wild licorice plants. To resolve this problem and to breed strains with high-glycyrrhizin content we determined the glycyrrhizin content of 100 samples of G. uralensis that were propagated from seed and grown under the same conditions in the field for 5 years. There was a 10.2-fold variation in glycyrrhizin content among these plants, ranging from 0.46 to 4.67% (average 2.11±0.90%). There was also a wide variation in liquiritin content, ranging from 0.11 to 2.65% (average 1.00±0.49%). The glycyrrhizin content was positively correlated with that of liquiritin in the taproots (r2=0.5525). Our results indicate that there are various genetic strains for glycyrrhizin and liquiritin synthesis within a population of plants propagated from seed. The selected high-glycyrrhizin and liquiritin strains will be useful for licorice production and studies on biosynthetic analysis of glycyrrhizin and liquiritin. © 2011 Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.


Kumeta Y.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Maruyama T.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Asama H.,Uchida Wakanyaku Ltd. | Yamamoto Y.,Tochimoto Tenkaido Co. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Natural Medicines | Year: 2014

Asini Corii Collas (ACC; donkey glue) is a crude drug used to promote hematopoiesis and arrest bleeding. Because adulteration of the drug with substances from other animals such as horses, cattle, and pigs has been found, we examined PCR methods based on the sequence of the cytochrome b gene for source species identification. Two strategies for extracting DNA from ACC were compared, and the ion-exchange resin procedure was revealed to be more suitable than the silica-based one. Using DNA extracted from ACC by the ion-exchange resin procedure, PCR methods for species-specific detection of donkey, horse, cattle, and pig substances were established. When these species-specific PCR methods were applied to ACC, amplicons were obtained only by the donkey-specific PCR. Cattle-specific PCR detected as little as 0.1 % admixture of cattle glue in the ACC. These results suggest that the species-specific PCR methods established in this study would be useful for simple and easy detection of adulteration of ACC. © The Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer Japan 2013.


Oshima N.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Zaima K.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Kamakura H.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Hamato A.,Tochimoto Tenkaido Co. | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Natural Medicines | Year: 2014

Jujube Seed is a crude drug defined as the seed of Ziziphus jujuba Miller var. spinosa Hu ex H.F. Chou (Rhamnaceae) in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP). Most of the jujube seed in the Japanese markets is imported from China, with the rest obtained from other Asian countries. Here we confirmed the botanical origins of jujube seeds from both China and Myanmar by a DNA sequencing analysis. We found that the botanical origins of the crude drugs from China and Myanmar were Z. jujuba and Z. mauritiana, respectively. Although the jujube seed from China conforms to the JP, that from Myanmar does not. A method for discriminating jujube seeds from China and Myanmar using a chemical approach is thus desirable, and here we sought to identify a compound specific to Z. jujuba. Jujuboside A (1) was identified as a compound specific to Z. jujuba. To establish a purity test of Jujube Seed in the JP against Z. mauritiana, we fractionated the extract of Z. mauritiana seeds and identified frangufoline (2) and oleanolic acid (4) as the marker compounds specific to Z. mauritiana. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the latter compound was useful for testing by TLC analysis. The established TLC conditions were as follows: chromatographic support, silica gel; developing solvent, n-hexane:EtOAc:HCOOH = 10:5:1; developing length, 7 cm; visualization, diluted sulfuric acid; R f value, 0.43 (oleanolic acid). © 2014 The Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer Japan.


Kobayashi S.,Osaka University | Putri S.P.,Osaka University | Yamamoto Y.,Tochimoto Tenkaido Co. | Donghyo K.,Tochimoto Tenkaido Co. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering | Year: 2012

Gas chromatography (GC)-based metabolomics technologies were applied for quality control of Angelicae Radix, an herbal medicine commonly used in Japan and China. Since Angelica roots are priced and graded differently based on their species and cultivation area, there is a need for a simple and reproducible method to discriminate Angelica roots. Here, we used GC-MS profiling data to construct a discrimination method for species and cultivation area of A. Radix. Seventy-six primary metabolites were identified. The quality factors of A. Radix were successfully classified using metabolic profiling and the orthogonal projections to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) technique. Sorbitol and a glucose/4-aminobutyric acid combination were chosen as bio-markers from S-plot of OPLS-DA. Application of these selected bio-markers to a more practical and cost-efficient system, namely gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) system were also assessed. As a result, the same separations of sorbitol, glucose and 4-aminobutyric acid in box plots were obtained from GC-FID data. Our results demonstrate that GC-based metabolic markers can be readily applied for the establishment of a practical quality control method for A. Radix. © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan.

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