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Henry C.S.,University of Connecticut | Brooks S.J.,Natural History Museum in London | Johnson J.B.,University of Idaho | Haruyama N.,Tochigi Prefectural Sustainable Agriculture Extension Center | And 2 more authors.
Zootaxa | Year: 2015

Larval morphology and substrate-borne vibrational courtship songs have been hypothesized to distinguish and isolate Chrysoperla 'nipponensis-B' from true 'Type A' Chrysoperla nipponensis (Okamoto), both of which occur sympatrically in eastern Asia. Here, we formally describe C. 'nipponensis-B' as Chrysoperla nigrocapitata sp.n., based on populations sampled throughout Japan and at two sites in South Korea. Behavioral playback experiments show that males and females of each species reject the duetting songs of non-conspecifics, supporting the existence in nature of strong premating reproductive isolation between the two species. Detailed morphological analysis substantiates that the adults of the two species are nearly identical. However, the dorsum of the larval head of C. nigrocapitata is usually darkly and heavily pigmented, in striking contrast to the condition seen in C. nipponensis; if available, it is probably the best trait for distinguishing the two species morphologically. Other aspects of life history, ecology, geographic distribution, and molecular systematics of the new species are briefly considered. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press. Source

Oyamada K.,Tochigi Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station | Oyamada K.,Tochigi Prefectural Sustainable Agriculture Extension Center
Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2013

Two spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch the most important pests of strawberry, have developed resistance to chemical pesticides. We investigated the effects of high carbon dioxide atmospheres on two-spotted spider mites and strawberry plants just before transplanting. Percent mortality of adult female mites, young eggs(24 h after laying), and old eggs(48-72h) exposed to 60% CO2 at different temperatures(25,30, and 35oC) was evaluated over time. Mortality of all spider mite stages increased with exposure duration at each temperature, and the time required to achieve 100% mortality decreased as temperature increased. Exposure to 60% CO2 at 30oC for 16 h was 100% lethal to every developmental stage tested. Furthermore, 24 h of 60% CO2 treatment did not induce external damage or adversely affect flowering of the primary flower clusters on strawberry plants. In a large-scale test of elevated-CO2 atmospheres, the two spotted spider mite population was greatly suppressed relative to untreated fields, and strawberry plants remained healthy. Thus, our findings suggested that CO2 treatment could be used to propagate spider-mite-free plants in strawberry nurseries and enhance strawberry integrated pest management systems. Source

Kubota M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Morishima M.,Tochigi Prefectural Sustainable Agriculture Extension Center | Iida Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

Tomato cultivar Reiyo, that possesses Cf-9 among other resistance genes but lacks Cf-4, was newly found to be infected with a novel race of the leaf mold pathogen, Passalora fulva after pale to olive mycelia were first observed on chlorotic spots on abaxial leaf surfaces in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan, 2011. In this study, we identified the isolates as races 2.5.9 and 4.5.9. To our knowledge, this is the first report of these races in Japan. © 2015, The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer Japan. Source

Haruyama N.,Tochigi Prefectural Sustainable Agriculture Extension Center | Miyazaki Y.,Chiba University | Nakahira K.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Mochizuki A.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences | Nomura M.,Chiba University
Annals of the Entomological Society of America | Year: 2012

Because of their importance and abundance as predators of pest insects in agroecosystems around the world, eight species of lacewings from four genera (Apertochrysa, Chrysopa, Chrysoperla, and Dichochrysa) were investigated to evaluate their performance when reared on eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller, a factitious prey commonly used in mass rearing systems. In particular, a comparative assessment of trash-carrying versus naked species (ones not carrying trash on their backs) was performed. We measured the developmental times and survival rates of the eight green lacewings and compared these characteristics between trash-carrying and naked lacewing species. Survival during immature development was higher (7787%) for the two naked species (Chrysopa pallens (Rambur) and Chrysoperla suzukii (Okamoto)) than for the trash-carrying species D. alcestes (33%). Immature and larval developmental times were significantly longer among the trash-carrying species than the naked species. The rapid development of naked green lacewings may be a strategy to decrease predation risk by aphid guarding ants and intra-guild predators. © 2012 Entomological Society of America. © 2012 Entomological Society of America. Source

Taki H.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Maeto K.,Kobe University | Okabe K.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Haruyama N.,Tochigi Prefectural Sustainable Agriculture Extension Center
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2013

The biological control of pest insects in farmlands is an important ecosystem service provided by natural enemies, a tenet that is frequently supported by natural ecosystems; however, natural ecosystems can sometimes serve as a source of pests and can maintain them as an ecosystem disservice. We examined the effects of the surrounding seminatural and natural matrix on aphid presence and aphid predator abundance in buckwheat fields. We specifically aimed to detect whether the seminatural and natural matrix causes a trade-off between pest and natural enemy abundances. We established buckwheat study fields in a region of central Japan, the landscape of which is quite complex. Our results showed that aphid presence was not affected by either the abundance of ladybirds and lacewings or the area of the surrounding seminatural and natural matrix. We also found that the abundance of ladybirds, but not of lacewings, was significantly affected by the area of the seminatural and natural matrix. These findings suggest that in a complex landscape, as the area of seminatural and natural lands increases, some assemblages of natural enemies could also increase, but their biological control services would have little effect or would be compensated for by larger pest migration, leading to no net difference in pest damage. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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