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Satoh K.,Teikyo University | Maeda M.,Teikyo University | Umeda Y.,Teikyo University | Sugamata M.,Teikyo University | And 2 more authors.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology

A total of 515 yeast strains were isolated from the nasal smears of Queensland koalas and their breeding environments in Japanese zoological parks between 2005 and 2012. The most frequent species in the basidiomycetous yeast biota isolated from koala nasal passages was Cryptococcus neoformans, followed by Rhodotorula minuta. R. minuta was the most frequent species in the breeding environments, while C. neoformans was rare. Seven strains representing two novel yeast species were identified. Analyses of the 26S rDNA (LSU) D1/D2 domain and nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region sequences indicated that these strains represent new species with close phylogenetic relationships to Cryptococcus and Rhodotorula. A sexual state was not found for either of these two novel yeasts. Key phenotypic characters confirmed that these strains could be placed in Cryptococcus and Rhodotorula. The names Cryptococcus lacticolor sp. nov. (type strain TIMM 10013T = JCM 15449T = CBS 10915T = DSM 21093T, DDBJ/EMBL/Genbank Accession No.; AB375774 (ITS) and AB375775 (26S rDNA D1/D2 region), MycoBank ID; MB 802688, Fungal Barcoding Database ID; 3174), and Rhodotorula oligophaga sp. nov. (type strain TIMM 10017T = JCM 18398T = CBS 12623 T = DSM 25814T, DDBJ/EMBL/Genbank Accession No.; AB702967 (ITS) and AB702967 (26S rDNA D1/D2 region), MycoBank ID; MB 802689, Fungal Barcoding Database ID; 3175) are proposed for these new species. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Umezawa M.,Tokyo University of Science | Sekita K.,Tokyo University of Science | Suzuki K.-I.,Tokyo University of Science | Kubo-Irie M.,Tokyo University of Science | And 4 more authors.
Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Background: Ultrasonic humidifiers silently generate water droplets as a cool fog and produce most of the dissolved minerals in the fog in the form of an aerosolized " white dust." However, the health effect of these airborne particles is largely unknown. This study aimed to characterize the aerosol particles generated by ultrasonic humidifiers and to investigate their effect on the lung tissue of mice.Methods: An ultrasonic humidifier was operated with tap water, high-silica water, ultrapure water, or other water types. In a chamber (0.765 m3, ventilation ratio 11.5 m3/hr), male ICR mice (10-week-old) were exposed by inhalation to an aerosol-containing vapor generated by the humidifier. After exposure for 7 or 14 days, lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected from each mouse and examined by microarray, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and light and electron microscopy.Results: Particles generated from the humidifier operated with tap water had a mass concentration of 0.46 ± 0.03 mg/m3, number concentration of (5.0 ± 1.1) × 104/cm3, and peak size distribution of 183 nm. The particles were phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages in the lung of mice. Inhalation of particles caused dysregulation of genes related to mitosis, cell adhesion molecules, MHC molecules and endocytosis, but did not induce any signs of inflammation or tissue injury in the lung.Conclusion: These results indicate that aerosol particles released from ultrasonic humidifiers operated with tap water initiated a cellular response but did not cause severe acute inflammation in pulmonary tissue. Additionally, high mineral content tap water is not recommended and de-mineralized water should be recommended in order to exclude any adverse effects. © 2013 Umezawa et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Tochigi Institute Of Clinical Pathology | Date: 2014-04-22

Pharmaceuticals which are effective for treatment, prevention, and the like of cancer and have less side effects are disclosed. The antitumor agent of the present invention comprises as an effective ingredient at least one leukotriene inhibitor. Examples of the leukotriene inhibitor includes leukotriene production inhibitors and leukotriene receptor antagonists, and preferred specific examples of the leukotriene inhibitor include montelukast, zafirlukast, pranlukast, and zileuton; pharmaceutically acceptable salts of these compounds; and pharmaceutically acceptable solvates of these compounds and the salts. The leukotriene inhibitor can also be used as a relieving agent for pain accompanying a tumor(s), and as a stromal hyperplasia inhibitor.

Umezawa M.,Tochigi Institute of Clinical Pathology | Umezawa M.,Tokyo University of Science | Tanaka N.,Tokyo University of Science | Takeda K.,Tokyo University of Science | And 2 more authors.

Endometriosis is a common gynecological disorder associated with infertility. However, treatment options remain limited at present. Since the pathogenesis involves immune responses, the immunomodulatory effect of macrolide on endometriosis has been the focus of much research. A previous study showed that clarithromycin decreased stromal proliferation and promoted apoptosis of fibroblasts in an endometriosis model in rats; however, the mechanism of the effect remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of clarithromycin, one of the major macrolides, and telithromycin, one of the antibiotics belonging to a macrolide group (ketolide), on IL6, IL10 and Ccl2 expression in a rat endometriosis model induced by the surgical transplantation of endometrium onto the peritoneum in 8-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. After autotransplantation, the rats were given daily administration of clarithromycin (16. mg/kg/day or telithromycin (12. mg/kg/day) for 3. days. The induced lesions were examined 4. days after autotransplantation. After treatment, IL10 expression in the lesions was increased in rats treated with clarithromycin (1.70-fold) and telithromycin (2.88-fold). The drugs attenuated proliferative stromal lesion of the endometriosis model. The results showed that in the endometriosis model, the drugs enhanced expression of IL10, which may play a role in inhibiting excess inflammatory reaction with its therapeutic effect on the lesion. Macrolide and ketolide therapy may have significant value for the treatment of human endometriosis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Onoda A.,Tokyo University of Science | Onoda A.,Tochigi Institute of Clinical Pathology | Umezawa M.,Tokyo University of Science | Takeda K.,Tokyo University of Science | And 2 more authors.

Perivascular macrophages (PVMs) constitute a subpopulation of resident macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS). They are located at the blood-brain barrier and can contribute to maintenance of brain functions in both health and disease conditions. PVMs have been shown to respond to particle substances administered during the prenatal period, which may alter their phenotype over a long period. We aimed to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to ultrafine carbon black (UfCB) on PVMs and astrocytes close to the blood vessels in offspring mice. Pregnant mice were exposed to UfCB suspension by intranasal instillation on gestational days 5 and 9. Brains were collected from their offspring at 6 and 12 weeks after birth. PVM and astrocyte phenotypes were examined by Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining, transmission electron microscopy and PAS-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) double staining. PVM granules were found to be enlarged and the number of PAS-positive PVMs was decreased in UfCB-exposed offspring. These results suggested that in offspring, "normal" PVMs decreased in a wide area of the CNS through maternal UfCB exposure. The increase in astrocytic GFAP expression level was closely related to the enlargement of granules in the attached PVMs in offspring. Honeycomb-like structures in some PVM granules and swelling of astrocytic end-foot were observed under electron microscopy in the UfCB group. The phenotypic changes in PVMs and astrocytes indicate that maternal UfCB exposure may result in changes to brain blood vessels and be associated with increased risk of dysfunction and disorder in the offspring brain. © 2014 Onoda et al. Source

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