Tobago Health Studies Office

Scarborough Tobago, Trinidad and Tobago

Tobago Health Studies Office

Scarborough Tobago, Trinidad and Tobago
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Kuipers A.L.,University of Pittsburgh | Zmuda J.M.,University of Pittsburgh | Patrick A.L.,Tobago Health Studies Office | Ge Y.,University of North Carolina at Charlotte | And 2 more authors.
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2014

We tested for association between cortical and trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) with abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) prevalence in 278 Afro-Caribbean men. AAC was present in 68.3 % of the men. Greater cortical, but not trabecular, vBMD was associated with significantly decreased odds of AAC independent of traditional risk factors. Introduction: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and correlates of AAC in a sample of 278 Afro-Caribbean men (mean age 56) and to test for a largely unexplored association between cortical and trabecular vBMD with AAC prevalence. Methods: Men were recruited consecutively as part of an ongoing prospective cohort study of body composition in men aged 40+. For this analysis, AAC was assessed by computed tomography of the abdomen from L3 to S1. Aortic calcium was scored using the Agatston method, and prevalence was defined as a score ≥10 to rule out false positives. Men also had BMD assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography at 4 % (trabecular vBMD) and 33 % (cortical vBMD) of the radius and tibia. Results: Abdominal aortic calcification was present in 68.3 % of the men. Significant independent predictors of AAC prevalence were increased age, increased BMI, hypertension, and current smoking. Age was the strongest predictor, with each SD (7.8 year) increase in age conferring 2.7 times increased odds of having AAC (P < 0.0001). A one SD greater cortical, but not trabecular, vBMD was associated with a significant decreased odds of AAC prevalence independent of other traditional risk factors (OR 0.65; 95 % CI 0.45-0.92). Conclusions: Cortical vBMD is inversely associated with AAC presence. This finding suggests that there may be shared physiology between cortical bone compartment remodeling and vascular calcification. © 2013 International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.


Sheu Y.,University of Pittsburgh | Cauley J.A.,University of Pittsburgh | Wheeler V.W.,Tobago Health Studies Office | Patrick A.L.,Tobago Health Studies Office | And 4 more authors.
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2011

Summary: We compared rates of BMD decline in older men of diverse ethnic backgroud. The rate of bone loss was statistically equivalent between men of African and Caucasian descent. Introduction: Race differences in peak bone mineral density (BMD) are well established, but the magnitude of bone loss among non-white men has not been well characterized. Our objective was to compare and contrast the rates of decline in BMD with aging among older men of different race/ethnic groups. Methods: The rate of decline in hip BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR-4500 W) with an average follow-up of 4.6 years in 3,869 Caucasian, 138 African American, 145 Asian, and 334 Afro-Caribbean men aged≥65 years (Mean ages: 73±5, 70±4, 72±5, 71±5 years, respectively). Results: The annual rate of decline in BMD at the femoral neck was -0.32%, -0.42%, -0.09%, and -0.44%/year for Caucasian, African American, Asian, and Afro-Caribbean men, respectively (p<0.05 for Caucasian versus Asian). Although men of African ancestry have higher peak BMD than Caucasians, rates of decline in BMD with aging appear to be statistically equivalent in our study. In contrast, Asian men experienced a slower rate of decline in BMD compared with Caucasians and African Americans. Conclusion: More studies are needed to better define the natural history of and factors associated with bone loss among non-white men. © 2010 International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.


Kuipers A.L.,University of Pittsburgh | Zhang Y.,University of Pittsburgh | Yu S.,University of Pittsburgh | Kammerer C.M.,University of Pittsburgh | And 7 more authors.
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2014

We determined factors associated with serum sclerostin in 446 Afro-Caribbean family members. Age, weight, sex, diabetes and kidney function were associated with sclerostin. Sclerostin was heritable, and nine SNPs in the SOST gene region were associated with sclerostin. Variation in serum sclerostin is a heritable factor that is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Introduction: Sclerostin, encoded by the SOST gene, is a Wnt inhibitor that regulates bone mineralization and is a candidate gene locus for osteoporosis. However, little is known about the genetic and non-genetic sources of inter-individual variation in serum sclerostin levels. Methods: Serum sclerostin was measured in 446 Afro-Caribbean men and women aged 18+ from seven large, multigenerational families (mean family size, 64; 3,840 relative pairs). Thirty-six common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were genotyped within a 100 kb region encompassing the gene encoding sclerostin (SOST). Genetic and non-genetic factors were tested for association with serum sclerostin. Results: Mean serum sclerostin was 41.3 pmol/l and was greater in men than in women (P < 0.05). Factors associated with higher serum sclerostin were increased age and body weight, male sex, diabetes and decreased glomerular filtration rate, which collectively accounted for 25.4 % of its variation. Residual genetic heritability of serum sclerostin was 0.393 (P < 0.0001). Nine SNPs reached nominal significance with sclerostin. Three of those nine SNPs represented independent association signals (rs851056, rs41455049 and rs9909172), which accounted for 7.8 % of the phenotypic variation in sclerostin, although none of these SNPs surpassed a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions: Serum sclerostin is a heritable trait that is also determined by environmental factors including age, sex, adiposity, diabetes and kidney function. Three independent common SNPs within the SOST region may collectively account for a significant proportion of the variation in serum sclerostin. © 2013 International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.


Sheu Y.,University of Pittsburgh | Cauley J.A.,University of Pittsburgh | Patrick A.L.,Tobago Health Studies Office | Wheeler V.W.,Tobago Health Studies Office | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research | Year: 2014

Although fracture rates are lower in individuals of African descent compared to individuals of European ancestry, morbidity and mortality following a fracture may be greater in individuals of African ancestry. However, fracture risk and associated clinical risk factors have not been well-defined among African ancestry populations, especially among men of African ancestry. We used data collected from the Tobago Bone Health Study to examine potential clinical risk factors for incident fractures, including demographic information, anthropometric measurements, medical history, lifestyle factors, bone mineral density (BMD), and hip structural geometry. Among 1933 Afro-Caribbean men aged ≥40 years at study entry (mean age: 57.2 ± 11.0 years), 65 reported at least one new fracture during 10 years of subsequent follow-up. Younger age, mixed Afro-Caribbean ancestry, prior fracture history, BMD, and hip structural geometry were statistically significant risk factors for incident fractures. A 1-SD change in several skeletal parameters (hip BMD, cross-sectional area, outer diameter, cortical thickness, and buckling ratio) were each associated with a 35% to 56% increase in incident fracture risk after adjusting for age. Men with a prior fracture history were three times more likely to experience a new fracture during follow-up, and the association remained strong after adjusting for age, mixed Afro-Caribbean ancestry, and skeletal parameters (hazard ratios ranged from 2.72 to 2.82). Our findings suggest that except for age, risk factors for fracture in men of African ancestry are similar to established risk factors in white populations. Prior fracture history is a powerful and independent risk factor for incident fractures among men of African ancestry and could easily be incorporated into clinical risk evaluation. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Forrest K.Y.Z.,Slippery Rock University | Bunker C.H.,University of Pittsburgh | Sheu Y.,University of Pittsburgh | Wheeler V.W.,Tobago Health Studies Office | And 2 more authors.
Age and Ageing | Year: 2012

Background: muscle strength is essential for physical functions and an indicator of morbidity and mortality in older adults. Among the factors associated with muscle strength loss with age, ethnicity has been shown to play an important role. Objective: to examine the patterns and correlates of muscle strength change with age in a population-based cohort of middle-aged and older Afro-Caribbean men. Methods: handgrip strength and body composition were measured in 1,710 Afro-Caribbean men. Data were also collected for demographic variables, medical history and lifestyle behaviours. Results: the age range of the study population was 29-89 years. Grip strength increased below age 50 years, and decreased after age 50 years over 4.5-year follow-up. The average loss in grip strength was 2.2% (0.49% per year) for ages 50 years or older and 3.8% (0.64% per year) for ages 65 years or older. The significant independent predictors of grip strength loss included older age, a greater body mass index, lower initial arm lean mass and greater loss of arm lean mass. Conclusion: Afro-Caribbean men experience a significant decline in muscle strength with advanced age. The major independent factors associated with strength loss were similar to other ethnic groups, including age, body weight and lean mass. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved.


Henning J.D.,University of Pittsburgh | Bunker C.H.,University of Pittsburgh | Patrick A.L.,Tobago Health Studies Office | Jenkins F.J.,University of Pittsburgh
Prostate | Year: 2016

Background The Caribbean island of Tobago, which is 97% African ancestry, has one of the highest rates of prostate cancer in the world. We have previously reported that human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection is significantly associated with prostate cancer in Tobago. In this study, we extend those results testing the hypothesis that HHV-8 seropositive Tobagonian men have a chronic HHV-8 infection in their prostates that is associated with increased inflammation. Methods Prostate sections were screened by immunohistochemistry for the expression of HHV-8 proteins K8.1 and LANA-1 and for presence of B cells (CD20) and macrophages (CD68). Results HHV-8 antigen expression representing lytic and latent infections was seen in 73.9% of prostates from HHV-8 seropositive subjects. Latent infections were seen predominantly in glandular epithelia whereas lytic gene expression was seen mainly in macrophages in prostate stroma. Macrophage infiltrates were significantly increased in sections expressing HHV-8 proteins. Conclusion HHV-8 establishes a chronic latent infection in the prostate, which is associated with an increased macrophage infiltrate. Prostate 76:735-743, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Yerges-Armstrong L.M.,University of Pittsburgh | Miljkovic I.,University of Pittsburgh | Cauley J.A.,University of Pittsburgh | Sheu Y.,University of Pittsburgh | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research | Year: 2010

Although low body weight is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures, conflicting data exist for the association between adiposity and bone mineral density (BMD). Studies examining these relationships have measured body fat and BMD with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which cannot distinguish subcutaneous adipose tissue area (SAT) from total adiposity or trabecular from cortical bone. To investigate the relationship between adiposity and BMD further, we analyzed body composition and adipose tissue distribution by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) in 1829 Afro-Caribbean men aged 40 years and older from a population-based sample. Cortical volumetric BMD, muscle cross-sectional area, total adipose tissue area (TAT), and percentage SAT were measured at the proximal tibia. Trabecular volumetric BMD was measured at the distal tibia. We used analysis of covariance to test for associations between quartile of the adipose tissue measures and BMD, adjusting for anthropometric, health, and lifestyle factors. Higher TAT was associated with lower cortical BMD in both unadjusted and adjusted models (p<.001). Men with a higher percentage SAT had greater cortical BMD (p<.001). Similar associations were seen between percent SAT and trabecular BMD at the distal tibia. These results indicate that total adiposity is a potentially important correlate of bone mass in older men and that different fat depots may have opposing associations with bone mass. Additional research is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the relationship between body fat distribution and bone mass. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Sheu Y.,University of Pittsburgh | Bunker C.H.,University of Pittsburgh | Jonnalagadda P.,University of Pittsburgh | Cvejkus R.K.,University of Pittsburgh | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research | Year: 2015

Low trabecular (Tb) and cortical (Ct) volumetric BMD (vBMD) are related to increased fracture risk, but little is known about the patterns and correlates of Tb and Ct vBMD loss with aging. We examined the rates of change in total, Tb.vBMD, and Ct.vBMD at the radius and tibia, and identified factors associated with vBMD loss among 1569 men of African descent aged 40 years and older. Quantitative computed tomography was used to measure vBMD 6 years apart. The annualized rate of loss in Tb.vBMD was significant at the radius (-0.047%/yr, p=0.016) but not at the tibia. At the radius, a significant loss of Tb.vBMD was observed in men aged 40 to 49 years that appeared to be attenuated and not statistically significant among older age men. In contrast, the decline in Ct.vBMD was similar at both skeletal sites (-0.254 to -0.264%/yr, p<0.0001) and was consistent across all age groups. Positive associations were found for vBMD changes with body weight (all but radius Ct.vBMD) and diabetes (Ct.vBMD only), whereas negative associations were found with hypertension (all but radius Tb.vBMD), smoking (Ct.vBMD only), and androgen deprivation therapy (cortical vBMD only). Trabecular and cortical vBMD loss appears to follow different patterns among middle- and older-aged men of African ancestry. Factors associated with the decline in vBMD also varied by compartment and anatomical site. Additional studies are needed to better understand the physiological mechanisms underlying early BMD loss among African-ancestry men. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Okobia M.N.,University of Pittsburgh | Zmuda J.M.,University of Pittsburgh | Ferrell R.E.,University of Pittsburgh | Patrick A.L.,University of Pittsburgh | And 2 more authors.
Prostate | Year: 2011

Background Earlier studies on the role of germline variations in the disproportionate higher burden of prostate cancer in men of African ancestry have been largely unrewarding. However, the successful replication of recent genome-wide association findings implicating some regions of chromosome 8q24 in the disparate prostate cancer susceptibility in men of European and African ancestry have been encouraging. This case-control study was designed to evaluate the association between germline variations in chromosome 8q24 and prostate cancer risk in Afro-Caribbean Tobago men, a population of predominantly West African ancestry. Methods High molecular weight genomic DNA was isolated from blood clots using Qiagen kits. Genotyping was performed on genomic DNA using a pre-designed TaqMan SNP assay according to the manufacture's protocol on a 7900HT Fast Real-Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Results SNP rs16901979 in region 2 was associated with significantly increased risk of prostate cancer (OR=1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.95, P=0.04) with the risk stronger in men with early-onset prostate cancer (OR=2.37, 95% CI 1.40-3.99, P=0.001). There was a tendency towards significantly increased risk for SNPs rs1447295 and rs6983267 in men with early-onset prostate cancer. ConclusionS The replication of the association of chromosome 8q24 variants with increased prostate cancer risk in Tobago men and the higher frequency of the risk alleles in controls in populations of African ancestry further strengthens the possible role of this genomic region in the disproportionate higher burden of prostate cancer in men of African ancestry. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


PubMed | Tobago Health Studies Office and University of Pittsburgh
Type: | Journal: The Prostate | Year: 2017

Serum-prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels have been used for many years as a biomarker for prostate cancer. This usage is under scrutiny due to the fact that elevated PSA levels can be caused by other conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and infections of or injury to the prostate. As a result, the identification of specific pathogens capable of increasing serum levels of PSA is important. A potential candidate responsible for elevated PSA is human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). We have reported previously that HHV-8 is capable of infecting and establishing a latent infection in the prostate. In this current study we test the hypothesis that HHV-8 infection is associated with elevated PSA levels. Circulating cytokine levels between men with elevated PSA and controls are also compared.HHV-8 serostatus was determined among men with elevated serum PSA (4ng/ml; n=168, no prostate cancer on biopsy) and age-matched controls (PSA <4ng/ml; n=234), Circulating cytokine levels were determined among a subset of each group (116 with elevated PSA and 85 controls).Men with an elevated serum PSA were significantly more likely to be HHV-8 seropositive (42.9%) than the age-matched cancer-free men (22.2%; OR 2.51; 95%CI 1.48-4.29, P=00001). Comparison of circulating cytokine levels between men with elevated serum PSA and controls indicated that elevated serum PSA is associated with a pro-inflammatory response with a mixed Th1/Th2 response while HHV-8 infection was associated with significantly higher levels of IL12p70, IL-10, and IL-13 indicating a Th2 immune response.We found a significant association between HHV-8 infection and increased levels of serum PSA. In an age of patient-centered medicine, men with an elevated serum PSA should be considered for HHV-8 serology testing to determine if HHV-8 is responsible for the elevated PSA. Prostate 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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