Central Tobacco Research Institute

andhra Pradesh, India

Central Tobacco Research Institute

andhra Pradesh, India
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Swapna M.,Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research | Sivaraju K.,Central Tobacco Research Institute | Sharma R.K.,Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology | Singh N.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Mohapatra T.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2011

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) has a large complex polyploid genome. Assay of molecular variation in the expressed component of its genome has relevance to the analysis of genetic diversity, variety identification and introgression of agronomically useful genes present in different members of the Saccharum complex. The present study was designed to evaluate single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) as a potential tool to detect genetic variation in the expressed sequence tag (EST) derived microsatellites. Twenty primer pairs obtained from EST libraries and one designed from soluble acid invertase gene sequence were used to characterise 21 clones belonging to four different Saccharum species and 22 sugarcane varieties/genotypes. All the markers, including the two, which were reported monomorphic even at the interspecific level in an automated fragment analysis system in a previous study, could be successfully converted into polymorphic ones using SSCP analysis. A broad range of variation could be revealed by this technique. The Saccharum spp. clones could be grouped into distinct clusters, confirming the species relationships postulated earlier using morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. The polymorphic markers could also differentiate all the 22 sugarcane varieties from each other. This is a first report that demonstrates the usefulness of SSCP technique, in obtaining polymorphic microsatellite markers developed from EST sequences for various genetic and breeding applications, in this polyploid species. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Subhashini D.V.,Central Tobacco Research Institute | Padmaja K.,Central Tobacco Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2010

Tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum L.) seedbeds were raised at CTRI nursery site during 2007-08, to study the effect of nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Azotobacter chroococcum), phosphorus-solubilizing AM fungi (Glomus intraradicus) and growth-promoting bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens on growth and nutrient content of seedlings in tobacco nursery. The combined inoculation of Azotobacter, VAM and P. fluorescens resulted in an increase of plant biomass, dry matter, weight of seedlings, number of healthy transplantable seedlings, leaf area and chlorophyll content. The treatments with dual and triple inoculation had maximum content of NPK compared to that of single inoculation. A significant increase in the micronutrients content was observed with triple and dual inoculation as compared to uninoculated control and single inoculation.


Subhashini D.V.,Central Tobacco Research Institute | Padmaja K.,Central Tobacco Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2011

A study was conducted during 2005-08 to isolate phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB), their distribution pattern and population density from the rhizosphere of different field crops in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) growing soils. PSB isolates were assessed for phosphate-solubilizing capacity, production of growth regulators, phosphatase activity, pH changes and titrable acidity. There was a significant difference on the population density. It is found to be higher in the rhizosphere soils of Bengalgram (15.3 × 10 5/g soil dry wt.), followed by redgram 14.1 × 105 and least in the soils of rice 7.05 × 10 5 and followed by maize 7.81 × 105. The distribution pattern of PSB in the rhizosphere soils showed that the population levels decreased with the distance of soil sampling from the plants. Among the 10 strains, MP07 was the best in solubilizing phosphate (41.06 ppm/ml of culture filtrate) while SOP 12 was the least (19.90). A wide variation in the phosphate-solubilizing efficiency (51 to 72%) by the PSB isolates was observed. Further, all the isolates were able to secrete phytohormones like indole acetic acid (IAA) and acid phosphatase under in vitro condition. The isolate BePO6 produced higher of amount of IAA (44.36 ppm), followed by the strain MaPO3 and least in RPO5 (32.14 ppm). phosphatase activity showed that The strain BePO6 isolated from Bengalgram soil showed highest activity of phosphotase (38.2 μmoles/g/hr), followed by the strain MaPO3 isolated from maize soil (34.01 μmoles/g/hr) with the least activity by the strain RP05 (16.02 μmoles/g/hr) isolated from rice soil.


Ghosh R.K.,Central Tobacco Research Institute | Reddy D.D.,Central Tobacco Research Institute
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2013

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) stem ash (TSA) was evaluated as an adsorbent for removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution by batch adsorption method. MB adsorption increased with increase in contact time, initial solution pH, and adsorbent dose. Contact time for adsorption equilibrium was 180 min. The MB adsorption per unit mass of adsorbent (in milligram per gram) increased with the increasing initial dye concentration. Adsorption of MB onto TSA followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model with a rate constant (k 2) of 0.017 g mg-1 min-1. The mechanism of adsorption was described with intra-particle diffusion model. It was found that the intra-particle diffusion was not a sole rate-controlling step. Equilibrium adsorption was investigated by the Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, and Jovanoic isotherms. On the basis of coefficient of determination, the order of isotherm fit was Langmuir (R 2 = 0.974) > Freundlich (R 2 = 0.957) = Temkin (R 2 = 0.957) > Jovanoic (R 2 = 0.764) isotherm. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of TSA was 35.7 mg g -1. The dimensionless separation factor (R L) was low (0.137), indicating favorable adsorption of MB onto TSA. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of TSA as a low-cost and an easily available adsorbent for sequestering MB from wastewater. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Subhashini D.V.,Central Tobacco Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

Applications of beneficial microbes, biofertilizer, are well known as an alternative to chemical fertilizer application in sustainable crop production. The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of co-inoculation with bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on the growth, yield and quality of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) in vertisols for two years (2008 and 2009). Sixty days old tobacco seedlings were inoculated with single, double and triple inoculations. The results revealed that triple inoculation of Glomus intraradices + Psuedomonas flourescens and Azotobacter chroococum stimulated increased root colonization, plant growth, plant biomass, gas exchange parameters, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of leaf, cured leaf yield, grade index and quality significantly over the double and single inoculation treatments. Comparative analysis showed that the presence of Pseudomonas fluorescens inoculant alone and in combination of treatments played an effective role in stimulating growth, yield and quality grades of FCV tobacco leaf. Tobacco crop is grown for leaves instead of seed as in many crops. The association of bacteria and AM fungi indicated that rhizosphere bacteria are involved in the beneficial effects of AMF on plant growth and enhanced tobacco yield and quality.


Raju K.S.,Central Tobacco Research Institute
Indian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of curing methods on quality characters of various chewing tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) genotypes grown in Tamil Nadu. Seven varieties of chewing tobacco (I-64, Bhagyalakshmi, Abirami, Meenakshi, Maragdam, Thangam and Vairam) were grown under recommended cultural practices and subjected to different curing methods viz., sun-curing, pit-curing and smoke-curing. The sun-cured tobacco contained significantly higher levels of organic acids, protein and carotenoids, whereas significantly lower levels of petroleum ether extractives and free fatty acids compared to pit and smoke-cured tobacco. Pit-cured tobacco showed significantly higher content of petroleum ether extractives and free fatty acids and lower levels of carotenoids, organic acids and carbonyl compounds. Smoke-cured tobacco showed significantly higher levels of carbonyl compounds and lower levels of protein. The free fatty acid content varied from 8.66 to 68.63 μmol g-1 among the varieties under different curings. The variety Vairam showed significantly higher content of free fatty acids, while variety Abirami showed significantly higher content of carbonyl compounds, whereas the variety Bhagyalakshmi showed lower levels. The sun-cured variety Meenakshi showed 2.34 and 1.8 times more petroleum ether extractives when it was pit cured compared to sun and smoke-cured. There was a significant variation in the content of aroma compounds in the varieties when they were subjected to different curing methods. The results revealed that, in case of chewing tobacco, the method of curing significantly affects the biochemical constituents. © 2013 Indian Society for Plant Physiology.


Subhashini D.V.,Central Tobacco Research Institute
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2015

Potassium-mobilizing bacterial strain Frateuria aurantia was examined for plant-growth-promoting effects and nutrient uptake on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) grown in vertisols as a field experiment for two crop seasons, 2009–2010 and 2010–2011. Inoculation with bacterial strain Frateuria aurantia was found to increase biomass, nutrient content, and leaf quality of flue-cured Virginia (FCV) tobacco. Bacterial strain F. aurantia was able to enhance potassium uptake efficiently in tobacco plants when sulfate of potash was added to the soil. In tobacco, the ultimate product is the leaf that is consumed and has commercial value. In tobacco-growing soils treated with soluble potassium and inoculated with strain F. aurantia, the potassium content of the leaf was increased by 39%. Bacterial inoculation also resulted in greater nitrogen and phosphorus contents of aboveground plant components. The bacterial isolate was also able to colonize and develop in the rhizosphere soil of tobacco after root inoculation. Solubilization of potassium containing minerals by potassium-mobilizing bacteria in vertisols and their effect on tobacco plant growth, yield, and quality are reported in this study. ©, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Subhashini D.V.,Central Tobacco Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

A bioherbicide is a biologically based control agent for weeds that utilize such naturally occurring enemies, rather than depending on man-made chemicals. Out of 12 isolates of Streptomyces spp. obtained from tobacco rhizosphere two isolates (SI and SII) were found to be efficient in suppressing the weeds. Growth pattern of the isolates was studied. Isolate SII was found to be more effective against weeds. Weedicidal activity of Streptomyces was tested against two dicot and two monocot weeds of tobacco fields, viz. Solanum nigrum, Sorghum halepense, Eleusine indica and Euphorbia hirta. Streptomyces Isolate SII showed faster growth and effective bioherbicidal activity. There was a significant and progressive reduction in dry weight of all the weed species treated with the extracts of 3 to 9 day old cultures of Streptomyces isolate SI and SII. The reduction in dry weight was better in case of isolate SII than isolate SI and the dry weight reduction was comparable with 2,4-D.


Sreedhar U.,Central Tobacco Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

Two seasons experimentation for management of H. armigera in Virginia tobacco, by integrating trap crop and bio-pesticide, neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) revealed a significant reduction in budworm infestation in Virginia tobacco plots with trap crops + NSKE spray as compared to plots with trap crop and without NSKE spray. All the trap crops planted around Virginia tobacco plots sprayed with NSKE recorded significantly higher number of eggs and larvae as compared to trap crops planted around tobacco without NSKE spray. The natural enemy activity was not affected and was found to be more on tobacco with marigoldmw as trap crop. Conjunctive use of trap crops, marigold-SW or rustica tobacco with NSKE spray was effective for management of budworm, H.armigera in Virginia tobacco and also resulted in better grade index.


Subhashini D.V.,Central Tobacco Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

Present study conducted during 2008-09 addresses the acquisition of nutrients from soil by tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants with specific emphasis on the genotype and soil type with reference to structural and functional characteristics of roots that influence the availability and uptake of P and N. Objective is to explore the impact of tobacco genotypes VT-1158 and Siri in vertisols whereas 16/108, and Kanchan in alfisols on the activity of beneficial microorganisms such as Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas along with native microflora of the rhizosphere. After 45 DAT, the bacterial population was highest in number and it ranged from 7.02 to 10.90 in tobacco rhizosphere of vertisols and alfisols, while fungi were lowest in number which ranged from 3.92 × 103 to 5.30 × 103 cfu/g soil in the rhizosphere soil of vertisols var VT-1158 and Siri respectively. At 90 DAT microbial population declined in vertisols and alfisols of all the varieties. Inoculation of Azospirillum and Pseudomonas along with application of RDF resulted in maximum viable cell number of 5.89 × 106 cfu/g and 5.90 × 106 cfu/g soil in case of vertisols rhizoshpere of var VT-1158, while 5.95 × 106 cfu/ g and 6.47 × 106 cfu/g soil in the rhizosphere of alfisols tobacco respectively after 45 DAT. Inoculation of bacteria either as monoculture or mixed biofertilizer resulted in almost 10-30 times increase in microbial population of the inoculated bacteria; however, their population decreased after 90 DAT. Mixed biofertilizer (Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas) had a prolonged effect on plant parameters tested and showed a higher nutrient (N and P) content.

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