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Zagreb, Croatia

Grdisa M.,University of Zagreb | Grsic K.,Tobacco Institute Zagreb
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus | Year: 2013

Botanical insecticides are natural compounds with insecticidal properties and their use in crop protection is as old as agricultural practice. Although they have been in use for over one hundred years, the advent of synthetic insecticides has unfortunately displaced their use today. Due to fast action, low cost, easy application and efficiency against a wide range of harmful species, synthetic insecticides have become an important part of pest management in modern agricultural systems. However, after decades of use, their negative side effects, such as toxicity to humans and animals, environmental contamination, and toxicity to non-target insects have become apparent and interest in less hazardous alternatives of pest control is therefore being renewed. Plant species with known insecticidal actions are being promoted and research is being conducted to find new sources of botanical insecticides. The most important botanical insecticide is pyrethrin, a secondary metabolite of Dalmatian pyrethrum, neem, followed by insecticides based on the essential oils, rotenone, quassia, ryania and sabadilla. They have various chemical properties and modes of action. However, some general characteristics include fast degradation in sunlight, air and moisture, and selectivity to non-target insects. Unfortunately, neither of these insecticides is widely used as a pest control agent but is recognized by organic crop producers in industrialized countries.

Tursic I.,Tobacco Institute Zagreb | Hamel D.,Institute for Plant Protection in Agriculture and Forestry of Republic Croatia | Mesic H.,Croatian Environment Agency | Sanz R.,UNIDO | Zalac S.,Tobacco Institute Zagreb
Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology | Year: 2010

Production of tobacco seedlings involves soil disinfection with methyl bromide, which is an ozone-depleting substance. In this study alternative methods such as solarisation plus bio-fumigation and non-soil cultivation (floating tray system) were tested. The results of two-year experiment have shown that tobacco yield and quality obtained from seedlings produced in floating tray system were better with respect to the tobacco obtained from seedlings grown on plots treated with methyl bromide in the second year of investigation. The substitution of methyl bromide with the usage of floating tray system has positive effect on ozone layer protection, prevention of bromide leaching into ground water and increase of yield and quality of tobacco produced in Croatia.

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