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Yanggu, South Korea

Kwak B.K.,Seoul National University | Kim J.H.,Seoul National University | Park H.-S.,TO21 | Kim N.G.,TO21 | And 2 more authors.
Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2010

We compiled contour maps of the concentrations of major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and corresponding chronic inhalation and carcinogenic risks in South Korea for the year 2004. We used the CALPUFF modeling system, an atmospheric dispersion model, to calculate the concentrations of five species of VOCs (benzene, ethylbenzene, styrene, toluene, and xylene). This modeling approach was used to validate the emission rates estimated in Part I of this study. The predicted concentrations show good overall agreement with the observed concentrations. In terms of risk assessment, we studied the chronic and carcinogenic effects on human health based on toxicity data and predicted concentrations of VOCs in ambient air. Risk levels were influenced by regional characteristics and spatial emission patterns. The results of such risk assessments could be used in support of air quality management in South Korea. © 2010 Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers, Seoul, Korea.

Kim J.H.,Seoul National University | Kwak B.K.,Seoul National University | Park H.-S.,TO21 | Kim N.G.,TO21 | And 2 more authors.
Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2010

This paper presents a method for assessing and managing the South Korean atmospheric emission inventory of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on a geographic information system (GIS). The use of this GIS-based assessment technique makes it possible to obtain the geographical characteristics of anthropogenic emission sources, observe spatial patterns within the emission inventory, and develop a new bottom-up method for improving the spatial accuracy of emission inventories. As a case study, we estimated the emission rates of five major VOCs (benzene, ethylbenzene, styrene, toluene, and xylene) throughout South Korea for the year 2004. The spatial pattern of emissions and relative contributions of various sources showed considerable spatial variability. A comparison of estimated emissions data and observed environmental concentration revealed a reasonable degree of accuracy for the estimated values. The proposed methodologies and information provided in this study can assist in the development of environmental policy, and can be adopted internationally to obtain a more precise emission inventory. © 2010 Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers, Seoul, Korea.

Kim J.H.,Samsung | Kwak B.K.,Seoul National University | Shin C.B.,Ajou University | Jeon W.J.,Ajou University | And 7 more authors.
Environmental Modeling and Assessment | Year: 2011

A local-scale spatially refined multimedia fate model (LSRMFM) was developed to evaluate in detail the multimedia transport of organic compounds at a spatial level. The model was derived using a combination of an advection-dispersion-reaction partial differential equation, a steady-state multimedia fugacity model, and a geographical information system. The model was applied to predicting four major volatile organic compounds that are produced as emissions (benzene, toluene, xylene, and styrene) in an urban and industrial area (the 50 × 50-km area was divided into 0.5 × 0.5-km segments) in Korea. To test the accuracy of the model, the LSRMFM was used to predict the extent of dispersion and the data compared with actual measured concentrations and the results of a generic multimedia fate model (GMFM). The results indicated that the method developed herein is appropriate for predicting long-term multimedia pollution. However, the comparison study also illustrated that the developed model has some limitations (e. g., steady-state assumption) in terms of explaining all the observed concentrations, and additional verification and study (e. g., validation using a large observed data set, integration with a more accurate runoff model) would be desirable. In comparing LSRMFM and GMFM, discrepancies between the LSRMFM and GMFM outputs were found, as the result of geographical effects, even though the environmental parameters were identical. The geographical variation for LSRMFM output indicated the existence of considerable local human and ecological risks, whereas the GMFM output indicated less average risk. These results demonstrate that the model has the potential for improving the management of pollutant levels under these refined spatial conditions. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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