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Laboratory studies were conducted to find out the toxicity of diafenthiuron with different doses in comparison with the standard Quinalphos. Diafenthiuron is safer to T. chilonis Ishii, in terms of adult emergence but found to hamper its parasitisation potential to an extent of 50.35 to 68.65 per cent in different diafenthiuron treatments. Tricltogramma adults did not parasitize 49.65 per cent of Corcyra eggs which were treated with diafenthiuron (NS) 1600 g a.i. ha"1. The hatchability and parasatisation per cent of T. chilonis was not affected by both the doses of diafenthiuron 50 WP (NS) at 800 and 400 g a.i. ha"1 as they recorded more than 58 per cent of hatchability and parasitisation. The highest dose of diafenthiuron 50 WP (NS) 800 g a.i. ha"1 was slightly harmful to B. hebetor (60.00%).

Shanmuga Prema M.,TNAU | Sridharan S.,TNAU | Kuttalam S.,TNAU
Pestology | Year: 2017

Field experiments conducted during August 2013 to May 2014 to evaluate the efficacy of Fipronil 80 WG against leaf folder on rice revealed that application of fipronil 80 WG at 40 and 50 g a.i. ha-1 effected 76.3 & 76.8 per cent reduction of leaf damage in trial I and 76.9 & 78.1 per cent reduction of leaf damage in trial II and showed better efficacy than chlorpyriphos 20 EC at 200 g a.i. ha-1. Fipronil 80 WG at 40 and 50 g a.i. ha1 were found on par with Regent® 80 WG @ 40 and 50 g a.i. ha-1 without phytotoxicity to rice. Increase in grain yield was recorded in all fipronil treated plots upto 12-15 and 10-13 per cent over control in trial I and II, respectively. Fipronil 80 WG at 40 and 50 g a.i. ha-1 were found safe to Trichogramma chilonis Ishii with 80 per cent emergence and parasitisation.

B. Sai C.,Center for Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology | Nagarajan P.,TNAU | Raveendran M.,Center for Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology | Rabindran R.,TNAU | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2017

Mungbean, Vigna radiata, third in the series of important pulse crops, still suffers from yield loss due to mungbean yellow mosaic disease caused by mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV). Hence, studies on plant-microbe interaction are necessary for understanding the inheritance of resistance. This study concentrated on identification of linked molecular markers for MYMV resistance and to find the genetic inheritance of MYMV resistance in mungbean. A total of 413 germplasm entries in a MYMV hot spot area (Vamban) were subjected to natural field infection and 13 selected resistant lines were subjected to Agrobacterium infection using strains harboring partial genome of two different MYMV isolates, VA221 and VA239. Among the resistant lines, KMG189 showed strain-specific resistance to VA221 and had no symptoms during field trials. Ninety F2 genotypes were developed from the cross made between KMG189 (MYMV-resistant) and VBN(Gg)2 (MYMV-susceptible), segregated in the Mendelian single cross ratio 3S:1R; susceptibility of all the F1s to MYMV suggested that the MYMV resistance in mungbean is governed by a single recessive gene. Two SCAR markers CM9 and CM815 were developed through bulk segregant analysis, and the linkage analysis proved CM815 SCAR marker to be linked at 5.56 cM with MYMV resistance gene and SCAR CM9 had nil recombination percentage, suggesting it to be very closely linked to the MYMV resistance gene. SCAR marker CM9 was present in chromosome number 3 of mungbean suggesting novel loci for virus resistance in mungbean. The identified loci can be used for developing varieties resistant to MYMV in mungbean. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Senthil Kumar J.,Karunya University | Rajasekaran P.,Karunya University | David Paul Raj R.S.,Karunya University | Gopal N.O.,TNAU
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research | Year: 2016

Shigella spp was found to have very close relations with E.coli. Traditionally confirmation of both Organisms can be carried out by biochemical and serological tests. Most of the Shigella spp and E.coli had ended up with positively in both biochemical and serological testing. After the confirmation both the Organisms were processed for MALDI – TOF (Matrix – Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization – Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry). The total of 50 samples was processed, out of that 5 were positive for Shigella spp and the other 45 were identified as mixed cultures of E.coli and mixed cultures. The routine test result was indicative of the identified strains belongs to E. coli and other Coliforms. None of test organism was identified as Shigella spp. This technique could not help in the detection of E.coli to mostly as 95%. This study further urges that streamline in research to be done in order to fasten the diagnosis of Shigella spp in the near future. Other molecular diagnostic testing like PFGE, MLST, MVLA and WGS can be tested for pathological strains with better results. © 2016, Global Research Online. All rights reserved.

Vasanthi V.J.,Vels University | Radhjeyalakshmi R.,TNAU | Nasrin F.,Vels University
International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research | Year: 2014

The present study was designed to evaluate cytotoxicity of n-Hexane fractions of Vitex trifolia in two cancer cell lines viz., Hep G2 and HeLa. Different concentrations such as 20,40. 80, 160, 320 and 640 µg/ml of extract were tested for cytotoxicity using MTT Assay. Based on our previous research findings on qualitative and quantitive analysis of phytochemicals in Vitex trifolia, it was evident that phytochemicals in Vitex trifolia had strong antibacterial activity. Hence in the current study anticancer activity was tested using Vitex trifolia extracts. Concentration required for a 50% inhibition of viability (IC50) was determined graphically. MTT Assays showed that hexanic extract of Vitex trifolia were highly effective against both Hep G2 and HeLa cancer cell lines at a concentration of 80 µg/ml. This conclude that Vitex trifolia can be potent drug for cancer treatment and an alternative medicine. © 2014, International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. All rights reserved.

Padmapriya S.,TNAU | Rajamani K.,HC and RI | Sathiyamurthy V.A.,HC and RI
International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Review and Research | Year: 2016

Gloriosa superba is an herbaceous or semi-woody climber with v- shaped tubers. The plant is highly valued for its medicinal properties, more importantly for the treatment of cancer related diseases, arthritis, gout, rheumatism and impotency, containing the alkaloids, colchicines and colchicosides. Colchicine also acts as an anti-mitotic agent by inhibiting mitotic cell division. Thiocolchicoside (TCC), is a semi-synthetic derivative of naturally occurring colchicoside with anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The fascinating bright coloured flowers and hercogamous nature favours for cross pollination. Development of genotypes with improved seed yield, alkaloid content and field resistance to major pests and diseases are of paramount importance for catering the needs of phytopharmaceutical industries. Being a climber, glory lily requires support in the form of trellies or standards. Rapid multiplication of microtubers produced from the seed material has reduced the pressure on the dependency on wild harvested tubers. The present review focuses on the botany, medicinal uses, cytogenetics, floral biology, breeding methods, cultivation, post harvest technology and phytochemistry of glory lily.

Ravikumar V.,Water Technology Center | Vijayakumar G.,Water Technology Center | Simunek J.,University of California at Riverside | Chellamuthu S.,Water Technology Center | And 2 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2011

Micro-irrigation has become an optimal means for providing water and nutrients to crops. There is an ample space for improving fertilizer use efficiency with micro-irrigation, if the movement and reactions of fertilizers in the soil are well understood. However, the rhizosphere dynamics of nutrients is very complex, depending on many factors such as soil temperature, pH, water content, and soil and plant characteristics. Many factors cannot be easily accurately quantified. However, using state-of-the-art modelling techniques, useful and reliable information can be derived. An attempt was made to evaluate the reactive transport of urea in the root zone of a sugarcane crop under drip irrigation, and to quantify the fluxes of urea, ammonium, and nitrate into the crop roots, volatilization fluxes, and deep drainage using a numerical model. This quantification helped in designing an optimal fertigation schedule. Various parameters used in the model were taken from either the literature or the field study. A typical scenario, based on the recommended total quantity of urea for sugar cane crop under drip irrigation in India, was tested using HYDRUS-2D. The total amount of urea was divided into fortnightly doses, depending on the stage of crop growth. For this scenario, the modelled crop uptake was found to be 30% higher than the crop demand. Consequently, an optimal fertigation schedule was developed that reduced the use of urea by 30% while at the same time providing enough N for its assimilation at all stages of crop growth. This type of modelling study should be used before planning field experiments for designing optimal fertigation schedules. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Sunitha R.,TNAU | Mahimairaja S.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Nature Environment and Pollution Technology | Year: 2014

Chromium, in the trivalent form (Cr III), is an important component of a balanced human and animal diet and its deficiency causes disturbance to the glucose and lipids metabolism in them. But the concentration above the permissible limit causes the crop failure and human health impacts. In contrast, hexavalent Cr (Cr VI) is highly toxic, carcinogen and may cause death in animals and humans if ingested in large doses. Recently, concern about Cr as an environmental pollutant has been escalating due to its buildup to toxic levels in the environment as a result of various industrial and agricultural activities. In our study, a reduction of chromium of about 87 per cent was recorded in sunflower field. At the same time reduction of only 33.8 per cent from the initial concentration of Cr in the surface soils under sunflower was observed due to the addition of organic amendments. Such reduction is attributed to the formation of either organo-chromic complexes (Immobilization) or chelates. Phytostabilization utilizes the plant production of compounds, which immobilize contaminants at the interface of roots and soil, or root and water. An example of this method is where root exudates cause the precipitation of metals, reducing their bioavailability.

Diafenthiuron, a novel insecticide with different mode of action of energy production inhibition and IGR activity was found to be effective against C. punctiferalis in field trials conducted and concluded that 800 g a.i./ha concentration can be recommended. Supervised field experiments that conducted during December 2012-March 2013 at kallar,Idukki district, Kerala with the cardamom cultivars, Njellani (Green gold) revealed that diafenthiuron 50 WP (NS) as foliar application at 1600,800 and 400 g a.i. ha-1 effected 70.07,63.47 and 57.70 per cent reduction in capsule damage, and 44.86, 38.71 and 33.47 per cent reduction in shoot damage respectively, thirty days after three applications. No visual phytotoxic symptoms viz., leaf injury, wilting, vein clearing, necrosis, epinasty and hyponasty were observed with diafenthiuron 50 WP (NS) at 1600,800 and 400 g. a.i. ha-1.

Kanimoli S.,TNAU | Alagusundaram K.,TNAU
Research Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Food industry in the recent years has witnessed the emergence of microwave oven as a substitute to thermal oven for a number of food manufacturing processes and products. Application of microwave energy for various industrial food-processing operations is found to be economical and inevitable. In this study, attempts were made to determine the effects of microwave and conventional heating in reducing the microbial loads (Bacteria and Fungi) in mango, papaya, sapota and jackfruit pulps. A thermostat controlled water bath was used for conventional heating. The fruit pulps were heated to 60, 70 and 80°C for 15, 30 and 60 s. A domestic microwave oven was used for the microwave irradiation studies. The fruit pulps were irradiated for 15 s at 40, 70 at 100% power levels (at 100% level the microwave oven will supply 900 W of power). Number of survivors, decimal reduction time (D value), the process sterilizing value (for a 12 D cook) and the temperature change required for a 10 fold change in D value (Z value) were presented. Microwave heating resulted in an excellent killing of bacteria and fungi compared to conventional heating. In conventional heating the D values ranged between 1 min 3 s to 1 min 52 s for the four fruit pulps studied. The Z value varied from 33° C to 97° C. A phenomenal saving in energy was observed when fruit pulps were sterilized using microwaves instead of conventional heating. The quantity of heat required for one log cycle reduction in population ranged from 145.8 kJ/kg to 253.5 kJ/kg for the fruit pulps exposed for conventional heating. The energy absorbed during microwave sterilization ranged from only 1.39 kJ/kg to 3.7 kJ/kg for the fruit pulps.

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