Coimbatore, India
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Ravikumar V.,Water Technology Center | Vijayakumar G.,Water Technology Center | Simunek J.,University of California at Riverside | Chellamuthu S.,Water Technology Center | And 2 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2011

Micro-irrigation has become an optimal means for providing water and nutrients to crops. There is an ample space for improving fertilizer use efficiency with micro-irrigation, if the movement and reactions of fertilizers in the soil are well understood. However, the rhizosphere dynamics of nutrients is very complex, depending on many factors such as soil temperature, pH, water content, and soil and plant characteristics. Many factors cannot be easily accurately quantified. However, using state-of-the-art modelling techniques, useful and reliable information can be derived. An attempt was made to evaluate the reactive transport of urea in the root zone of a sugarcane crop under drip irrigation, and to quantify the fluxes of urea, ammonium, and nitrate into the crop roots, volatilization fluxes, and deep drainage using a numerical model. This quantification helped in designing an optimal fertigation schedule. Various parameters used in the model were taken from either the literature or the field study. A typical scenario, based on the recommended total quantity of urea for sugar cane crop under drip irrigation in India, was tested using HYDRUS-2D. The total amount of urea was divided into fortnightly doses, depending on the stage of crop growth. For this scenario, the modelled crop uptake was found to be 30% higher than the crop demand. Consequently, an optimal fertigation schedule was developed that reduced the use of urea by 30% while at the same time providing enough N for its assimilation at all stages of crop growth. This type of modelling study should be used before planning field experiments for designing optimal fertigation schedules. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Senthil Kumar J.,Karunya University | Senthil Kumar J.,Sri Krishna Arts and Science College | Rajasekaran P.,Karunya University | David Paul Raj R.S.,Karunya University | Gopal N.O.,TNAU
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2016

The study was carried out with one time examination of Coliforms available in drinking water like sources and storage points. The study was carried out in three rural habitants of Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India with an objective of analyzing the water as a suitable one for drinking or not. Descriptive statistics ends up with both numerical and graphical procedures in-order to summarize the data in a clear and easy understandable way. It helps in simplifying the vast data in a clear and most sensible way. Central tendency will aid in the estimation of the center of distribution of values The three habitants identified for this study was Ettimadai, Malumichampatti and Edayarpalayam. The study was carried out once in three months for three times. (Sep - 13 to Nov - 13), (Dec - 13 to Feb - 14) and March - 14 to May -14. The P value (Probability) sates 0.05 as irrespective of the habitants studied. This study was done by undergone with MPN three tube method. Based on the number of positive detected Coliforms the drinking water sample the values were computed. This study suggests irrespective of village, population, source and storage, the drinking water was unsuitable for drinking as per International Standards. The earlier reports will states based on the presence of number of Coliforms, the water shall either suitable or unsuitable for drinking. This study will helps the policy makers, young researchers currently working on Enterobacteriaceae.


Umakanth A.V.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Patil J.V.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Rani C.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Gadakh S.R.,Sorghum Research Station | And 3 more authors.
Sugar Tech | Year: 2012

Till date only one sweet sorghum hybrid CSH 22SS has been released for general cultivation in India and the current levels of new hybrids are unable to surpass this hybrid. The objective of this study was to assess the general and specific combining abilities of eight parents and 16 hybrids respectively at three semi arid locations by following a line × tester mating design. Significant differences among environments, testers, environments × testers and environments × line × tester effects were observed for all traits suggesting the environmental influence on testers and the interactions. The variance component estimates of specific combining ability (SCA) were greater than that of general combining ability (GCA) for total biomass, juice extraction and grain yield indicating the non-additive control of genetic variation while the GCA variance was higher than the SCA variance for fresh stalk yield, juice yield, brix content, total sugar yield and computed bioethanol yields indicating additive gene action. Among females, DMS 28A for fresh stalk, juice and grain yields and DMS 25A for brix content were promising. Rio was a potential male parent for fresh stalk yield, total sugar content, computed bioethanol and grain yields. These parents can be exploited to address ethanol production from juice without compromising on grain yields. The best hybrids for total biomass, fresh stalk yield, juice yield, juice extraction, total sugar content and computed bioethanol yields were DMS 13A × Rio and DMS 23A × RS 647 and after adequate testing across many locations, these hybrids are recommended for commercial exploitation for ethanol production. © 2012 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.


Paramasivan M.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Chandrasekaran A.,TNAU | Mohan S.,Agricultural College and Research Institute | Muthukrishnan N.,Agricultural College and Research Institute
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2014

Trichoderma species are collected from different location of sugarbeet growing areas of Tamil Nadu and it is effective against Sclerotium rolfsii pathogen caused by sugarbeet ecosystems. Out of thirty-one isolates of Trichoderma viride and four isolates of Trichoderma harzianum collected and tested for their antagonistic activity against S. rolfsii by dual culture technique, one isolate was found to be effective T. viride (TVB1) that recorded the maximum (73.03%) inhibition on the mycelial growth recording only 2.40 cm growth as against 8.90 cm in the control. The isolates of T. harzianum THB-1 recorded 71.19% mycelial growth reduction over control. The colonisation behaviour of T. viride (TVB1) revealed that it completely over grew on pathogen within 48 h after interaction with the pathogen, and speed of growth on pathogen was also high and it possesses a higher level of competitive saprophytic ability. The best four isolates of TVB1, TVB-2, TVB-3 and TVB31 and two isolates of T. harzianum THB-1 and THB-2 were compared with other species of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma koningii and Chaetomium globosum and tested under in vitro condition. BA of neem cake at 150 kg ha-1 + T. viride isolate (TVB1) at 2.5 kg/ha recorded least root rot disease incidence of 17.05% which accounted for 75.37% disease reduction over control and highest recorded maximum root yield 65.73 t ha-1 and increasing sugar content. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Sunitha R.,TNAU | Mahimairaja S.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Nature Environment and Pollution Technology | Year: 2014

Chromium, in the trivalent form (Cr III), is an important component of a balanced human and animal diet and its deficiency causes disturbance to the glucose and lipids metabolism in them. But the concentration above the permissible limit causes the crop failure and human health impacts. In contrast, hexavalent Cr (Cr VI) is highly toxic, carcinogen and may cause death in animals and humans if ingested in large doses. Recently, concern about Cr as an environmental pollutant has been escalating due to its buildup to toxic levels in the environment as a result of various industrial and agricultural activities. In our study, a reduction of chromium of about 87 per cent was recorded in sunflower field. At the same time reduction of only 33.8 per cent from the initial concentration of Cr in the surface soils under sunflower was observed due to the addition of organic amendments. Such reduction is attributed to the formation of either organo-chromic complexes (Immobilization) or chelates. Phytostabilization utilizes the plant production of compounds, which immobilize contaminants at the interface of roots and soil, or root and water. An example of this method is where root exudates cause the precipitation of metals, reducing their bioavailability.


Thirugnanavel A.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Balamohan T.N.,Horticultural College and Research Institute | Karunakaran G.,Central Horticultural Experimental Station | Manoranjitham S.K.,TNAU
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

The field experiment was conducted during 2008 - 2010 to study the effect of papaya ringspot virus - type P on growth, yield, and quality of papaya (Carica papaya L.) varieties under PRSV infected conditions at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. Significant variation was observed for disease score, DAS-ELISA, tree growth, fruit parameters, yield, and quality characters among the varieties evaluated. The results revealed that all the papaya varieties tested were ELISA positive and PRSV adversely affected the growth, yield and quality of papaya varieties. Among the cultivars evaluated, CP 50 performed better even under PRSV infected conditions and recorded the lowest disease score (1.9), ELISA value (0.198), highest plant height (255.60 cm), stem girth (41.76 cm), number of leaves (41.78), maximum yield (29.26 fruits/plant), dry papain production (8.3 g dry papain/fruit) and tyrosine unit (139.2).


PubMed | TNAU and National Research Center for Banana
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS | Year: 2014

The main aim for this field experimental study is to screening of various banana cultivars and hybrids for water deficit tolerance through antioxidative enzymes and yield. The field experiment was conducted at National Research Centre for Banana to screen the banana cultivars and hybrids for water deficit tolerance and to elucidate information on antioxidative enzymes mechanism correlated with yield of banana cultivars and hybrids. The methodology of this experimental were analyzed by split plot design and has two treatments considered as main plot (M) viz., control plot taken as M1 and water deficit plot taken as M2 and also the cultivars and hybrids were considered as sup plots (S). The stress was imposed according to the Available Soil Moisture (ASM) and this ASM was measured by using pressure plate membrane apparatus. The experimental data were significantly varied between the treatments and also cultivars and hybrids. The antioxidative enzymes of catalase, super oxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were significantly enhanced during water deficit conditions. Among the twelve cultivars and hybrids, Karpuravalli, Karpuravalli x Pisang Jajee, Saba and Sannachenkathali was identified as tolerant to water stress with highly accelerated by water stress treatment in the range of 23 to 32% over Control in Catalase (CAT), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) and Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX) leads to reduced the cellular membrane damaged by reactive oxygen species and get higher yield; whereas, Matti, Pisang Jajee x Matti, Matti x Anaikomban and Anaikomban x Pisang Jajee were notified as sensitive cultivars and hybrids with lesser increase in antioxidative enzyme activity of 15% than control which is leads to get very low yield.


Diafenthiuron, a novel insecticide with different mode of action of energy production inhibition and IGR activity was found to be effective against C. punctiferalis in field trials conducted and concluded that 800 g a.i./ha concentration can be recommended. Supervised field experiments that conducted during December 2012-March 2013 at kallar,Idukki district, Kerala with the cardamom cultivars, Njellani (Green gold) revealed that diafenthiuron 50 WP (NS) as foliar application at 1600,800 and 400 g a.i. ha-1 effected 70.07,63.47 and 57.70 per cent reduction in capsule damage, and 44.86, 38.71 and 33.47 per cent reduction in shoot damage respectively, thirty days after three applications. No visual phytotoxic symptoms viz., leaf injury, wilting, vein clearing, necrosis, epinasty and hyponasty were observed with diafenthiuron 50 WP (NS) at 1600,800 and 400 g. a.i. ha-1.


Kanimoli S.,TNAU | Alagusundaram K.,TNAU
Research Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Food industry in the recent years has witnessed the emergence of microwave oven as a substitute to thermal oven for a number of food manufacturing processes and products. Application of microwave energy for various industrial food-processing operations is found to be economical and inevitable. In this study, attempts were made to determine the effects of microwave and conventional heating in reducing the microbial loads (Bacteria and Fungi) in mango, papaya, sapota and jackfruit pulps. A thermostat controlled water bath was used for conventional heating. The fruit pulps were heated to 60, 70 and 80°C for 15, 30 and 60 s. A domestic microwave oven was used for the microwave irradiation studies. The fruit pulps were irradiated for 15 s at 40, 70 at 100% power levels (at 100% level the microwave oven will supply 900 W of power). Number of survivors, decimal reduction time (D value), the process sterilizing value (for a 12 D cook) and the temperature change required for a 10 fold change in D value (Z value) were presented. Microwave heating resulted in an excellent killing of bacteria and fungi compared to conventional heating. In conventional heating the D values ranged between 1 min 3 s to 1 min 52 s for the four fruit pulps studied. The Z value varied from 33° C to 97° C. A phenomenal saving in energy was observed when fruit pulps were sterilized using microwaves instead of conventional heating. The quantity of heat required for one log cycle reduction in population ranged from 145.8 kJ/kg to 253.5 kJ/kg for the fruit pulps exposed for conventional heating. The energy absorbed during microwave sterilization ranged from only 1.39 kJ/kg to 3.7 kJ/kg for the fruit pulps.


PubMed | TNAU
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of microbiology | Year: 2012

Sporulation in Bacillus megaterium var phosphaticum (PB - 1) was induced using modified nutrient media. This modified medium induced sporulation within 36 h. After spore induction the spores were kept under refrigerated (5C) and room temperature (32C) for five months and survival of spores was studied at 15 days intervals by plating them in nutrient agar medium. It was observed that there was not much variation in the storage temperature (5C & 32C). The spore cells of Bacillus megaterium var phosphaticum (PB - 1) were observed up to five months of storage under refrigerated (5C) and room temperature (32C). Regeneration of spore cells into vegetative cells was studied in tap water, rice gruel, nutrient broth, sterile lignite and sterile water at different concentrations of spore inoculum. The multiplication of sporulated Bacillus megaterium var phosphaticum culture was fast and reached its maximum (29.5 10(8) cfu ml(-1)) in nutrient broth containing 5 per cent inoculum level.

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