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Kumar S.,BYL Nair Ch Hospital and TN Medical College | Amarapurkar A.,BYL Nair Ch Hospital and TN Medical College | Amarapurkar D.,Bombay Hospital
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2013

Background & objectives: Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level is most commonly used as a marker for the assessment of various liver diseases. Currently upper limits of normal for aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or ALT levels used are based on the western literature. This study was conducted to determine the ALT and AST levels in healthy blood donors from western India and to determine the relation with body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Methods: A total of 5077 voluntary blood donors were selected with strict routine inclusion and exclusion criteria. Weight, height, BMI and WHR were determined along with AST and ALT levels. BMI and WHR were correlated with liver enzymes. Results: Of the 5077 donors, 160 were excluded due to positive serological results. In the remaining 4917 individuals, 4643 (94.4%) were males and 274 (5.6%) were females. Majority 3024 (61.5%) showed BMI more than 23 kg/m2. WHR > 0.85 and 0.80 was found in 4046 (87.0%) males and 250 (91.2%) females. Mean AST and ALT levels in males were 23.4 ± 9.9 IU/l and 27.0 ± 17.3 IU/l and in females 19.1 ± 9.8 IU/l and 17.7 ± 11.2 IU/l, respectively. With increase in BMI, there was a significant increase in AST and ALT levels. Similar increase was also seen with WHR. Interpretation & conclusions: Majority of voluntary blood donors showed high BMI and WHR which was directly related to AST and ALT levels. This study highlights the magnitude of obesity in general healthy population of western India and a need to revise the current normal limits of serum ALT.


PubMed | Byl Nair Ch Hospital And Tn Medical College
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Journal of postgraduate medicine | Year: 2012

Myocarditis is defined as acute inflammation of the myocardium, usually following a non-specific flu-like illness, and encompasses a wide range of clinical presentations ranging from mild or subclinical disease to heart failure. We report a 12-day-old healthy full-term neonate who presented with abrupt onset of congestive cardiac failure (CCF) following a viral prodrome. Examination revealed persistent sinus tachycardia, lymphocytosis, gross cardiomegaly, nonspecific electrocardiogram changes with echocardiography showing Swiss cheese ventricular septal defect (VSD). VSD alone very rarely presents as early-onset cardiac failure in the absence of other precipitating factors like anemia, sepsis, hypoglycemia etc. Myocarditis, however, can mimic VSD and can present as fulminant cardiac failure in an otherwise healthy newborn. Myocarditis is usually diagnosed based on circumstantial evidence such as a recent viral infection and the sudden onset of cardiac dysfunction while ruling out other diagnostic possibilities. Elevated troponin T level is one of the most crucial noninvasive diagnostic modalities. Several trials have concluded that levels >0.055 ng/ml are statistically significant for diagnosing myocarditis in children. In our case an abrupt onset of cardiac failure following a viral prodrome and markedly elevated cardiac troponin T without sepsis and in the presence of normal coronary anatomy clinched the diagnosis of myocarditis. An early and aggressive treatment for CCF along with regular long-term follow-up plays a key role in the management of myocarditis. Role of high-dose Intravenous immunoglobulin in myocarditis has been studied by many trials with different outcomes. This is the first case report showing coexistence of VSD with myocarditis in a neonate presenting as early-onset acute cardiac failure. The report highlights the importance of screening for myocarditis in all previously normal babies presenting primarily with cardiogenic symptoms even if a structural heart disease is coexistent early in life. A simplified algorithm for work-up of CCF in a neonate is proposed.


PubMed | Byl Nair Ch Hospital And Tn Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology | Year: 2010

We report an unusual case of sporadic adult onset cerebellar ataxia with hypogonadism. A 40-year-old unmarried man presented with progressive ataxia and dysarthria along with complaints of non-development of secondary sexual characteristics and erectile dysfunction. There were complaints of intermittent diarrhea. Clinical examination revealed a pan-cerebellar syndrome with features of hypoandrogenism. No eye movement abnormalities were evident. There were signs of malabsorption. Investigations confirmed the presence of auto-antibodies found in celiac disease, and a duodenal biopsy confirmed the same. Hypoandrogenism was postulated to be due to hypergonadotropic hypogonadism which has been mentioned in a few patients of celiac disease. However, the pattern seen in our patient was of a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. This is probably secondary to an autoimmune hypophysitis seen in some patients in the absence of other clinical manifestations. Autoantibody testing should be a diagnostic necessity in any adult with a sporadic cerebellar ataxia.

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