News Article | February 23, 2017
New Rochelle, NY, February 23, 2017--Overwhelming evidence from the biomedical literature shows that adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2), a viral vector often used to deliver therapeutic genes, is not associated with cancer and, in fact, may protect against cancer. Despite some previous reports insisting that AAV2 is an oncogenic virus, the preponderance of data indicates that recombinant AAV2 used in gene therapy does not integrate into the host genome increasing the risk of cancer and has anti-tumorigenic properties, as described in an article published in Human Gene Therapy, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available free on the Human Gene Therapy website until March 23, 2017. In the article entitled "AAV Infection: Protection from Cancer," Arun Srivastava, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, and Barrie Carter, BioMarin Pharmaceutical, Novato, CA, discuss the sometimes contradictory reports on this contentious topic. The authors provide a comprehensive review of the biomedical research examining a link between AAV and tumor formation and conclude that the evidence does not support such a link. Srivastava and Carter also highlight research showing that AAV2 can negatively impact the lifecycles of several other viruses known to be associated with malignancy, such as HIV, hepatitis B virus, papillomaviruses, and adenoviruses. "The estimation of risks from rAAV vectors is a complex exercise. It is particularly complex because AAV is a helper-dependent virus, and thus is often found in nature as a "co-infecting" virus along with other viruses," says Editor-in-Chief Terence R. Flotte, MD, Celia and Isaac Haidak Professor of Medical Education and Dean, Provost, and Executive Deputy Chancellor, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA. "These authors point out that there are substantial data to suggest that naturally occurring AAVs actually protect humans from developing cancer, particularly those cancers that may be caused by the other coexisting viruses." Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institutes of Health under Public Health Service Award Numbers R01 HL-097088 and R21 EB-015684. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. Human Gene Therapy, the Official Journal of the European Society of Gene and Cell Therapy, British Society for Gene and Cell Therapy, French Society of Cell and Gene Therapy, German Society of Gene Therapy, and five other gene therapy societies, is an authoritative peer-reviewed journal published monthly in print and online. Led by Editor-in-Chief Terence R. Flotte, MD, Celia and Isaac Haidak Professor of Medical Education and Dean, Provost, and Executive Deputy Chancellor, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Human Gene Therapy presents reports on the transfer and expression of genes in mammals, including humans. Related topics include improvements in vector development, delivery systems, and animal models, particularly in the areas of cancer, heart disease, viral disease, genetic disease, and neurological disease, as well as ethical, legal, and regulatory issues related to the gene transfer in humans. Its companion journals, Human Gene Therapy Methods, published bimonthly, focuses on the application of gene therapy to product testing and development, and Human Gene Therapy Clinical Development, published quarterly, features data relevant to the regulatory review and commercial development of cell and gene therapy products. Tables of contents for all three publications and a free sample issue may be viewed on the Human Gene Therapy website. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers is a privately held, fully integrated media company known for establishing authoritative peer-reviewed journals in many promising areas of science and biomedical research, including Nucleic Acid Therapeutics, Tissue Engineering, Stem Cells and Development, and Cellular Reprogramming. Its biotechnology trade magazine, GEN (Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News), was the first in its field and is today the industry's most widely read publication worldwide. A complete list of the firm's 80 journals, books, and newsmagazines is available on the Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers website.
News Article | February 24, 2017
New Rochelle, NY, February 24, 2017--Researchers have used tissue engineering to create models for studying the bone-destroying activity of tumors such as the aggressive pediatric cancer Ewing's sarcoma. A new 3-dimensional, living model of the osteolytic process and bone remodeling, which can serve a valuable tool for exploring disease mechanisms and the effectiveness of potential treatments, is described in Tissue Engineering, Part C, Methods, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available free on the Tissue Engineering website until March 24, 2017. In the article entitled "Tissue-Engineered Model of Human Osteolytic Bone Tumor," Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic and coauthors from Columbia University, New York, NY and Politecnico di Milano, Italy, present the methods used to bioengineer a living Ewing's sarcoma model that includes both osteoclasts and osteoblasts in a controllable biomimetic environment. The researchers demonstrate the usefulness of the model for testing anti-osteolytic drugs. "There is an urgent need for the development of human-like tumor models. This article is an excellent example of the progress being made," says Methods Co-Editor-in-Chief John A. Jansen, DDS, PhD, Professor and Head, Department of Biomaterials, Radboud University Medical Center, The Netherlands. Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institutes of Health under Award Numbers EB002520 and EB17103. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. Tissue Engineering is an authoritative peer-reviewed journal published monthly online and in print in three parts: Part A, the flagship journal published 24 times per year; Part B: Reviews, published bimonthly, and Part C: Methods, published 12 times per year. Led by Co-Editors-In-Chief Antonios Mikos, PhD, Louis Calder Professor at Rice University, Houston, TX, and Peter C. Johnson, MD, Principal, MedSurgPI, LLC, President and CEO, Scintellix, LLC, Raleigh, NC, the Journal brings together scientific and medical experts in the fields of biomedical engineering, material science, molecular and cellular biology, and genetic engineering. Tissue Engineering is the official journal of the Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine International Society (TERMIS). Complete tables of content and a sample issue may be viewed online at the Tissue Engineering website. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers is a privately held, fully integrated media company known for establishing authoritative peer-reviewed journals in many promising areas of science and biomedical research, including Stem Cells and Development, Human Gene Therapy, and Advances in Wound Care. Its biotechnology trade magazine, GEN (Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News), was the first in its field and is today the industry's most widely read publication worldwide. A complete list of the firm's 80 journals, books, and newsmagazines is available on the Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers website.
News Article | March 2, 2017
Nanoengineers at the University of California San Diego have 3D printed a lifelike, functional blood vessel network that could pave the way toward artificial organs and regenerative therapies. The new research, led by nanoengineering professor Shaochen Chen, addresses one of the biggest challenges in tissue engineering: creating lifelike tissues and organs with functioning vasculature -- networks of blood vessels that can transport blood, nutrients, waste and other biological materials -- and do so safely when implanted inside the body. Researchers from other labs have used different 3D printing technologies to create artificial blood vessels. But existing technologies are slow, costly and mainly produce simple structures, such as a single blood vessel -- a tube, basically. These blood vessels also are not capable of integrating with the body's own vascular system. "Almost all tissues and organs need blood vessels to survive and work properly. This is a big bottleneck in making organ transplants, which are in high demand but in short supply," said Chen, who leads the Nanobiomaterials, Bioprinting, and Tissue Engineering Lab at UC San Diego. "3D bioprinting organs can help bridge this gap, and our lab has taken a big step toward that goal." Chen's lab has 3D printed a vasculature network that can safely integrate with the body's own network to circulate blood. These blood vessels branch out into many series of smaller vessels, similar to the blood vessel structures found in the body. The work was published in Biomaterials. Chen's team developed an innovative bioprinting technology, using their own homemade 3D printers, to rapidly produce intricate 3D microstructures that mimic the sophisticated designs and functions of biological tissues. Chen's lab has used this technology in the past to create liver tissue and microscopic fish that can swim in the body to detect and remove toxins. Researchers first create a 3D model of the biological structure on a computer. The computer then transfers 2D snapshots of the model to millions of microscopic-sized mirrors, which are each digitally controlled to project patterns of UV light in the form of these snapshots. The UV patterns are shined onto a solution containing live cells and light-sensitive polymers that solidify upon exposure to UV light. The structure is rapidly printed one layer at a time, in a continuous fashion, creating a 3D solid polymer scaffold encapsulating live cells that will grow and become biological tissue. "We can directly print detailed microvasculature structures in extremely high resolution. Other 3D printing technologies produce the equivalent of 'pixelated' structures in comparison and usually require sacrificial materials and additional steps to create the vessels," said Wei Zhu, a postdoctoral scholar in Chen's lab and a lead researcher on the project. And this entire process takes just a few seconds -- a vast improvement over competing bioprinting methods, which normally take hours just to print simple structures. The process also uses materials that are inexpensive and biocompatible. Chen's team used medical imaging to create a digital pattern of a blood vessel network found in the body. Using their technology, they printed a structure containing endothelial cells, which are cells that form the inner lining of blood vessels. The entire structure fits onto a small area measuring 4 millimeters × 5 millimeters, 600 micrometers thick (as thick as a stack containing 12 strands of human hair). Researchers cultured several structures in vitro for one day, then grafted the resulting tissues into skin wounds of mice. After two weeks, the researchers examined the implants and found that they had successfully grown into and merged with the host blood vessel network, allowing blood to circulate normally. Chen noted that the implanted blood vessels are not yet capable of other functions, such as transporting nutrients and waste. "We still have a lot of work to do to improve these materials. This is a promising step toward the future of tissue regeneration and repair," he said. Moving forward, Chen and his team are working on building patient-specific tissues using human induced pluripotent stem cells, which would prevent transplants from being attacked by a patient's immune system. And since these cells are derived from a patient's skin cells, researchers won't need to extract any cells from inside the body to build new tissue. The team's ultimate goal is to move their work to clinical trials. "It will take at least several years before we reach that goal," Chen said. Full paper: "Direct 3D bioprinting of prevascularized tissue constructs with complex microarchitecture." Authors of the study are Wei Zhu*, Xin Qu*, Jie Zhu, Xuanyi Ma, Sherrina Patel, Justin Liu, Pengrui Wang, Cheuk Sun Edwin Lai, Yang Xu, Kang Zhang and Shaochen Chen of UC San Diego; and Maling Gou of Sichuan University. *These authors contributed equally to this work. This work was supported in part by grants from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (RT3-07899), the National Institutes of Health (R01EB021857) and the National Science Foundation (CMMI-1332681 and CMMI-1644967).
News Article | February 23, 2017
New Rochelle, NY, February 23, 2017--A new study shows that patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), even without evidence of brain lesions, may exhibit changes in brain connectivity detectable at the time of the injury that can aid in diagnosis and predicting the effects on cognitive and behavioral performance at 6 months. Brain connectivity maps showed differences between patients with mTBI and healthy controls, including different patterns depending on the presence of brain lesions, as reported in an article in Journal of Neurotrauma, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available free on the Journal of Neurotrauma website until March 23, 2017. The article entitled "Resting-State Functional Connectivity Alterations Associated with Six-Month Outcomes in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury" describes the prospective multicenter TRACK-TBI pilot study. Eva Palacios and coauthors from University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center, University of Texas, Austin, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (PA), Virginia Commonwealth University (Richmond), Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (New York, NY), and Antwerp University Hospital (Edegem, Belgium) concluded that resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess brain connectivity and compare spatial maps of resting state brain networks can serve as a sensitive biomarker for early diagnosis of mTBI and later patient performance. "While, as the authors acknowledge, they are not the first group to explore the utility of resting state functional MRI in probing the morbidity associated with mild traumatic brain injury, they do elegantly capitalize on the TRACK-TBI study population to critically evaluate functional connectivity in a patient population that is well characterized and followed by traditional imaging approaches," says John T. Povlishock, PhD, Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Neurotrauma and Professor, Medical College of Virginia Campus of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond. "Their finding of altered patterns of functional connectivity even in that mild TBI patient population, revealing no CT/MRI abnormalities, is an extremely important observation, as is the fact that these same changes in functional connectivity portend the development of a persistent post-concussive syndrome." Journal of Neurotrauma is an authoritative peer-reviewed journal published 24 times per year in print and online that focuses on the latest advances in the clinical and laboratory investigation of traumatic brain and spinal cord injury. Emphasis is on the basic pathobiology of injury to the nervous system, and the papers and reviews evaluate preclinical and clinical trials targeted at improving the early management and long-term care and recovery of patients with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma is the official journal of the National Neurotrauma Society and the International Neurotrauma Society. Complete tables of content and a sample issue may be viewed on the Journal of Neurotrauma website. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers is a privately held, fully integrated media company known for establishing authoritative peer-reviewed journals in promising areas of science and biomedical research, including Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management, Brain Connectivity, and Tissue Engineering. Its biotechnology trade magazine, GEN (Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News), was the first in its field and is today the industry's most widely read publication worldwide. A complete list of the firm's 80 journals, books, and newsmagazines is available on the Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers website.
News Article | February 27, 2017
New Rochelle, NY, February 27, 2017--Researchers have designed a 3D-printed porous scaffold for use in reconstructing ruptured anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) in the knee and engineered it to deliver a human bone-promoting protein over an extended period of time to improve bone regeneration. A study describing the composition of the scaffold and comparing different delivery methods for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) is published in Tissue Engineering, Part A, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available free on the Tissue Engineering website until March 27, 2017. Joshua Alan Parry, MD, Sanjeev Kakar, MD, and coauthors from Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, demonstrated the strength of the scaffold in a rabbit ACL reconstruction model. In the article entitled "Three-Dimension-Printed Porous Poly(Propylene Fumarate) Scaffolds with Delayed rhBMP-2 Release for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Fixation," the researchers compared the use of four approaches, including microspheres, to reduce the initial burst release of rhBMP-2 from the scaffold and extend its release over time. "This work is a good example of the fusion of technologies -- controlled release drug delivery and 3D printing," says Tissue Engineering Co-Editor-in-Chief Peter C. Johnson, MD, Principal, MedSurgPI, LLC and President and CEO, Scintellix, LLC, Raleigh, NC. Tissue Engineering is an authoritative peer-reviewed journal published monthly online and in print in three parts: Part A, the flagship journal published 24 times per year; Part B: Reviews, published bimonthly, and Part C: Methods, published 12 times per year. Led by Co-Editors-In-Chief Antonios G. Mikos, PhD, Louis Calder Professor at Rice University, Houston, TX, and Peter C. Johnson, MD, Principal, MedSurgPI, LLC and President and CEO, Scintellix, LLC, Raleigh, NC, the Journal brings together scientific and medical experts in the fields of biomedical engineering, material science, molecular and cellular biology, and genetic engineering. Tissue Engineering is the official journal of the Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine International Society (TERMIS). Complete tables of content and a sample issue may be viewed online at the Tissue Engineering website. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers is a privately held, fully integrated media company known for establishing authoritative peer-reviewed journals in many promising areas of science and biomedical research, including Stem Cells and Development, Human Gene Therapy, and Advances in Wound Care. Its biotechnology trade magazine, GEN (Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News), was the first in its field and is today the industry's most widely read publication worldwide. A complete list of the firm's 80 journals, books, and newsmagazines is available on the Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers website.
News Article | February 27, 2017
Expert in Application of Biologics for Cartilage Repair and Tendinosis Joins Team Pioneering Advances in Drug Delivery, Nerve Regeneration and Tissue Engineering DALLAS, TX--(Marketwired - Feb 27, 2017) - TissueGen® Inc., developer of ELUTE® fiber, a groundbreaking biodegradable fiber format for advanced drug delivery, today announced that Lisa A. Fortier, DVM, PhD, DACVS, has joined the company's scientific advisory board. Dr. Fortier is a professor of surgery at Cornell University with a particular interest in translational research including the prevention of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. In addition, her internationally renowned research investigates the clinical application of stem cells and biologics such as platelet-rich plasma and bone marrow concentrate for cartilage repair and tendinosis. Dr. Fortier has received the Jacques Lemans Award from the International Cartilage Repair Society, the New Investigator Research Award from the Orthopaedic Research Society, and the Pfizer Research Award for Research Excellence from Cornell University. She is the vice president of the International Veterinary Regenerative Medicine Society, past president of the International Cartilage Repair Society, and director of the Equine Park at Cornell University. "We are excited to welcome Dr. Fortier as a member of our scientific advisory board. Her invaluable expertise will guide our development of ELUTE fiber for controlled sustained delivery of sensitive biologics and pharmaceuticals in orthopedic applications," said Christopher Knowles, president, TissueGen. TissueGen's ELUTE fiber directly replaces standard fibers in biodegradable medical textiles and may significantly improve clinical outcomes by delivering therapeutic agents directly at the surgical site. Through localized delivery of drugs at the site of implantation, ELUTE fibers may orchestrate the body's healing and regenerative processes. "The work that TissueGen is doing is very exciting and has the potential to redefine how biologics may be delivered in orthopedic applications," said Dr. Fortier. "I look forward to working with the company's scientific team as they develop clinical applications for ELUTE fiber that may enable the future of medicine." Dr. Fortier received her DVM from Colorado State University and completed her PhD and surgical residency training at Cornell University. She is boarded with the American College of Veterinary Surgeons and practices equine orthopedic surgery at Cornell University and at the Cornell Ruffian Equine Specialists. TissueGen® Inc. is the developer of ELUTE® fiber, a groundbreaking biodegradable fiber format for advanced drug delivery, nerve regeneration, and tissue engineering. TissueGen has more than four decades of cumulative experience in extruding biodegradable polymer fibers with broad drug delivery capabilities. ELUTE fiber can directly replace standard fibers used in biodegradable textiles currently on the market and provide significantly improved clinical outcomes by delivering therapeutic agents directly at the site of the implant. By delivering pharmaceuticals and biologics at the site of implantation, ELUTE fiber enables medical devices to guide the body's healing and regenerative processes. For more information, please visit www.tissuegen.com.
News Article | February 15, 2017
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are caused by a type of staph bacteria that has become resistant to the antibiotics used to treat ordinary staph infections. The rise of MRSA infections is limiting the treatment options for physicians and surgeons. Now, an international team of researchers, led by Elizabeth Loboa, dean of the University of Missouri College of Engineering, has used silver ion-coated scaffolds, or biomaterials that are created to hold stem cells, which slow the spread of or kill MRSA while regenerating new bone. Scientists feel that the biodegradable and biocompatible scaffolds could be the first step in the fight against MRSA in patients. "Osteomyelitis is a debilitating bone infection that can result when MRSA invades bone tissue, including bone marrow or surrounding soft tissues," said Loboa, who also is a professor of bioengineering. "Increasingly, those in the healthcare profession are running out of choices when it comes to treating MRSA while regenerating tissue. Using previously reported scaffolds that were created in our lab, we set out to determine the efficacy of coating these structures with silver ions and whether they were useful in treating or preventing osteomyelitis." The scaffolds were created from a polymer called polylactic acid (PLA), which is an FDA approved material that eventually biodegrades in the body. Next, researchers applied a silver ion releasing coating to the scaffolds and "seeded" them with fat-derived adult stem cells that could be "triggered" to create bone cells. Researchers also seeded the scaffolds with MRSA so that they could observe whether silver ions could fight the bacteria. The scientists found that the silver ion-releasing scaffolds not only inhibited MRSA, but also supported bone tissue formation. "Silver is well known for its antimicrobial properties and is highly toxic to a wide range of microorganisms such as MRSA," Loboa said. "Silver ions work mechanically--they actually disrupt the cellular machinery of MRSA. Our research now has shown that bone tissues still can be formed even in the presence of MRSA. We've created the materials needed for bone tissue engineering that will allow patients to use their own fat cells to create patient-specific bone and surgically implant those cells and tissues while diminishing, or potentially eliminating, the risk of MRSA infection." The early-stage results of this research are promising. If additional studies are successful within the next few years, MU officials could request authority from the federal government to begin human device development. After this status has been granted, researchers may conduct human clinical trials with the hope of developing new treatments for osteomyelitis. Their findings, "Evaluation of Silver Ion-Releasing Scaffolds in a 3-D Coculture system of MRSA and Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Their Potential Use in Treatment or Prevention of Osteomyelitis" recently was published in the journal Tissue Engineering, Part A. The research team included Mahsa Mohiti-Asli and Casey Molina of the Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University, Diteepeng Thamonwan of Silpakorn University in Thailand, and Behnam Pourdeyhimi of NCSU. Editor's Note: For more on the story, please see: http://engineering.
News Article | February 20, 2017
DUBLIN, Feb. 20, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Tissue Engineering and Regeneration: Technologies and Global Markets" report to their offering. The global market for tissue engineering and regeneration is expected to reach $60.8...
News Article | February 27, 2017
Scientists at Rutgers and other universities have created a new way to identify the state and fate of stem cells earlier than previously possible. Understanding a stem cell's fate -- the type of cell it will eventually become -- and how far along it is in the process of development can help scientists better manipulate cells for stem cell therapy. The beauty of the method is its simplicity and versatility, said Prabhas V. Moghe, distinguished professor of biomedical engineering and chemical and biochemical engineering at Rutgers and senior author of a study published recently in the journal Scientific Reports. "It will usher in the next wave of studies and findings," he added. Existing approaches to assess the states of stem cells look at the overall population of cells but aren't specific enough to identify individual cells' fates. But when implanting stem cells (during a bone marrow transplant following cancer treatment, for example), knowing that each cell will become the desired cell type is essential. Furthermore, many protein markers used to distinguish cell types don't show up until after the cell has transitioned, which can be too late for some applications. To identify earlier signals of a stem cell's fate, an interdisciplinary team from multiple universities collaborated to use super-resolution microscopy to analyze epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic modifications change how DNA is wrapped up within the nucleus, allowing different genes to be expressed. Some modifications signal that a stem cell is transitioning into a particular type of cell, such as a blood, bone or fat cell. Using the new method, the team of scientists was able to determine a cell's fate days before other techniques. "Having the ability to visualize a stem cell's future will take some of the questions out of using stem cells to help regenerate tissue and treat diseases," says Rosemarie Hunziker, program director for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine at the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering. "It's a relatively simple way to get a jump on determining the right cells to use." The approach, called EDICTS (Epi-mark Descriptor Imaging of Cell Transitional States), involves labeling epigenetic modifications and then imaging the cells with super resolution to see the precise location of the marks. "We're able to demarcate and catch changes in these cells that are actually not distinguished by established techniques such as mass spectrometry," Moghe said. He described the method as "fingerprinting the guts of the cell," and the results are quantifiable descriptors of each cell's organization (for example, how particular modifications are distributed throughout the nuclei). The team demonstrated the method's capabilities by measuring two types of epigenetic modifications in the nuclei of human stem cells cultured in a dish. They added chemicals that coaxed some of the cells to become fat cells and others to become bone, while another set served as control. Within three days, the localization of the modifications varied in cells destined for different fates, two to four days before traditional methods could identify such differences between the cells. The technique had the specificity to look at regional changes within individual cells, while existing techniques can only measure total levels of modifications among the entire population of cells. "The levels are not significantly different, but how they're organized is different and that seems to correlate with the fact that these cells are actually exhibiting different fates," Moghe said. "It allows us to take out a single cell from a population of dissimilar cells," which can help researchers select particular cells for different stem cell applications. The method is as easy as labeling, staining and imaging cells - techniques already familiar to many researchers, he said. As the microscopes capable of super resolution imaging become more widely available, scientists can use it to sort and screen different types of cells, understand how a particular drug may disrupt epigenetic signaling, or ensure that stem cells to be implanted won't transform into the wrong cell type.
News Article | February 20, 2017
Next article in issue: Nanoreinforced Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering: Biomaterials that are Compatible with Load-Bearing and Electroactive Tissues Next article in issue: Nanoreinforced Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering: Biomaterials that are Compatible with Load-Bearing and Electroactive Tissues