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Chao S.-C.,Show Chwan Memorial Hospital | Chao S.-C.,National Chiao Tung University | Hu D.-N.,Show Chwan Memorial Hospital | Hu D.-N.,Tissue Culture Center | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Vision | Year: 2011

Purpose: Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is a protease involved in tissue remodeling and cell migration. Little is known about the expression of uPA in pterygium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of uPA mRNA and activities in various stages of surgically excised pterygia specimens and cultured pterygium fibroblasts and to compare them with normal conjunctival tissues and fibroblasts. Methods: The expression of uPA mRNA and activity in 15 pterygium tissues and cultured fibroblasts from pterygium were measured using quantitative RT-PCR and zymography. Five normal conjunctiva specimens and cultured conjunctival fibroblasts were tested as the controls. Results: The expression of uPA mRNA and activities in pterygia and pterygium fibroblasts were significantly greater than those of the normal samples (p<0.05) and were closely related to the progression of pterygium. The amounts of uPA mRNA and activities in early, moderate, and advanced pterygia were 100%, 208%, and 311% and 100%, 157%, and 280% of the early stage specimens, respectively. The amounts of uPA mRNA and the activities in cultured pterygium fibroblasts isolated from early, moderate, and advanced pterygium specimens were 100%, 219%, and 457% and 100%, 198% and 355% of early stage fibroblasts, respectively. Conclusions: Overexpression of uPA was present in pterygium and their fibroblasts. The expression of uPA by pterygium increased significantly following the progression of the pterygium. The increased expression of uPA may covert plasminogen to plasmin, degrade extracellular matrixes, stimulate cell migration, induce angiogenesis, and plays an important role in the development and progression of pterygium. © 2011 Molecular Vision.


Chao S.-C.,Show Chwan Memorial Hospital | Chao S.-C.,National Chiao Tung University | Hu D.-N.,Show Chwan Memorial Hospital | Hu D.-N.,Tissue Culture Center | And 5 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2013

Purpose. Effects of ultraviolet (UV) B on the pterygium and its cells have been studied previously, whereas little is known on the effects of UVA. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is a protease involved in tissue remodeling and cell migration, and its levels are increased in pterygium. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of UVA on the expression of uPA in cultured pterygium fibroblasts. Methods. Cultured fibroblasts from early-stage pterygia and normal conjunctiva were irradiated with different dosages of UVA and compared to nonirradiated cells. uPA activities in the medium and uPA mRNA in the cells were measured by casein zymography and RT-PCR, respectively. Total and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) levels of cells treated with and without UVA were measured by Western blotting. Inhibitors of p38 (SB203580), ERK (UO1026), and JNK (SP600125) were added before the irradiation of UVA to test their effects. Results. UVA irradiation increased the uPA mRNA levels in pterygium fibroblasts and the uPA activities in cultured medium, which was accompanied with an increase in phosphorylated ERK and JNK. The ERK and JNK inhibitor, but not p38 MAPK inhibitors, significantly decreased the UVAinduced expression of uPA by pterygium fibroblasts. Normal conjunctival fibroblasts were less sensitive to UVA irradiation compared to the pterygium fibroblasts. Conclusions. UVA stimulated the production of uPA, a key factor in the modulation of extracellular matrixes, inflammatory processes, and angiogenesis. This may have a role in the development and progression of pterygium. © 2013 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.


Hu D.-N.,Tissue Culture Center | Hu D.-N.,New York Eye and Ear Infirmary at Mount Sinai Health Center | Bi M.,Tissue Culture Center | Bi M.,New York Medical College | And 5 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2014

PURPOSE. Melanocytes are one of the major cellular components in the uvea. Interleukin-8/ CXCL8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) are the two most important proinflammatory chemokines. We studied the constitutive and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of IL-8 and MCP-1 in cultured human uveal melanocytes (UM) and explored the relevant signal pathways.METHODS. Conditioned media and cells were collected from UM cultured in medium with and without stimulation of LPS. Interleukin-8 and MCP-1 proteins and mRNAs were measured using an ELISA kit and RT-PCR, respectively. Nuclear factor (NF)-jB in nuclear extracts and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 (ERK1/2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase1/2 (JNK1/2) in cells cultured with and without LPS were measured by ELISA kits. Inhibitors of p38 (SB203580), ERK1/2 (UO1026), JNK1/2 (SP600125), and NF-jB (BAY11-7082) were added to the cultures to evaluate their effects.RESULTS. Low levels of IL-8 and MCP-1 proteins were detected in the conditioned media in UM cultured without serum. Lipopolysaccharide (0.01-1 lg/mL) increased IL-8 and MCP-1 mRNAs and proteins levels in a dose-and time-dependent manner, accompanied by a significant increase of phosphorylated JNK1/2 in cell lysates and NF-jB in nuclear extracts. Nuclear factor-jB and JNK1/2 inhibitors significantly blocked LPS-induced expression of IL-8 and MCP-1.CONCLUSIONS. This is the first report on the expression and secretion of chemokines by UM. The data suggest that UM may play a role in the pathogenesis of ocular inflammatory diseases. © 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.


PubMed | Jilin University, The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, Nanjing University, New York University and Tissue Culture Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncology letters | Year: 2017

Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular malignant tumor in adults. Chrysin is a flavonoid present in honey, propolis, various plants and herbs. In the present study, the cytotoxic effects of chrysin were investigated on human uveal melanoma cell lines (M17 and SP6.5) and associated signaling pathways, and a comparison to the effects on normal ocular cells [scleral fibroblasts and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells] was performed. The effects of chrysin on cell viability were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Cell apoptosis was determined by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay. Mitochondrial permeability was determined by JC-1 fluorescein analysis. Cytosol cytochrome


Yang P.-Y.,Show Chwan Memorial Hospital | Hu D.-N.,Tissue Culture Center | Liu F.-S.,Show Chwan Memorial Hospital
American Journal of Chinese Medicine | Year: 2013

Antrodia camphorata is a Chinese herb indigenous to Taiwan. Previous reports demonstrated that it could induce apoptosis in some cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the apoptotic effect of the crude extract of A. camphorata in cervical cancer cells. Two human cervical cancer cell lines, HeLa and C-33A, were treated with extract of A. camphorata (10-1000 μg/mL). We found that A. camphorata extract was cytotoxic to both cervical cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner as examined by MTT assay. Treatment with A. camphorata extract at 400 μg/mL induced a 2.3- and 4.4-fold increase in oligonucleosome formation from the cleaved chromosomal DNA in HeLa and C-33A cells, respectively. A. camphorata extract also activated caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities and increased the cytosolic level of cytochrome c in both cell lines as the dosage increased. Furthermore, A. camphorata extract increased expressions of Bak, Bad and Bim, while decreasing expressions of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL of the Bcl-2 family proteins in HeLa and C-33A cells. The expression of IAP proteins, XIAP and survivin, was also decreased in both cervical cancer cells after treatment with A. camphorata. Our in vitro study suggests that A. camphorata is cytotoxic to cervical cancer cells through both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic mechanisms. It could be used as a novel phytotherapeutic agent or auxiliary therapy in the treatment of cervical cancer. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company Institute for Advanced Research in Asian Science and Medicine.


Yang P.-Y.,Show Chwan Memorial Hospital | Hu D.-N.,Changhua Christian Hospital | Lin I.-C.,Chung Shan Medical University | Liu F.-S.,Tissue Culture Center
American Journal of Chinese Medicine | Year: 2015

Butein is a polyphenol, one of the compounds of chalcones, which are flavonoids that are widely biosynthesized in plants, and exhibits different pharmacological activities. Plants containing butein have been used in Chinese traditional medicine. Recently, it has been reported that butein suppresses proliferation and triggers apoptosis in various human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate its pro-apoptotic effect and mechanisms in two cultured human ovarian cancer cells (ES-2 and TOV-21G). The effects of butein on cell viability were assessed by a MTT assay at 3, 10, 30, and 100 μ/M. The apoptotic pathway related factors, including the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP), cytochrome c, caspase cascade, and Bcl-2 family proteins, were examined. MTT assay revealed that butein was cytotoxic to both ovarian cancer cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. JC-1 flow cytometry, cytochrome c, and caspase activity assays revealed that butein damaged the MTP, increased the level of cytosol cytochrome c and the activities of caspase-3,-8, and-9 in the two ovarian cancer cells. Western blot analysis revealed that butein down-regulated the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and increased the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad. These findings suggest that butein-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells via the activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. In addition, butein also down-regulated the expressions of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, XIAP, survivin, CIAP-1, and CIAP-2. This indicates that the inhibition of IAP proteins was also involved in butein-induced apoptosis. The results of our study suggest that butein may be a promising anticancer agent in treating ovarian cancer. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company & Institute for Advanced Research in Asian Science and Medicine.


Liu F.-S.,Show Chwan Memorial Hospital | Yang P.-Y.,Show Chwan Memorial Hospital | Hu D.-N.,Show Chwan Memorial Hospital | Hu D.-N.,Tissue Culture Center | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer | Year: 2011

Introduction: Antrodia camphorata is a Chinese herb. Recently, several reports demonstrated that it had growth-inhibiting effects on some cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether the crude extract of A. camphorata could inhibit the growth of ovarian cancer cells and examined the possible mechanisms involved. We also examined whether the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel on ovarian cancer cells would be affected by A. camphorata. Materials and Methods: Two human ovarian cancer cell lines, SKOV-3 and TOV-21G, were treated with A. camphorata (3-300 μg/mL). An MTT assay was used to test its cytotoxic effect. The apoptosis-related factors including the activity of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and the cytochrome c level released from mitochondria were analyzed. The expression of Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bax, Bim, Bad, and Bak) was examined by Western blot analysis. Cell lines were further treated with paclitaxel or paclitaxel plus A. camphorata to examine the cytotoxic efficiency. Results: The MTT assay revealed that A. camphorata was cytotoxic to both the ovarian cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c increased in both ovarian cancer cell lines with increased dose of A. camphorata. Western blot analysis of Bcl-2 family proteins revealed an increased expression of Bad in SKOV-3 cells, whereas increased expression of Bim and Bak and decreased expression of Bcl-xL were noted in TOV-21G cells. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel on SKOV-3 and TOV-21G cells was increased significantly with the addition of A. camphorata (P < 0.01) by MTT assay. Conclusions: These in vitro results suggest that A. camphorata causes a cytotoxic effect on ovarian cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis. It may also enhance the antitumor effect of paclitaxel. Further studies with the ultimate goal of conducting clinical trials are warranted. Copyright © 2011 by IGCS and ESGO.


Chen M.,Tissue Culture Center | Hu D.-N.,Tissue Culture Center | Pan Z.,New York University | Lu C.-W.,Tissue Culture Center | And 2 more authors.
Experimental Eye Research | Year: 2010

Increased tear osmolarity is an essential feature of dry eye disease. Curcumin, a natural polyphenol extracted from herb turmeric, has recently been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, its anti-inflammatory effects have not been investigated in dry eye disease. It has been reported that elevated osmolarity achieved by adding sodium chloride to the culture medium of corneal epithelial cells increased the production of IL-1β, a proinflammation cytokine. This in vitro dry eye model was used to test the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin. In the present study, a 450 mOsM hyperosmotic medium was produced by adding sodium chloride to the culture medium to reach a final concentration of 90. mM. Human corneal epithelial cells cultured in this hyperosmotic medium for 24. h showed an increase of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the conditioned medium. IL-1β was also upregulated at mRNA levels. Activation of p38 MAP kinase (p38), JNK MAP kinase (JNK) and NF-ΚB in cultured corneal epithelial cells were also induced by hyperosmotic conditions. Curcumin at concentrations of 1-30. μM did not affect the cell viability of cultured corneal epithelial cells. Pretreatment of curcumin (5. μM) completely abolished the increased production of IL-1β induced by the hyperosmotic medium. Increased phosphorylation of p38 caused by high osmolarity was also completely abolished by curcumin, whereas the phosphorylation of JNK was only partially inhibited. SB 203580 (p38 inhibitor), but not SP 600125 (JNK inhibitor), completely suppressed hyperosmoticity-induced IL-1β production, indicating that the inhibition of production of IL-1β by curcumin may be achieved through the p38 signal pathway. Curcumin completely abolished a hyperosmoticity-induced increase of NF-ΚB p65. NF-ΚB inhibitor suppressed hyperosmoticity-induced IL-1β production. p38 inhibitor suppressed hyperosmoticity-induced NF-ΚB activation, indicating that NF-ΚB activation was dependent on p38 activation. The present study suggests that curcumin might have therapeutic potential for treating dry eye disease. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


Hong W.S.,Third Peoples Hospital of Hangzhou | Hu D.N.,Tissue Culture Center | Qian G.P.,Third Peoples Hospital of Hangzhou | McCormick S.A.,Tissue Culture Center | Xu A.E.,Third Peoples Hospital of Hangzhou
British Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2011

Summary Background Autologous melanocytes can be expanded in vitro, allowing the treatment of large lesions of vitiligo in one session. Theoretically, this procedure could provide a higher donor/recipient size ratio (DR ratio) compared with that in noncultured cell transplantation (with a DR ratio < 1: 10). However, the exact DR ratio obtained from this procedure has not been reported. Objectives To study whether transplantation of cultured pure melanocytes at a high DR ratio is as efficient as that at a low DR ratio. Methods One hundred and two patients with vitiligo were treated by transplantation of cultured pure melanocytes and were divided into two groups: a low DR ratio group, including patients with DR ratio ≤ 1: 10 (mean 1: 8, 35 cases) and a high DR ratio group with DR ratio > 1: 10 (mean 1: 27, 67 cases). The extent of repigmentation between these two groups was compared. Results There was no significant difference in repigmentation between the low DR ratio group (mean ± SD 77·4 ± 22·5%) and the high DR ratio group (77·6 ± 24·8%). Multiple regression analysis showed that even after adjustment for age, sex, type of vitiligo and transplanted cell density, there was no significant correlation between the extent of repigmentation and the DR ratio, indicating that patients treated with high DR ratio obtained a satisfactory result and showed no difference from the low DR ratio group. Conclusions Various surgical procedures for the treatment of vitiligo which involve melanocyte transplantation or skin grafts have different inherent DR ratios. Transplantation of cultured pure melanocytes is an expensive and complicated procedure; however, it provides the highest DR ratio (> 1: 10 and up to 1: 60). Surgeons can select one of these methods for the treatment of vitiligo based on their experience and skill, on the size of lesions, and the availability of laboratory support. © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.


Hong W.S.,Third Peoples Hospital of Hangzhou | Hu D.N.,Tissue Culture Center | Qian G.P.,Third Peoples Hospital of Hangzhou | McCormick S.A.,Tissue Culture Center | Xu A.E.,Third Peoples Hospital of Hangzhou
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology | Year: 2011

Background Transplantation of autologous cultured pure melanocytes is a well-established procedure for the treatment of refractory and stabilized vitiligo. However, there was no report specifically comparing the efficacy with the regard to defined age groups (children-adolescence-adult). Objective We analysed the efficacy of this procedure in the treatment of vitiligo in children and adolescents and compare it with the results in adults treated during the same period and using identical procedures. Methods Melanocytes were isolated from the roof of suction blister, cultured and expanded with Hu16 medium in vitro, and transplanted to laser-denuded receipt area. A total of 12 children (8-12 years), 20 adolescents (13-17 years) and 70 adults with vitiligo were treated using this procedure. Results The patients obtained satisfactory results (repigmentation of 50% or more) results in children, adolescents and adults were 83.3%, 95.0% and 84.0% respectively. The mean extent of repigmentation in children, adolescents and adults was 80.7%, 78.9% and 76.6% respectively. There was no statistical difference in repigmentation among these three groups. After adjusting for all factors (gender, type of vitiligo, period of stability, location of the lesion or transplanted cell density) individually or totally using multiple regression analysis, age still did not correlate to the extent of repigmentation. Conclusions The satisfactory results obtained in the treatment of vitiligo in children and adolescents by transplantation of cultured autologous pure melanocytes are comparable with the results in adults. Therefore, this procedure can be considered in refractory and stable vitiligo in children and adolescents, especially in patients with large vitiliginous lesions. © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

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