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Kumar S.,Tissue Culture and Cryopreservation Unit | Nair K.N.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Jena S.N.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2013

Molecular differentiation in 24 accessions representing 19 taxa of Indian Citrus has been examined through sequence analysis of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of nrDNA. Sequence length in the 24 accessions of Citrus taxa ranged from 512 to 665 bp (ITS1 & ITS2 partial and 5.8S complete sequence). The ITS sequences were very rich in G+C content ranging from 61.40 to 66.60% with an average of 64.2%. Genetic distance within Citrus group ranged from 0 to 13.4% with an average of 4.6%, showing moderate rate of nucleotide divergence. The phylogeny was inferred using the Maximum parsimony (MP) and Neighbor-Joining (NJ) methods. Both MP and NJ trees separated all the 24 accessions of Citrus into six distinct clusters. The disposition of all the accessions of Citrus in separate clusters in ITS-derived dendrograms was partly in accordance with the morpho-taxonomic affinities of the target taxa. This study supports the concept of Citrus medica (citron), C. reticulata (mandarin), and C. maxima (pummelo) as the basic species of the genus. However, ITS marker could not find any clear cut differentiation between subgenera Citrus and Papeda as proposed in Swingle's Citrus classification system. The present study also supports the distinctiveness of C. indica (Indian wild orange), C. latipes (Khasi papeda) and C. hystrix (Melanesian papeda) as true species, besides elucidating the probable hybrid origin and relationships among the cultivated species/biotypes, such as Citrus ×aurantiifolia (sour lime) C. ×limon (lemon), C. ×taitensis (Indian rough lemon), C. limettioides (sweet lime), C. ×aurantium (including sour and sweet oranges and grapefruit), and other indigenous varieties of Indian origin: C. megaloxycarpa (sour pummelo), C. karna (karna orange), C. pseudolimon (Hill lemon), 'Memang athur', 'Pummelo-lemon' and 'Kathairi nimbu'. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Jacob S.R.,ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Tyagi V.,Germplasm Exchange Unit | Agrawal A.,Tissue Culture and Cryopreservation Unit | Chakrabarty S.K.,ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Tyagi R.K.,ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Food security is a global concern amongst scientists, researchers and policy makers. No country is self-sufficient to address food security issues independently as almost all countries are inter-dependent for availability of plant genetic resources (PGR) in their national crop improvement programmes. Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR; in short CG) centres play an important role in conserving and distributing PGR through their genebanks. CG genebanks assembled the germplasm through collecting missions and acquisition the same from national genebanks of other countries. Using the Genesys Global Portal on Plant Genetic Resources, the World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS) on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other relevant databases, we analysed the conservation status of Indian-origin PGR accessions (both cultivated and wild forms possessed by India) in CG genebanks and other national genebanks, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) genebanks, which can be considered as an indicator of Indian contribution to the global germplasm collection. A total of 28,027,770 accessions are being conserved world-wide by 446 organizations represented in Genesys; of these, 3.78% (100,607) are Indian-origin accessions. Similarly, 62,920 Indian-origin accessions (8.73%) have been conserved in CG genebanks which are accessible to the global research community for utilization in their respective crop improvement programmes. A total of 60 genebanks including 11 CG genebanks have deposited 824,625 accessions of PGR in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV) as safety duplicates; the average number of accessions deposited by each genebank is 13,744, and amongst them there are 66,339 Indian-origin accessions. In principle, India has contributed 4.85 times the number of germplasm accessions to SGSV, in comparison to the mean value (13,744) of any individual genebank including CG genebanks. More importantly, about 50% of the Indian-origin accessions deposited in SGSV are traditional varieties or landraces with defined traits which form the backbone of any crop gene pool. This paper is also attempting to correlate the global data on Indian-origin germplasm with the national germplasm export profile. The analysis from this paper is discussed with the perspective of possible implications in the access and benefit sharing regime of both the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and the newly enforced Nagoya Protocol under the Convention on Biological Diversity. © 2015 Jacob et al. Source


Gupta S.,Tissue Culture and Cryopreservation Unit
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

India is enormously rich in temperate fruit genetic resources. In the north, the temperate Himalayas stretch from Jammu and Kashmir to the north-eastern hill region, and in the south the Nilgiri hills also harbour a vast genetic diversity of temperate fruits, including apple, pear, peach, apricot, plum, walnut, almond, pecan nut, hazelnut, chestnut, berries, and several of their wild relatives. The National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources is the nodal organization for exchange, quarantine, collection, conservation, evaluation and documentation of plant genetic resources. Numerous germplasm accessions comprising broad genetic diversity in temperate fruits were introduced from other countries. Many introduced cultivars have been used directly for large scale cultivation, for example, the 'Red Delicious' group of cultivars in apple, etc. Diverse temperate fruit crops have been collected, characterized and evaluated; promising germplasm has been identified and utilized in crop improvement programmes. The germplasm is conserved through complementary in situ and ex situ strategies. The wild temperate fruit species are conserved in protected areas and national reserves. The National Genebank at NBPGR has a large ex situ conservation facility including field genebanks, seed genebank, in vitro multi-crop repository, and cryobank. Important temperate fruit accessions are being conserved in the field genebanks; however, germplasm remains under the threat of loss due to pestpathogen attack, natural calamities and climate change. A back-up in vitro collection includes more than 300 exotic and indigenous accessions of Actinidia, Fragaria, Malus, Morus, Prunus, Pyrus, Rubus and Vaccinium. Future strategies must include monitoring of in situ genetic diversity loss due to climate change, identification of trait-specific germplasm such as low-chilling, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, systematic conservation and efficient utilization. This review focuses on the present status of temperate fruit genetic resources, their management and future perspectives. Source


Gupta S.,Tissue Culture and Cryopreservation Unit
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

In vitro grown shoot tips of Morus alba, M. indica, M. sinensis and Pyrus cossonii Rehder were cryopreserved by the encapsulation-dehydration technique. In Morus spp. the shoot tips were excised from 2 week cold acclimated in vitro plantlets. Encapsulated shoot tips were pretreated in 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 or 0.75 M sucrose for 20 h; desiccated for 6 h under laminar air flow, plunged in liquid nitrogen and rapidly warmed. The combination of osmotic dehydration in 0.75 M sucrose and air dehydration for 6 h produced 50-80% regrowth. However, cryopreserved shoot tips howed 30-35% regrowth when dehydrated to ~20% moisture content. The encapsulation dehydration method was suitable for mulberry cryopreserved shoot tips with reasonable recovery in M. indica (35%), M. alba (35%) and M. sinensis (30%). In P. cossonii Rehder, the in vitro plantlets were cold acclimated for 1 or 3 weeks. Encapsulated shoot tips were pretreated in 0.75 M sucrose for 20 h. The beads were desiccated for 4 h on silica gel, then plunged in liquid nitrogen and rapidly warmed. Osmotic dehydration produced 60% regrowth. Cold acclimation was effective in regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips. Three week cold acclimated shoot tips resulted in 40% recovery, while there was no regrowth in non- or 1 week cold acclimated shoot tips after liquid nitrogen treatment. Source


Gupta S.,Tissue Culture and Cryopreservation Unit
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

India is one of the most significant and unique countries in the world from the point of view of fruit genetic resources and fruit diversity. Over 300 species of fruits, including temperate, subtropical and tropical, are growing in the country. Among the pome fruits, in addition to cultivated fruits like apple and pear, a wide range of wild, temperate pome fruits occur in the Indian Himalayas. These include several species of Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus, Cydonia, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Pyracantha, Diospyrus and Docynia. Several of these species are being maintained in field genebanks or orchards. However, with changing climatic conditions, especially in the Himalayas, some of the temperate field genebanks must shift to new locations with more favourable conditions for growth and reproduction. In situ sites need to be monitored for loss and migration of germplasm. A formal unit must be established in the institutes to monitor and analyze climate change impacts in this area especially to track the loss and movement of diversity. With the growing purchasing power and curiosity of Indian consumers, there are emerging opportunities to strengthening the commercialization of underutilized pome fruits with high nutritional potential and taste appeal. Poor production and postharvest handling procedures practiced in the region lead to heavy losses of traditional pome fruit products, while weak infrastructure handicaps marketing prospects. Solutions to these problems lie in the establishment of organized systems of production and suitable postharvest handling procedures, including controlled atmosphere storage facilities, refrigerated transport system, good roads, etc. Exploitation of underutilized pome fruit crops will not only benefit India, but also cater to the increasing demand for exotic products in the international market. Source

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