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Piedecuesta, Colombia

Santa-Jaimes J.-R.,Ecopetrol SA | Lopez-Gomez J.-J.,TIP Ltda.
CTyF - Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro | Year: 2014

The rise in heavy oil reserves, the scarceness of light oils, the demand for clean products and the increase in residual material or bottoms make it necessary to implement or adapt technologies to process heavy oils efficiently. To this end, the modification of the current visbreaking system has been proposed, consisting of adapting a fixed bed inside the reactor in order to study possible modifications in the different thermal processes to increment and improve performance with the purpose of obtaining more valuable products from heavy oils. This research was conducted through testing at the pilot plant level in the visbreaking unit of Ecopetrol S.A. - Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo (ICP), which provides the possibility of comparing the normal visbreaking process to the fixed-bed visbreaking process as a thermal process. Both processes are carried out in comparison to the increase in the performance of middle distillates and the quality properties of the products obtained. The comparison was completed under the same conditions of flow, flow direction (ascending), pressure, temperature and oil type. The results revealed that the fixed-bed visbreaking process managed to convert more heavy fractions into distillates (4 to 7%) compared to the normal visbreaking process. © 2014, Ecopetrol S.A. All rights reserved.

Sala S.E.,National University of La Plata | Vouilloud A.A.,National University of La Plata | Plata-Diaz Y.,TIP Ltda. | Pedraza E.,TIP Ltda. | Pimienta A.,Ecopetrol SA
Caldasia | Year: 2015

This work was carried under the project for developing a biological water quality index for rivers of lowland waters of Colombia based on aquatic biological communities. A total of 165 sites were sampled considering the hidrogeomorphological variability among the studied rivers. In all sites, periphyton samples were collected by brushing rocks and then fixed with formalin 8%. The following information was also recorded: water temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen. Biological samples were analyzed with light and scanning electron microscopy. Here we discussed the following 11 taxa recorded for the first time to Colombia: Achnanthidium macrocephalum (Hustedt) Round & Bukhtiyarova, Cymbopleura zimmermannii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Chamaepinnularia brasiliana Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Ch. brasilianopsis Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Planothidium lagerheimii (Cleve) Wetzel & Ector, Eunotioforma curvula (Hustedt) Kociolek & Burliga, Gomphonema archaevibrio fo. cuneatum Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, Gomphonema capitatum Ehrenberg, Nitzschia clausii Hantzsch and N. filiformis var. conferta (Richter) Lange-Bertalot. The genera Eunotioforma Kociolek & Burliga and Chamaepinnularia Lange-Bertalot are newly recorded for the country. We also analyzed the ultrastructure of Nitzschia dissipata (Kützing) Grunow already reported for the country but only studied with LM. Despite of being a species of cosmopolitan distribution, frequently cited in floras of different regions of the world, it is frequently misidentified so this analysis allowed us to confirm the identity of Colombian specimens. © 2015, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. All rights reserved.

Gomez-Escudero A.,Ecopetrol SA | Rojas-Ruiz F.-A.,TIP Ltda. | Orrego-Ruiz J.-A.,Ecopetrol SA
CTyF - Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro | Year: 2015

The molecular composition of five Medium Vacuum Gas Oils (MVGOs) was studied using 15T Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) coupled with Electrospray Ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Class and Double Bond Equivalence (DBE) distribution of the MVGOs were compared; non-basic, basic nitrogen and oxygen compounds were detected using ESI negative and positive mode while aromatic hydrocarbons and sulfur species were visible via APPI. Compositional distributions revealed definitive heteroatom class and type trends among the MVGOs, and provide evidence of the relationship between chemical composition of gas oils (in terms of aromaticity, maturity and biodegradation) and some of its macroscopic properties such as API gravity. Furthermore, the observed class relative abundances matched well with the sulfur and nitrogen content determined for the MVGO's by conventional methodologies. These preliminary approaches are here reported for Colombian gas oils for the first time, and afford as insight that it is possible to obtain semi quantitative information from FT-ICR MS experiments.

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