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Svanborg S.,TINE SA R and D | Svanborg S.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Johansen A.-G.,TINE SA R and D | Johansen A.-G.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

The demand for whey protein is increasing in the food industry. Traditionally, whey protein concentrates (WPC) and isolates are produced from cheese whey. At present, microfiltration (MF) enables the utilization of whey from skim milk (SM) through milk protein fractionation. This study demonstrates that buttermilk (BM) can be a potential source for the production of a WPC with a comparable composition and functional properties to a WPC obtained by MF of SM. Through the production of WPC powder and a casein- and phospholipid (PL)-rich fraction by the MF of BM, sweet BM may be used in a more optimal and economical way. Sweet cream BM from industrial churning was skimmed before MF with 0.2-μm ceramic membranes at 55 to 58°C. The fractionations of BM and SM were performed under the same conditions using the same process, and the whey protein fractions from BM and SM were concentrated by ultrafiltration and diafiltration. The ultrafiltration and diafiltration was performed at 50°C using pasteurized tap water and a membrane with a 20-kDa cut-off to retain as little lactose as possible in the final WPC powders. The ultrafiltrates were subsequently spray dried, and their functional properties and chemical compositions were compared. The amounts of whey protein and PL in the WPC powder from BM (BMWPC) were comparable to the amounts found in the WPC from SM (SMWPC); however, the composition of the PL classes differed. The BMWPC contained less total protein, casein, and lactose compared with SMWPC, as well as higher contents of fat and citric acid. No difference in protein solubility was observed at pH values of 4.6 and 7.0, and the overrun was the same for BMWPC and SMWPC; however, the BMWPC made less stable foam than SMWPC. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association.

Greiff K.,Sintef | Greiff K.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Staurem C.J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Nordvi B.,TINE SA R and D | Rustad T.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Both the food industry and the health authorities have increased their focus on salt reduction in food, due to the known negative health effect of high sodium intake. For this reason, there is great interest in developing products with reduced salt content without affecting properties related to sensory parameters, texture, yield and shelf-life. Whey and milk based permeates with favorable combinations of milk minerals and lactose can be used as natural ingredients in for instance meat and fish products and work as salt replacers. The aim of this study was to investigate how two different types of milk minerals; low mineral permeate, based on whey obtained in cheese production, and high mineral permeate, based on milk, affect the quality of comminuted fish products, using fish pudding as a model. Results showed that low mineral permeate can improve textural and water-holding properties of puddings at salt concentrations down to 0.8%, while it does not affect salt flavor. High mineral permeate contributes to changes in the textural and water-holding properties, and also increases salt flavor. Based on investigated factors, high mineral permeate is regarded as a promising salt replacer allowing for considerable salt reduction in fish puddings. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Svanborg S.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Johansen A.-G.,TINE SA R and D | Abrahamsen R.K.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Skeie S.B.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
International Dairy Journal | Year: 2014

Microfiltration using 0.1-0.2μm membranes enables protein fractionation of skimmed milk into a casein-rich fraction and a permeate that contains native whey proteins. High-temperature, short-time pasteurisation is often one of the first treatments in many dairy processes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether initial pasteurisation would affect the fractions that are obtained from the one-stage microfiltration of skimmed milk. Pasteurised and unpasteurised skimmed milk were fractionated at 55-58°C using 0.2μm ceramic membranes. Chemical analysis of the microfiltration fractions showed that both the nitrogen and mineral distributions were altered by the initial pasteurisation. The permeate that was obtained from microfiltration of the unpasteurised milk contained higher amounts of calcium, phosphorous and native whey proteins, in addition to a lower amount of casein fragments passing through the membrane. The retentate that was obtained from microfiltration of the unpasteurised milk contained less total protein and casein. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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