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Haug A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Taugbol O.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Prestlokken E.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Govasmark E.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica A: Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

To evaluate the iodine (I) level in Norwegian milk, the I concentration was determined in 104 dairy tanker milk samples collected from 19 milk tours in different areas of Norway, throughout the year 2008. The I concentration in milk from indoor feeding was 122 μg L-1 and higher than in milk from the summer season, being 92 μg L-1. The weighted average mean I concentration throughout the year was 114 μg L-1 milk. The results showed that the I concentration in milk from the winter season 2008 has been reduced to nearly the half during the last decade, from 232 μg I L-1 in milk collected in the winter season in 2000. The I concentration in milk from the summer season is at the same level as a decade ago. The reason for the reduction in I in milk produced during the winter season is not known. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Hansen B.G.,TINE SA As
Journal of Rural Studies | Year: 2015

Robotic milking or automatic milking systems (AMS) are becoming increasingly popular in Norway as well as in the other Nordic countries. To explore what motivates farmers to invest in AMS and what the consequences for farmers' lifestyle and management are, we (the researchers) visited and interviewed 19 dairy farmers in Southern Norway. Fourteen of the farmers are situated in a region of Norway (Jæren), where the adoption rate of AMS is significantly higher than in the rest of the country. Therefore our main interest was to explain the high adoption rate in Jæren. The findings suggest that to succeed with AMS farmers must be motivated, behave proactively and adapt the new technology to their specific needs. Saved time on milking, more interesting farming, more stable treatment of the cow and less need for relief are some of the advantages. Farmers experience to be constantly on call and information overload as the greatest disadvantages of AMS. The main reasons to invest in AMS are increased flexibility and reduced workload, and AMS has allowed a more modern lifestyle. The high adoption rate of AMS in Jæren can be explained by human and social capital, socio-cultural factors and the well-developed agricultural knowledge system in the area. Close relations with the farm machinery industry in the area, a strong belief in technology, high wage rates and difficulties of getting skilled labor are other factors which can explain the high adoption rate of AMS. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Volden H.,TINE SA As | Volden H.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Akerlind M.,Swedish Dairy Association | Brask M.,University of Aarhus | And 3 more authors.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica A: Animal Sciences | Year: 2013

A data-set with 47 treatment means (N = 211) was compiled from research institutions in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in order to develop a prediction equation for enteric methane (CH4) emissions from dairy cows. The aim was to implement the equation in the Nordic feed evaluation system NorFor. The equation should therefore be based on input variables available in NorFor. The best equation to predict CH4 (MJ/d) was based on dry matter intake (DMI, kg/d), and content of (g/kg DM) fatty acids (FA), crude protein (CP), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). The equation was CH4 = 1.36 (±0.10) × DMI-0.125 (±0.039) × FA-0.02 (±0.012) × CP + 0.017 (±0.005) × NDF (RMSE = 3.00 MJ CH4/d; CV = 13.8%; R2 = 0.77), where RMSE is the root mean square error and CV is the coefficient of variation. However, CP was on the borderline of being significant and did not quantitatively explain much variation in CH4 emission. Based on the present research, we concluded, therefore, that the equation CH4 = 1.23 (±0.08) × DMI-0.145 (±0.039) × FA + 0.012 (±0.005) × NDF (RMSE = 3.10 MJ CH4/d; CV = 14.3%; R2 = 0.75) is most suited for being implemented in NorFor. However, the ability of the proposed equation to predict enteric methane emissions is uncertain until evaluated on an independent data-set. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source

Standerholen F.B.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Standerholen F.B.,Hedmark University College | Waterhouse K.E.,SpermVital AS | Larsgard A.G.,GENO SA | And 9 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2015

To make timing of artificial insemination (AI) relative to ovulation less critical, methods for prolonging shelf life of spermatozoa in vivo after AI have been attempted to be developed. Encapsulation of sperm cells is a documented technology, and recently, a technology inwhich sperm cells are embedded in alginate gel has been introduced and commercialized. In this study, standard processed semen with the Biladyl extender (control) was compared with semen processed by sperm immobilization technology developed by SpermVital AS in a blind field trial. Moreover, in vitro acrosome and plasma membrane integrity was assessed and comparedwith AI fertility data for possible correlation. Semen from 16 Norwegian Red young bulls with unknown fertility was collected and processed after splitting the semen in two aliquots. These aliquotswere processed with the standard Biladyl extender or the SpermVital extender to a final number of 12 × 106 and 25 × 106 spermatozoa/dose, respectively. In total, 2000 semen doses were produced from each bull, divided equally by treatment. Artificial insemination doses were set up to design a blinded AI regime; 5 + 5 straws from each extender within ejaculates in ten-straw goblets were distributed to AI technicians and veterinarians all over Norway. Outcomes of the inseminations were measured as 56-day nonreturn rate (NRR). Postthaw sperm quality was assessed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide and Alexa 488-conjugated peanut agglutinin to assess the proportion of plasma membrane and acrosome-intact sperm cells, respectively. In total, data from 14,125 first inseminations performed over a 12-month period, 7081 with Biladyl and 7044 with SpermVital semen,were used in the statistical analyses. Therewas no significant difference in 56-day NRR for the two semen categories, overall NRR being 72.5% and 72.7% for Biladyl and SpermVital, respectively. The flow cytometric results revealed a significant higher level of acrosome-intact live spermatozoa in Biladyl-processed semen compared to SpermVital semen. The results indicate that the level of acrosome-intact live spermatozoa in the AI dose did not affect the 56-day NRR for the two semen processingmethods. In conclusion, this study has showed that immobilized spermatozoa provide equal fertility results as standard processed semen when AI is performed in a blinded field trial, although the immobilization procedure caused increased sperm damage evaluated in vitro compared to standard semen processing procedure. © 2015 The Authors. Source

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