Tinbergen Building

Oxford, United Kingdom

Tinbergen Building

Oxford, United Kingdom
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Gonzalez C.C.,Brunel University | Causer J.,Liverpool John Moores University | Grey M.J.,University of Birmingham | Humphreys G.W.,Tinbergen Building | And 2 more authors.
Experimental Brain Research | Year: 2017

The ‘quiet eye’ (QE)—a period of extended gaze fixation on a target—has been reported in many tasks that require accurate aiming. Longer quiet eye durations (QEDs) are reported in experts compared to non-experts and on successful versus less successful trials. The QE has been extensively studied in the field; however, the cognitive mechanisms underlying the QE are not yet fully understood. We investigated the QEDs of ten expert and ten novice archers in the field and in the laboratory using a computer-based archery task. The computer task consisted of shooting archery targets using a joystick. Random ‘noise’ (visual motion perturbation) was introduced at high and low levels to allow for the controlled examination of the effects of task complexity and processing demands. In this computer task, we also tested an additional group of ten non-archers as controls. In both field and computer tasks, eye movements were measured using electro-oculography. The expert archers exhibited longer QED compared to the novice archers in the field task. In the computer task, the archers again exhibited longer QEDs and were more accurate compared to non-archers. Furthermore, expert archers showed earlier QE onsets and longer QEDs during high noise conditions compared to the novices and non-archers. Our findings show skill-based effects on QED in field conditions and in a novel computer-based archery task, in which online (visual) perturbations modulated experts’ QEDs. These longer QEDs in experts may be used for more efficient programming in which accurate predictions are facilitated by attention control. © 2017, The Author(s).

Ojanen M.,Center for International Forestry Research | Zhou W.,Center for International Forestry Research | Miller D.C.,Urbana University | Nieto S.H.,Center for International Forestry Research | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Evidence | Year: 2017

Background: Property rights to natural resources comprise a major policy instrument in efforts to advance sustainable resource use and conservation. Debate over the relative effectiveness of different property rights regimes in reaching these goals remains controversial. A large, diverse, and rapidly growing body of literature investigates the links between property rights regimes and environmental outcomes, but has not synthesized theoretical and policy insights within specific resource systems and especially across resource systems. Methods: We conducted a systematic review following CEE Guidelines in which we collected empirical evidence from the past two decades on the environmental impacts of property rights regimes in fisheries, forests and rangelands in developing countries. We used a bundle of rights approach to assess the impacts of state, private, and community property regimes, as well as mixed regimes and open access conditions. Outcomes were classified as positive, negative, neutral or undetermined. We also collected information on contextual and other factors thought to influence effect of property rights regimes on environmental outcomes. The search covered 90 online databases and three languages, resulting in a total of 34,984 screened titles. Results: This review identified 103 articles consisting of 374 property regime studies: 55% of the studies related to forestry, 31% to fisheries, and 14% to rangelands. The majority of the studies comprised case-control studies but presented limited information on the baseline condition of the resource system. Only 26 studies used before-after-control-impact (BACI) design. We found that property regime comparisons differed across resource domains with, for example, the majority of fisheries studies using comparison to an open access situation while forest and rangeland studies were more mixed in regime comparisons. After critical appraisal of included studies, only 80 studies were accepted for the narrative synthesis. The key contextual factors largely associated with reported positive environmental outcomes across the three resource systems included monitoring and enforcement systems, resource use pressure, and the presence or absence of clear, stable and legitimate rights (i.e. 'positive regime characteristics'). Conclusions: A key overall finding was that the evidence base was insufficiently robust to draw consistent conclusions about the environmental impacts of different property rights regimes within or across resource systems. The majority of studies reported that any regime is likely to perform better than an open access regime, whereas the performance of state, community, private and mixed regimes was much more ambiguous. Future research on property rights regimes would benefit from more rigorous study designs and more cohesive multidisciplinary research methods. In particular, studies emphasizing a natural science approach could better describe property rights regime characteristics and contextual factors while contributions by teams with a stronger social science emphasis should take care to provide more rigorous empirical data on environmental outcomes. © 2017 The Author(s).

Van Dover C.L.,Duke University | Aronson J.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | Pendleton L.,Duke University | Smith S.,Nautilus Minerals Inc. | And 12 more authors.
Marine Policy | Year: 2014

An era of expanding deep-ocean industrialization is before us, with policy makers establishing governance frameworks for sustainable management of deep-sea resources while scientists learn more about the ecological structure and functioning of the largest biome on the planet. Missing from discussion of the stewardship of the deep ocean is ecological restoration. If existing activities in the deep sea continue or are expanded and new deep-ocean industries are developed, there is need to consider what is required to minimize or repair resulting damages to the deep-sea environment. In addition, thought should be given as to how any past damage can be rectified. This paper develops the discourse on deep-sea restoration and offers guidance on planning and implementing ecological restoration projects for deep-sea ecosystems that are already, or are at threat of becoming, degraded, damaged or destroyed. Two deep-sea restoration case studies or scenarios are described (deep-sea stony corals on the Darwin Mounds off the west coast of Scotland, deep-sea hydrothermal vents in Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea) and are contrasted with on-going saltmarsh restoration in San Francisco Bay. For these case studies, a set of socio-economic, ecological, and technological decision parameters that might favor (or not) their restoration are examined. Costs for hypothetical restoration scenarios in the deep sea are estimated and first indications suggest they may be two to three orders of magnitude greater per hectare than costs for restoration efforts in shallow-water marine systems. © 2013 The Authors.

Ojanen M.,Center for International Forestry Research | Miller D.C.,University of Michigan | Zhou W.,Center for International Forestry Research | Mshale B.,University of Michigan | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Evidence | Year: 2014

Background: Property rights to natural resources comprise a major policy instrument for those seeking to advance sustainable resource use and conservation. Despite decades of policy experimentation and empirical research, however, systematic understanding of the influence of different property rights regimes on resource and environmental outcomes remains elusive. A large, diverse, and rapidly growing body of literature investigates the links between property regimes and environmental outcomes, but has not synthesized theoretical and policy insights within specific resource systems and especially across resource systems. Here we provide a protocol for conducting a systematic review that will gather empirical evidence over the past two decades on this topic. We will ask the following questions: a) What are the environmental impacts of different property regimes in forests, fisheries, and rangelands? b) Which property regimes are associated with positive, negative or neutral environmental outcomes? c) How do those environmental outcomes compare within and across resource systems and regions? Methods: We will assess current knowledge of the environmental impacts of property rights regimes in three resource systems in developing countries: forests, fisheries and rangelands. These resource systems represent differing levels of resource mobility and variability and capture much of the range of ecosystem types found across the globe. The review will use a bundle of rights approach to assess the impacts of three main property regimes - state, private, and community - as well as mixed property regimes that involve some combination of these three. Assessment of the impacts of property rights regimes across a range of different resource systems and ecosystem types will enable exploration of commonalities and differences across these systems. Our analysis will emphasize major insights while highlighting important gaps in current research. © 2014 Ojanen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Gillies J.A.,Tinbergen Building | Thomas A.L.R.,Tinbergen Building | Taylor G.K.,Tinbergen Building
Journal of Avian Biology | Year: 2011

We used an onboard inertial measurement unit, together with onboard and ground-based video cameras, to record the movements of the body, wings and tail of a steppe eagle Aquila nipalensis during wide-ranging flight. The eagle's flight consisted of a more or less continuous sequence of banked turns, interrupted by occasional wing tucks and roll-over manoeuvres, and ultimately terminated by a wing-over manoeuvre leading in to a diving landing approach. The flight configuration of the bird, and its pattern of movement during angular perturbations, together suggest that the eagle is inherently stable in pitch and yaw, and perhaps also in roll. The control inputs used to generate roll moments during banked turns were too subtle to be detected. Control of yaw and pitch during banked turns involved a consistent pattern of tail movement, wherein the tail was spread and depressed immediately before the turn, and then overbanked with respect to the bird during the latter part of the turn. Differential adjustment of wing posture is probably also involved in the control of banked turns, but it was only consistently apparent during more extreme roll manoeuvres. For example, roll-over and wing-over manoeuvres were both accomplished by differential changes in the angle of incidence and spread of the wings. In general, however, the bird appeared to maintain positive loading on its wings at all times, except during extreme flight manoeuvres. © 2011 The Authors.

Mihaylova Y.,Tinbergen Building | Aboobaker A.A.,Tinbergen Building
Genome Biology | Year: 2013

The newt transcriptome opens up many new possibilities in the study of regeneration, and the novel gene families identifi ed shed light on lineage-specifi c mechanisms.

The role that cognitive processing of a recent trauma has in the occurrence of hallucinations has not been examined longitudinally. This study investigated trauma-related cognitive predictors of hallucinations in the months following an interpersonal assault. Four weeks after treatment at an emergency department for interpersonal assault injuries, 106 participants were assessed for peri-traumatic cognitive processing, cognitive responses to trauma memories, negative beliefs about the self, Posttraumatic-stress disorder (PTSD), and hallucinatory experiences. Hallucinatory experiences were reassessed six months later. Cognitive processing during trauma (lack of self-referential processing, and dissociation), beliefs about permanent negative change, self-vulnerability, and self-blame and cognitive response styles (thought suppression, rumination, and numbing) were significant predictors of later hallucinations. The way in which trauma is processed may partly determine the occurrence of hallucinations.

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