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Oxford, United Kingdom

Ojanen M.,Center for International Forestry Research | Miller D.C.,University of Michigan | Zhou W.,Center for International Forestry Research | Mshale B.,University of Michigan | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Evidence | Year: 2014

Background: Property rights to natural resources comprise a major policy instrument for those seeking to advance sustainable resource use and conservation. Despite decades of policy experimentation and empirical research, however, systematic understanding of the influence of different property rights regimes on resource and environmental outcomes remains elusive. A large, diverse, and rapidly growing body of literature investigates the links between property regimes and environmental outcomes, but has not synthesized theoretical and policy insights within specific resource systems and especially across resource systems. Here we provide a protocol for conducting a systematic review that will gather empirical evidence over the past two decades on this topic. We will ask the following questions: a) What are the environmental impacts of different property regimes in forests, fisheries, and rangelands? b) Which property regimes are associated with positive, negative or neutral environmental outcomes? c) How do those environmental outcomes compare within and across resource systems and regions? Methods: We will assess current knowledge of the environmental impacts of property rights regimes in three resource systems in developing countries: forests, fisheries and rangelands. These resource systems represent differing levels of resource mobility and variability and capture much of the range of ecosystem types found across the globe. The review will use a bundle of rights approach to assess the impacts of three main property regimes - state, private, and community - as well as mixed property regimes that involve some combination of these three. Assessment of the impacts of property rights regimes across a range of different resource systems and ecosystem types will enable exploration of commonalities and differences across these systems. Our analysis will emphasize major insights while highlighting important gaps in current research. © 2014 Ojanen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Van Dover C.L.,Duke University | Aronson J.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | Pendleton L.,Duke University | Smith S.,Nautilus Minerals Inc. | And 12 more authors.
Marine Policy | Year: 2014

An era of expanding deep-ocean industrialization is before us, with policy makers establishing governance frameworks for sustainable management of deep-sea resources while scientists learn more about the ecological structure and functioning of the largest biome on the planet. Missing from discussion of the stewardship of the deep ocean is ecological restoration. If existing activities in the deep sea continue or are expanded and new deep-ocean industries are developed, there is need to consider what is required to minimize or repair resulting damages to the deep-sea environment. In addition, thought should be given as to how any past damage can be rectified. This paper develops the discourse on deep-sea restoration and offers guidance on planning and implementing ecological restoration projects for deep-sea ecosystems that are already, or are at threat of becoming, degraded, damaged or destroyed. Two deep-sea restoration case studies or scenarios are described (deep-sea stony corals on the Darwin Mounds off the west coast of Scotland, deep-sea hydrothermal vents in Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea) and are contrasted with on-going saltmarsh restoration in San Francisco Bay. For these case studies, a set of socio-economic, ecological, and technological decision parameters that might favor (or not) their restoration are examined. Costs for hypothetical restoration scenarios in the deep sea are estimated and first indications suggest they may be two to three orders of magnitude greater per hectare than costs for restoration efforts in shallow-water marine systems. © 2013 The Authors. Source

Mihaylova Y.,Tinbergen Building | Aboobaker A.A.,Tinbergen Building
Genome Biology | Year: 2013

The newt transcriptome opens up many new possibilities in the study of regeneration, and the novel gene families identifi ed shed light on lineage-specifi c mechanisms. Source

Gillies J.A.,Tinbergen Building | Thomas A.L.R.,Tinbergen Building | Taylor G.K.,Tinbergen Building
Journal of Avian Biology | Year: 2011

We used an onboard inertial measurement unit, together with onboard and ground-based video cameras, to record the movements of the body, wings and tail of a steppe eagle Aquila nipalensis during wide-ranging flight. The eagle's flight consisted of a more or less continuous sequence of banked turns, interrupted by occasional wing tucks and roll-over manoeuvres, and ultimately terminated by a wing-over manoeuvre leading in to a diving landing approach. The flight configuration of the bird, and its pattern of movement during angular perturbations, together suggest that the eagle is inherently stable in pitch and yaw, and perhaps also in roll. The control inputs used to generate roll moments during banked turns were too subtle to be detected. Control of yaw and pitch during banked turns involved a consistent pattern of tail movement, wherein the tail was spread and depressed immediately before the turn, and then overbanked with respect to the bird during the latter part of the turn. Differential adjustment of wing posture is probably also involved in the control of banked turns, but it was only consistently apparent during more extreme roll manoeuvres. For example, roll-over and wing-over manoeuvres were both accomplished by differential changes in the angle of incidence and spread of the wings. In general, however, the bird appeared to maintain positive loading on its wings at all times, except during extreme flight manoeuvres. © 2011 The Authors. Source

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