Kefamenanu, Indonesia
Kefamenanu, Indonesia

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Soares F.S.,Timor University | Dryden G.M.,Dryden Animal Science
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2011

Live weight, body length, hip and shoulder heights, heart girth, and metatarsal length were measured on 100 one to two years old Bali (Bos javanicus) bulls. Multiple regression of these measurements on live weight gave a prediction equation involving heart girth and body length (prediction R 2 = 0.845). These measurements were also used to derive several frame scores (FS). Live weight (Lwt) divided by FS was used as an index of body condition. Lwt/(length+hip height) was normally distributed and highly correlated with other normally-distributed condition indexes. This index was used to define five body condition scores. These were used to develop a five-point body condition scoring system in which the amount of fleshing over the vertebral processes, ribs, hindquarters, tail head, hooks, at the top of the neck, and the shoulders, the development of wrinkles in the skin above the hock and the neck, and the size of the dewlap, were used to describe the different body condition scores. Animals of score 1 had prominent hooks, shoulders, vertebrae and ribs, and hollow hindquarters and flat tailhead. Score 5 animals had rounded hindquarters, well-filled upper hind legs, small mounds of soft tissue were apparent on the tailhead, their hooks, necks, shoulders, vertebrae and ribs were well covered, and the dewlap was prominent.


Freitas R.J.,Timor University | Shimakawa K.,Gifu University | Shimakawa K.,University of Pardubice | Kuglerd S.,Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Chalcogenide Letters | Year: 2013

The glass-transition temperature Tg is known to be related to cohesive energy (e.g., mean bond energy E) in most binary and ternary chalcogenide glasses, while (E) is theoretically predicted parameter. It is reported here that the hardness H from the mechanical point of view, as an accessible physical parameter of cohesive energy, is shown to correlate with Tg in most chalcogenide glasses. A factor influencing Tg in chalcogenide glasses can be primary a short-range chemical-bond arrangement but not an inter-molecular interaction.


Asante A.D.,University of New South Wales | Martins N.,Timor University | Otim M.E.,University of Sydney | Dewdney J.,University of New South Wales
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2014

Timor-Leste is in the process of addressing a key issue for the country's health sector: a medical workforce that is too small to provide adequate care. In theory, a bilateral programme of medical cooperation with Cuba created in 2003 could solve this problem. By the end of 2013, nearly 700 new doctors trained in Cuba had been added to Timor-Leste's medical workforce and by 2017 a further 328 doctors should have been trained in the country by Cuban and local health professionals. A few more doctors who have been trained in Indonesia and elsewhere will also soon enter the workforce. It is expected that the number of physicians in Timor-Leste in 2017 will be more than three times the number present in the country in 2003. Most of the new physicians are expected to work in rural communities and support the national government's goal of improving health outcomes for the rural majority. Although the massive growth in the medical workforce could change the way health care is delivered and substantially improve health outcomes throughout the country, there are challenges that must be overcome if Timor-Leste is to derive the maximum benefit from such growth. It appears crucial that most of the new doctors be deployed in rural communities and managed carefully to optimize their rural retention.


Sarmento R.M.D.O.A.,Timor University | Takahashi Y.,Gifu University
2015 International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communication Systems, ISPACS 2015 | Year: 2015

This paper reports a comparison of power-loss in the MOSFET in a step-down buck (DC/DC) converter. To reduce power dissipation, we apply an adiabatic switching operation to the MOSFET in the DC/DC converter. From the SPICE simulation results, we show that the energy loss of the DC/DC converter with a triangular-wave voltage is lower than that of a converter with a rectangular-, trapezoidal-, or sinusoidal-wave voltage. © 2015 IEEE.


Berek A.K.,Timor University
Soil Science | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT: Biochar, because of its porous nature, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) equivalent, surface functional groups, and other properties, could serve as an acid soil amendment. To investigate the liming potential of biochars, laboratory characterization and greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in Hawaii and West Java, Indonesia, respectively. Six wood-derived biochars were characterized and amended to a Hawaiian acid soil (pH 4.6, exchangeable aluminum [Al] 1.8 cmolc kg) at 2% and 4% alone or in combination with 2 cmolc kg of lime and then planted with Desmodium intortum (a forage legume sensitive to Al) twice in a greenhouse trial. To the Indonesian acid soils (pH 3.9–4.0, exchangeable Al 8–14 cmolc kg), a rice husk and a lac tree biochars at 4% and 8% alone or in combination with lime at 4 and 8 cmolc kg and compost at 0.1 and 0.2% were applied and then planted with soybean (Glycine max) cv. Anjasmoro twice in field trials. Biochar effects on soil properties and plant growth were measured. The results indicated that the six biochars varied in pH, ash content, CaCO3 equivalent, total basic cations, cation exchange capacity, and other properties (pore size, surface functional groups). Soil pH was increased, soil exchangeable Al was reduced, and plant nutrients were enriched to different degrees upon additions of biochars. Total dry weights of Desmodium were increased 2- to 4-fold over the control or lime treatment upon applications of biochar. Similar effects on soils and soybean were obtained for the Indonesian field trials. It was concluded that CaCO3 equivalent and total basic cations were among the most important properties of biochar responsible for improving acid soil productivity and plant growth. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Da Silva A.P.,Timor University | Fernandez W.D.,University of New South Wales
Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | Year: 2016

Sustainability is an important concern in ICTD literature because without a sustainable use of the technologies, less-developed countries will not be able to enjoy the promised benefits. This review has been conducted with the aim of bringing up-to-date discussion on the topic. Sustainability can be achieved if projects are delivered to satisfy the five aspects of sustainability: political/institutional, financial/economic, technological, cultural/social and environmental [1]. Apart from the technical challenges, it was found that effort to deliver sustainable ICTD has also been influenced by complexities that emerged from heterogeneous actors involved during the delivery process, these factors were identified in this review based on the five aspects of sustainability. There is still a limited discussion in the literature on how to fulfill the five aspects of sustainability in a coherent manner. It is expected that the results of the review will inform further studies on the topic of sustainability of ICTD. © 2016 IEEE.


Da Silva A.P.,Timor University | Fernandez W.D.,University of New South Wales
Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | Year: 2016

Context is not just a descriptive consideration, it plays a critical but often neglected role in the implementation of information and communication technologies in developing countries. As the deployment of technology encapsulates the share desire of donors and recipients to contribute to the welfare of the most needed nations, project failures cannot be just measured only in monetary terms but also by human suffering and delayed aspirations. This paper outlines results from an exploratory study of stakeholders' interactions during the implementation of a major information and communication technology project in Timor-Leste, one of the least developed countries in the world. The paper reports on the contextual tensions embedded in the actions and interaction of heterogeneous stakeholders and describes issues faced by stakeholders while aligning mismatched interests, expectations and objectives. © 2016 IEEE.


Freitas R.J.,Timor University | Shimakawa K.,University of Pardubice | Shimakawa K.,Gifu University | Wagner T.,University of Pardubice
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2014

The article discusses the dynamics of photoinduced defect creations (PDC) in amorphous chalcogenides, which is described by the stretched exponential function (SEF), while the well known photodarkening (PD) and photoinduced volume expansion (PVE) are governed only by the exponential function. It is shown that the exponential distribution of the thermal activation barrier produces the SEF in PDC, suggesting that thermal energy, as well as photon energy, is incorporated in PDC mechanisms. The differences in dynamics among three major photoinduced effects (PD, PVE, and PDC) in amorphous chalcogenides are now well understood. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.


Introduction: the problem of environmental pollution is a major concern of globalsociety because of the harmful effects on health. Undoubtedly hazardous wastesare the main cause of environmental pollution.Objective: to determine the health damage caused by poor disposal of solid andliquid wastes in Dili, Timor Leste.Method: descriptive cross-sectional research which used observation and interviewas research methods and the selected variables were health damage andenvironmental damage.Results: health damages were acute respiratory infections, intestinal parasites,diarrhea, dengue and malaria. The causes of poor performance were lack ofknowledge and awareness of the population, small number of waste collectioncontainers, lack of resources and support by the local government. Theenvironmental damage were soil, air, river and sea pollution.Conclusions: the main health and environmental damages come from the lack ofadequate conditions and governmental willingness to ensure an efficient wastecollection and disposal system in due time. This situation leads to negative effectsin adequate feeding of the population and to the occurrence of preventablediseases. © 2014, Editorial Ciencias Medicas. All rights reserved.


Mateen F.J.,Johns Hopkins University | Mateen F.J.,Harvard University | Martins N.,Timor University
Neurology | Year: 2014

Neurologic care exists within health systems and complex social, political, and economic environments. Identification of obstacles within health systems, defined as "constraints," is crucial to improving the delivery of neurologic care within its macroclimate. Here we use the World Health Organization's 6 building blocks of a health system to examine core services for priority interventions related to neurologic disease: (1) service delivery; (2) health workforce; (3) information; (4) medical products, vaccines, and technologies; (5) financing; and (6) leadership and governance. We demonstrate the use of a constraints analysis for neurologic disorders using the example of Timor-Leste, a newly sovereign and low-income country, which aims to improve neurologic care in the coming years. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

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