University Timone

Marseille, France

University Timone

Marseille, France
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Gaborit B.,University of Lille Nord de France | Gaborit B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Gaborit B.,Center dInvestigation Clinique | Jacquier A.,Aix - Marseille University | And 18 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2012

Objectives: This study investigated the effect of bariatric surgery (BS)-induced weight loss on cardiac ectopic fat using 3T magnetic resonance imaging in morbid obesity. Background: Heart disease is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in obese patients. Deposition of cardiac ectopic fat has been related to increased heart risk. Whether sustained weight loss can modulate epicardial fat or myocardial fat is unknown. Methods: Twenty-three morbidly obese patients underwent 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine myocardial triglyceride content (MTGC), magnetic resonance imaging to assess epicardial fat volume (EFV), cardiac function, and computed tomography visceral abdominal fat (VAF) measurements at baseline and 6 months after BS. Results: The BS reduced body mass index significantly, from 43.1 ± 4.5 kg/m2 to 32.3 ± 4.0 kg/m2, subcutaneous fat from 649 ± 162 cm2 to 442 ± 127 cm2, VAF from 190 ± 83 cm2 to 107 ± 44 cm2, and EFV from 137 ± 37 ml to 98 ± 25 ml (all p < 0.0001). There was no significant change in MTGC: 1.03 ± 0.2% versus 1.1 ± 0.2% (p = 0.85). A significant reduction in left ventricular mass (118 ± 24 g vs. 101 ± 18 g) and cardiac output (7.1 ± 1.6 l/min vs. 5.4 ± 1.0 l/min) was observed and was statistically associated with weight loss (p < 0.05). The loss in EFV was limited (-27 ± 11%) compared to VAF diminution (-40 ± 19%). The EFV variation was not correlated with percentage of body mass index or VAF loss (p = 0.007). The ratio of %EFV to %VAF loss decreased with sleep apnea syndrome (1.34 ± 0.3 vs. 0.52 ± 0.08, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Six-month BS modulates differently cardiac ectopic fat deposition, with a significant decrease in epicardial fat and no change in myocardial fat. Epicardial fat volume loss was limited in patients with sleep apnea. (Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Epicardial Adipose Tissue and on Myocardial Function; NCT01284816) © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation.

Colson P.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3 | Colson P.,University Timone | Raoult D.,Jean Moulin University Lyon 3 | Raoult D.,University Timone
Intervirology | Year: 2010

Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, Marseillevirus, and Sputnik, a virophage, are intra-amoebal viruses that have been isolated from water collected in cooling towers. They have provided fascinating data and have raised exciting questions about viruses definition and evolution. Mimivirus and Marseillevirus have been classified in the nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) class. Their genomes are the largest and fifth largest viral genomes sequenced so far. The gene repertoire of these amoeba-associated viruses can be divided into four groups: The core genome, genes acquired by lateral gene transfer, duplicated genes, and ORFans. Open reading frames (ORFs) that have homologs in the NCLDVs core gene set represent 2.9 and 6.1% of the Mimivirus and Marseillevirus gene contents, respectively. A substantial proportion of the Mimivirus, Marseillevirus and Sputnik ORFs exhibit sequence similarities to homologs found in bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes or viruses. The large amount of chimeric genes in these viral genomes might have resulted from acquisitions by lateral gene transfers, implicating sympatric bacteria and viruses with an intra-amoebal lifestyle. In addition, lineage-specific gene expansion may have played a major role in the genome shaping. Altogether, the data so far accumulated on amoeba-associated giant viruses are a powerful incentive to isolate and study additional strains to gain better understanding of their pangenome. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Rico A.,Aix - Marseille University | Rico A.,University Timone | Zaaraoui W.,Aix - Marseille University | Franques J.,University Timone | And 14 more authors.
Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine | Year: 2011

Object: While occurrence of motor cortical reorganization has been clearly demonstrated in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), it is not yet clear whether this cortical reorganization constitutes a response to cortico-spinal lesions or to more diffuse damage affecting the neuronal network involved in motor act preparation, or both. We proposed to investigate the changes in the activation pattern during a simple motor task devoid of cortico-spinal dysfunction occurring in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of MS. Materials and methods: Among 15 right-handed CIS patients, we selected eight patients with a preserved central motor pathway established by motor evoked potentials. Ten healthy right-handed gender- and age-matched volunteers were also included. After morphological MRI, subjects performed calibrated conjugated finger flexion and extension movements during fMRI acquision. Results: In CIS patients, simple movements of the non-dominant hand induced recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex (BA32) usually involved in complex motor movements. This reorganization was correlated with the diffuse brain tissue damage (brain T 2 lesion load). Conclusion: These results suggest that at least part of the cortical reorganization observed during very simple tasks in the earliest stage of MS occurs whether or not the efferent pathways are intact. © 2010 ESMRMB.

Tamalet C.,University Timone | Tamalet C.,Aix - Marseille University | Colson P.,University Timone | Colson P.,Aix - Marseille University | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2016

Several lines of evidence indicate that HIV infection can result in several possible incomes, including a very small proportion of individuals whose HIV replication is controlled after treatment interruption (known as HIV posttreatment controllers) or spontaneously without any treatment (known as HIV elite controllers). Both types of individuals are HIV RNA negative but HIV DNA positive, with living virus which can be stimulated ex vivo. A review was conducted to assess the literature on yet rarer cases with detectable integrated HIV DNA without HIV infectious virus in HIV-seropositive or -negative individuals. Three categories of patients were identified: (a) HIV-seropositive individuals with apparent spontaneous cure from their HIV infection, (b) HIV-seronegative children born to HIV-infected mothers and (c) highly exposed seronegative adults. Validity criteria were proposed to assess the presence of integrated HIV DNA as possible or unquestionable in these three categories. Only three articles among the 22 ultimately selected fulfilled these criteria. Among the highly exposed seronegative subjects, some individuals were described as being without integrated HIV DNA, probably because these subjects were not investigated using relevant, highly sensitive methods. Finally, we propose a definition of spontaneous cure of HIV infection based on clinical, immunologic and virologic criteria. © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

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