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Sharikov A.V.,Moscow State Pedagogical University | Volkov S.V.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Ivanov M.N.,Timiryazev State Biological Museum | Basova V.B.,Timiryazev State Biological Museum
Russian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2010

The structure of the long-eared owl (Asio otus L.) settlements in anthropogenic landscapes has been studied in the Zhuravlinaya Rodina protected territory in the northern Moscow region in 2001-2005. The possible factors that cause the formation of such settlements have been analyzed. The differences in the breeding success between owls nesting near and away from human settlements have been estimated. Aggregated nesting of owls is assumed to be mainly related to a lower predator pressure in the vicinity of human dwellings in the incubation period. Aggregated nesting is regarded as an expression of synanthropization of the species. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010. Source


Kupper C.,Harvard University | Kupper C.,University of Sheffield | Edwards S.V.,Harvard University | Kosztolanyi A.,Eotvos Lorand University | And 11 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2012

Gene flow promotes genetic homogeneity of species in time and space. Gene flow can be modulated by sex-biased dispersal that links population genetics to mating systems. We investigated the phylogeography of the widely distributed Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus. This small shorebird has a large breeding range spanning from Western Europe to Japan and exhibits an unusually flexible mating system with high female breeding dispersal. We analysed genetic structure and gene flow using a 427-bp fragment of the mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region, 21 autosomal microsatellite markers and a Z microsatellite marker in 397 unrelated individuals from 21 locations. We found no structure or isolation-by-distance over the continental range. However, island populations had low genetic diversity and were moderately differentiated from mainland locations. Genetic differentiation based on autosomal markers was positively correlated with distance between mainland and each island. Comparisons of uniparentally and biparentally inherited markers were consistent with female-biased gene flow. Maternally inherited mtDNA was less structured, whereas the Z-chromosomal marker was more structured than autosomal microsatellites. Adult males were more related than females within genetic clusters. Taken together, our results suggest a prominent role for polyandrous females in maintaining genetic homogeneity across large geographic distances. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Zhadan A.E.,Moscow State University | Atroschenko M.M.,Timiryazev State Biological Museum
Zoologicheskii Zhurnal | Year: 2010

The external and internal morphology of Laubieriopsis sp. from the North Sea was studied using light, scanning and transmission microscopy. The structure of the head end, parapodia, pigidium, body cavitiy, digestive tract, and nervous and sexual systems are analyzed. The specimens studied are the most similar to those of L. cabiochi (Amoreux, 1982), but they have some significant differences. The body consists from 22 (instead of 21, as in L. cabiochi) setigers, bears bidentate modified aciculae in anterior four segments, paired genital papillae, located on the eighth segment (unpaired in L. cabiochi). Parapodia of V-XXII segments bear one long capillary chaeta and one very short and thin chaeta in each ramus. The anterior part of the body capable to be inverted (the head end), consists only of prostomium and peristomium and does not include the first segment, unlike flabelligerids. There are well developed dorso-lateral ciliary folds in the mouth. A ventral pharyngeal organ is not revealed. The ciliary and folded oesophagus represents a straight tube and does not form a loop even when the head is inverted. The gut forms a small loop in the area of the 17th segment. The body cavity is divided by well developed dissepiments and mesenteries. They form a complicated system of partitions in the anterior part of the body. The perycarya of cells of a ventral nerve cord are homogenously distributed and do not form distinct ganglia. However, the nervous cord forms two or three swellings in each segment. The position of fauveliopsids in the polychaete system is discussed. The present research has not revealed the similarities between Fauveliopsidae with Flabelligeridae and close taxa. Source

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