O'Neill C.,Macquarie University |
Debaille V.,TIME Higher School
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2014
Geodynamic modelling of Hadean/Eoarchaean tectonics typically requires higher rates of internal heat production, and higher mantle temperatures, in models that possess temperature-dependent viscosity and a yield criterion. In such models under Hadean conditions, for a wide range of geodynamic configurations and modelling approaches, subduction has a propensity to fail. This has led to the suggestion that the predominant tectonic regime in the Hadean was stagnant-lid convection, with intermittent recycling events. Various lines of evidence support this suggestion, from i) the long mixing time of mantle isotopic anomalies or compositional heterogeneities, such as 142Nd, 182W, and platinum group elements, to ii) the long residence time of the Hadean protolith to the Jack Hills zircons, and iii) thermal evolution models, which typically require lower heat flux in the past to avoid the "Archaean thermal catastrophe". The framework provided by stagnant lid, or episodic overturn, convection, iv) provides an explanation for the formation of early Archaean TTGs and greenstones, and v) explains the interleaving arc-plume sequence observed in many Archaean terranes, suggesting subduction initiation events may have been common, increasing their preservation potential. Implications include a low magnetic field strength in the Hadean, which is consistent with emerging paleointensity data from these times. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Wilson M.,TIME Higher School |
Lavis J.,McMaster University |
Grimshaw J.,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute
Healthcare quarterly (Toronto, Ont.) | Year: 2012
Interventions to support evidence-informed decision making have increased in recent years, but they are often fragmented across different clinical, management and policy environments. Many of these efforts also place varying emphasis on supporting the use of research evidence, with some choosing to focus more on expert knowledge and/or media coverage and others focusing on supporting the use of actionable messages arising from high-quality, relevant and optimally packaged research evidence. In this paper, we profile five Canadian contributions--EvidenceUpdates, Rx for Change, Health-Evidence.ca, Health Systems Evidence and the McMaster Health Forum--that allow providers, managers and policy makers to efficiently find and use research evidence when they need it. These contributions are critical for supporting both local and global efforts to provide optimal and cost-effective care, improving the quality of care and strengthening health systems. Copyright © 2012 Longwoods Publishing.
Mhiri F.,University of Carthage |
Sethom K.,University Pierre and Marie Curie |
Bouallegue R.,TIME Higher School
Journal of Network and Computer Applications | Year: 2013
The femtocell concept is an emerging technology for deploying the next generation of the wireless networks, aiming at indoor coverage enhancement, increasing capacity, and offloading the overlay macrocell traffic. Nevertheless, one of the most critical issues in femtocells is the potential interference between nearby femtocells and from femtocells to macrocells or to mobile handsets, thus mitigating the overall system capacity. In this paper, we have discussed mechanisms which can be deployed to lessen the interference and increase the user capacity. Therefore, we provide a survey on the different interference and resource management techniques in Self-Organizing Network according to specifics classification criteria. These techniques derive from the following approaches: power control, proper cell planning, frequency reuse, OFDMA, self-configuration and self-optimization, conventional TDD, etc. These techniques can be applied separately and can be used as hybrid. A qualitative comparison among the different approaches and techniques is provided at the end of this paper. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Stoma S.,Humboldt University of Berlin |
Frohlich M.,Humboldt University of Berlin |
Gerber S.,TIME Higher School |
Klipp E.,Humboldt University of Berlin
BMC Bioinformatics | Year: 2011
Background: Recently, the availability of high-resolution microscopy together with the advancements in the development of biomarkers as reporters of biomolecular interactions increased the importance of imaging methods in molecular cell biology. These techniques enable the investigation of cellular characteristics like volume, size and geometry as well as volume and geometry of intracellular compartments, and the amount of existing proteins in a spatially resolved manner. Such detailed investigations opened up many new areas of research in the study of spatial, complex and dynamic cellular systems. One of the crucial challenges for the study of such systems is the design of a well stuctured and optimized workflow to provide a systematic and efficient hypothesis verification. Computer Science can efficiently address this task by providing software that facilitates handling, analysis, and evaluation of biological data to the benefit of experimenters and modelers.Results: The Spatio-Temporal Simulation Environment (STSE) is a set of open-source tools provided to conduct spatio-temporal simulations in discrete structures based on microscopy images. The framework contains modules to digitize, represent, analyze, and mathematically model spatial distributions of biochemical species. Graphical user interface (GUI) tools provided with the software enable meshing of the simulation space based on the Voronoi concept. In addition, it supports to automatically acquire spatial information to the mesh from the images based on pixel luminosity (e.g. corresponding to molecular levels from microscopy images). STSE is freely available either as a stand-alone version or included in the linux live distribution Systems Biology Operational Software (SB.OS) and can be downloaded from http://www.stse-software.org/. The Python source code as well as a comprehensive user manual and video tutorials are also offered to the research community. We discuss main concepts of the STSE design and workflow. We demonstrate it's usefulness using the example of a signaling cascade leading to formation of a morphological gradient of Fus3 within the cytoplasm of the mating yeast cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Conclusions: STSE is an efficient and powerful novel platform, designed for computational handling and evaluation of microscopic images. It allows for an uninterrupted workflow including digitization, representation, analysis, and mathematical modeling. By providing the means to relate the simulation to the image data it allows for systematic, image driven model validation or rejection. STSE can be scripted and extended using the Python language. STSE should be considered rather as an API together with workflow guidelines and a collection of GUI tools than a stand alone application. The priority of the project is to provide an easy and intuitive way of extending and customizing software using the Python language. © 2011 Stoma et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Galante J.,University of Cardiff |
Galante I.,University of Buenos Aires |
Bekkers M.-J.,TIME Higher School |
Gallacher J.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology | Year: 2014
Objective: Kindness-based meditation (KBM) is a rubric covering meditation techniques developed to elicit kindness in a conscious way. Some techniques, for example, loving-kindness meditation and compassion meditation, have been included in programs aimed at improving health and well-being. Our aim was to systematically review and meta-analyze the evidence available from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of KBM on health and well-being against passive and active control groups in patients and the general population. Method: Searches were completed in March 2013. Two reviewers applied predetermined eligibility criteria (RCTs, peer-reviewed publications, theses or conference proceedings, adult participants, KBM interventions) and extracted the data. Meta-analyses used random-effects models. Results: Twenty-two studies were included. KBM was moderately effective in decreasing self-reported depression (standard mean difference [Hedges's g] = -0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-1.08, -0.14]) and increasing mindfulness (Hedges's g = 0.63, 95% CI [0.22, 1.05]), compassion (Hedges's g = 0.61, 95% CI [0.24, 0.99]) and self-compassion (Hedges's g = 0.45, 95% CI [0.15, 0.75]) against passive controls. Positive emotions were increased (Hedges's g = 0.42, 95% CI [0.10, 0.75]) against progressive relaxation. Exposure to KBM may initially be challenging for some people. Results were inconclusive for some outcomes, in particular against active controls. The methodological quality of the reports was low to moderate. Results suffered from imprecision due to wide CIs deriving from small studies. Conclusions: KBM showed evidence of benefits for the health of individuals and communities through its effects on well-being and social interaction. Further research including well-conducted large RCTs is warranted. © 2014 American Psychological Association.