Timac Agro Spain

Orkoien, Spain

Timac Agro Spain

Orkoien, Spain
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Erro J.,University of Navarra | Urrutia O.,University of Navarra | Baigorri R.,Timac Agro Spain | Fuentes M.,University of Navarra | And 2 more authors.
Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture | Year: 2016

Numerous studies carried out both in open field and laboratory scale have provided experimental evidence for a beneficial action of humic substances (HS) on plant growth and mineral nutrition. In fact, many products containing diverse concentrations of humic substances, mainly humic and fulvic acids, are marketed as plant growth enhancers all over the world. However, the incorporation of molecules containing humic substances into the granules of compound NPK fertilizers is not a common practice mainly due to technical difficulties and problems associated with the manufacture process of these mineral fertilizers. These problems are normally linked to the potential deleterious effects of granulation conditions (principally, heat and pH) on the structure and properties of molecules containing humic substances. In this review, we discuss several strategies for the incorporation of active molecules containing humic substances into granules of NPK compound fertilizers as well as the main constraints that have to be considered in this process, which normally depend on the agronomical results intended with the preparation of special humic-containing NPK compound fertilizers. We also discuss why, in our opinion, the beneficial action of HS in NPK compound fertilizers is more related to the “so called” indirect effects of HS on plant growth than to the “so called” direct effects. © 2016 The Author(s).


Olaetxea M.,University of Navarra | De Hita D.,University of Navarra | Garcia C.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Fuentes M.,University of Navarra | And 8 more authors.
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2017

The ability of rhizospheric humic substances to improve plant growth has been well established by many studies carried out using diverse plant species cultivated under many different conditions. These beneficial effects of humic substances on plant development are expressed in both root and shoot. However, the mechanisms responsible for this action of humic substances are only partially known and poorly integrated. In fact, although the studies focused on plant root development are numerous, those dealing with plant shoot development are scarce. Likewise, studies integrating humic effects on root and shoot are also few.In this context, the main goal of this work is to summarize some of the results regarding the effects of humic substances on plant development within a hypothetical holistic framework that will allow us to interconnect these findings and disclose some features of the functional crosstalk between the effects on soil, root and shoot. Furthermore, the significance of all these mechanisms in plants growing in the field is also discussed. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Jannin L.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Jannin L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Arkoun M.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Arkoun M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 12 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2012

Background & aims: Winter rapeseed (Brassica napus) is characterized by a low N recovery in seeds and requires high rates of fertilization to maintain yield. Its nutrient use efficiency could be improved by addition of a biostimulant such as humic acids whose physiological effects have been described previously in some plant species. However, to our knowledge, no study has focused on transcriptomic analyses to determine metabolic targets of this extract. Methods: A preliminary screening of ten humic acids revealed a significant effect of one of them (HA7) on rapeseed root growth. Microarray analysis was then used on HA7-treated or non-treated plants to characterize changes in gene expression that were further supported by physiological evidence. Results: Stimulation of nitrogen uptake (+15% in shoots and +108% in roots) and assimilation was found to be increased in a similar manner to growth while sulfate content (+76% in shoots and +137% in roots) was more strongly stimulated leading to higher sulfate accumulation. In parallel, microscopic analysis showed an enhancement of chloroplast number per cell. Conclusion: It is therefore suggested that HA7, which promotes plant growth and nutrient uptake, could be used as a supplementary tool to improve rapeseed nitrogen use efficiency. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Arkoun M.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Arkoun M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Sarda X.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Sarda X.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

N-fertilizer use efficiencies are affected by their chemical composition and suffer from potential N-losses by volatilization. In a field lysimeter experiment, 15N-labelled fertilizers were used to follow N uptake by Brassica napus L. and assess N-losses by volatilization. Use of urea with NBPT (urease inhibitor) showed the best efficiency with the lowest N losses (8% of N applied compared with 25% with urea alone). Plants receiving ammonium sulphate, had similar yield achieved through a better N mobilization from vegetative tissues to the seeds, despite a lower N uptake resulting from a higher volatilization (43% of applied N). Amounts of 15N in the plant were also higher when plants were fertilized with ammonium nitrate but N-losses reached 23% of applied N. In parallel, hydroponic experiments showed a deleterious effect of ammonium and urea on the growth of oilseed rape. This was alleviated by the nitrate supply, which was preferentially taken up. B. napus was also characterized by a very low potential for urea uptake. BnDUR3 and BnAMT1, encoding urea and ammonium transporters, were up-regulated by urea, suggesting that urea-grown plants suffered from nitrogen deficiency. The results also suggested a role for nitrate as a signal for the expression of BnDUR3, in addition to its role as a major nutrient. Overall, the results of the hydroponic study showed that urea itself does not contribute significantly to the N nutrition of oilseed rape. Moreover, it may contribute indirectly since a better use efficiency for urea fertilizer, which was further increased by the application of a urease inhibitor, was observed in the lysimeter study. © [2012] The Author.


Billard V.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Billard V.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Etienne P.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Etienne P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2014

Different strategies, known as crop biofortification, can be used to increase micronutrient concentrations in harvested parts to reduce nutrient deficiencies in the human diet. Apart from fertilization and genetic selection, a more environmentally friendly, less expensive, and more immediate solution could rely on the use of biostimulants derived from natural materials. Two biostimulants, AZAL5 and HA7, which are derived from seaweed and black peat, respectively, have been previously described as promoting growth of Brassica napus and having a substantial effect on gene expression. They were further studied to evaluate their effects on N and S and a wide range of other nutrients (that is, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Na, Mn, B, Si, Cu, and Zn). Providing these two biostimulants in the nutrient solution did not change the mineral supply significantly, but they mostly stimulated root growth and macronutrient uptake (N, S, K, and P) at a level similar to growth. Both biostimulants also stimulate chloroplast division. More surprisingly, they also increased Mg, Mn, Na, and Cu plant concentrations and root-to-shoot translocation of Fe and Zn. These observations were associated with an increased expression of a Cu transporter (COPT2) and NRAMP3, a gene putatively involved in Fe and Zn translocation. Overall, this study showed that specific nutrient balance and transport were stimulated by both biostimulants more significantly than growth, offering new perspectives for biofortification strategies. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Billard V.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Billard V.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Maillard A.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Maillard A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 6 more authors.
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2015

The importance of zinc (Zn) has been of little concern in human nutrition despite a strong decrease of this element in crops since the rise of high yielding varieties. For better food quality, Zn biofortification can be used, but will be optimal only if mechanisms governing Zn management are better known. Using Zn deficiency, we are able to demonstrate that Zn is not remobilized in Brassica napus ( B. napus). Thus, remobilization processes should not be targeted by biofortification strategies. This study also complemented previous work by investigating leaf responses to Zn deficiency, especially from proteomic and ionomic points of view, showing for example, an increase in Manganese (Mn) content and of the Mn-dependent protein, Oxygen Evolving Enhancer. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Arkoun M.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Arkoun M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Jannin L.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Jannin L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 11 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2013

Background and aims: Urea is the major nitrogen (N) form supplied as fertilizer in agriculture. However, urease, a nickel-dependent enzyme, allows plants to use external or internally generated urea as a nitrogen source. Since a urease inhibitor is frequently applied in conjunction with urea fertilizer, the N-metabolism of plants may be affected. The aim of this study was to determine physiological and molecular effects of nickel deficiency and a urease inhibitor on urea uptake and assimilation in oilseed rape. Methods: Plants were grown on hydroponic solution with urea as the sole N source under three treatments: plants treated with nickel (+Ni) as a control, without nickel (-Ni) and with nickel and phenylphosphorodiamidate (+Ni+PPD). Urea transport and assimilation were investigated. Results: The results show that Ni-deficiency or PPD supply led to reduced growth and reduced 15N-uptake from urea. This effect was more pronounced in PPD-treated plants, which accumulated high amounts of urea and ammonium. Thus, Ni-deficiency or addition of PPD, limit the availability of N and decreased shoot and root amino acid content. The up-regulation of BnDUR3 in roots indicated that this gene is a component of the stress response to nitrogen-deficiency. A general decline of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and activation of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and increases in its expression level were observed in control plants. At the same time, in (-N) or (+Ni+PPD) treated plants, no increases in GS or GDH activities and expression level were found. Conclusions: Overall results showed that plants require Ni as a nutrient (while most widely used nutrient solutions are devoid of Ni), whether they are grown with or without a urea supply, and that urease inhibitors may have deleterious effects at least in hydroponic grown oilseed rape. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Jannin L.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Arkoun M.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Etienne P.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Laine P.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2013

Despite its high capacity to take up nitrate from soil, winter rapeseed (Brassica napus) is characterized by a low N recovery in seeds. Thus, to maintain yield, rapeseed requires a high fertilization rate. Increasing nutrient use efficiency in rapeseed by addition of a biostimulant could help improve its agroenvironmental balance. The effects of marine brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum on plant growth have been well described physiologically. However, to our knowledge, no study has focused on transcriptomic analyses to determine metabolic targets of these extracts. A preliminary screening of different extracts revealed a significant effect of one of them (AZAL5) on rapeseed root (+102 %) and shoot (+23 %) growth. Microarray analysis was then used on AZAL5-treated or nontreated plants to characterize changes in gene expression that were further supported by physiological evidence. Stimulation of nitrogen uptake (+21 and +115 % in shoots and roots, respectively) and assimilation was increased in a similar manner to growth, whereas sulfate content (+63 and +133 % in shoots and roots, respectively) was more strongly stimulated leading to sulfate accumulation. Among the identified genes whose expression was affected by AZAL5, MinE, a plastid division regulator, was the most strongly affected. Its effect was supported by microscopic analysis showing an enhancement of chloroplast number per cell and starch content but without a significant difference in net photosynthetic rate. In conclusion, it is suggested that AZAL5, which promotes plant growth and nutrient uptake, could be used as a supplementary tool to improve rapeseed agroenvironmental balance. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Billard V.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Billard V.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Ourry A.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Ourry A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

During the last 40 years, crop breeding has strongly increased yields but has had adverse effects on the content of micronutrients, such as Fe, Mg, Zn and Cu, in edible products despite their sufficient supply in most soils. This suggests that micronutrient remobilization to edible tissues has been negatively selected. As a consequence, the aim of this work was to quantify the remobilization of Cu in leaves of Brassica napus L. during Cu deficiency and to identify the main metabolic processes that were affected so that improvements can be achieved in the future. While Cu deficiency reduced oilseed rape growth by less than 19% compared to control plants, Cu content in old leaves decreased by 61.4%, thus demonstrating a remobilization process between leaves. Cu deficiency also triggered an increase in Cu transporter expression in roots (COPT2) and leaves (HMA1), and more surprisingly, the induction of the MOT1 gene encoding a molybdenum transporter associated with a strong increase in molybdenum (Mo) uptake. Proteomic analysis of leaves revealed 33 proteins differentially regulated by Cu deficiency, among which more than half were located in chloroplasts. Eleven differentially expressed proteins are known to require Cu for their synthesis and/or activity. Enzymes that were located directly upstream or downstream of Cu-dependent enzymes were also differentially expressed. The overall results are then discussed in relation to remobilization of Cu, the interaction between Mo and Cu that occurs through the synthesis pathway of Mo cofactor, and finally their putative regulation within the Calvin cycle and the chloroplastic electron transport chain. Copyright: © 2014 Billard et al.


PubMed | Timac Agro Spain, French National Center for Scientific Research and French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

During the last 40 years, crop breeding has strongly increased yields but has had adverse effects on the content of micronutrients, such as Fe, Mg, Zn and Cu, in edible products despite their sufficient supply in most soils. This suggests that micronutrient remobilization to edible tissues has been negatively selected. As a consequence, the aim of this work was to quantify the remobilization of Cu in leaves of Brassica napus L. during Cu deficiency and to identify the main metabolic processes that were affected so that improvements can be achieved in the future. While Cu deficiency reduced oilseed rape growth by less than 19% compared to control plants, Cu content in old leaves decreased by 61.4%, thus demonstrating a remobilization process between leaves. Cu deficiency also triggered an increase in Cu transporter expression in roots (COPT2) and leaves (HMA1), and more surprisingly, the induction of the MOT1 gene encoding a molybdenum transporter associated with a strong increase in molybdenum (Mo) uptake. Proteomic analysis of leaves revealed 33 proteins differentially regulated by Cu deficiency, among which more than half were located in chloroplasts. Eleven differentially expressed proteins are known to require Cu for their synthesis and/or activity. Enzymes that were located directly upstream or downstream of Cu-dependent enzymes were also differentially expressed. The overall results are then discussed in relation to remobilization of Cu, the interaction between Mo and Cu that occurs through the synthesis pathway of Mo cofactor, and finally their putative regulation within the Calvin cycle and the chloroplastic electron transport chain.

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