Tigray Agricultural Research Institute

Tigray, Ethiopia

Tigray Agricultural Research Institute

Tigray, Ethiopia
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Gebremeskel G.,Tigray Agricultural Research Institute | Kebede A.,Haramaya University
Physical Geography | Year: 2017

A spatially distributed water balance model, WetSpass, was used to estimate seasonal and annual average surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge in the Werii watershed (1797 km2), Ethiopia. Groundwater resources were estimated based on spatial variations of land use, soil texture, topography, slope, groundwater level, and hydro-meteorological conditions. Average annual long-term groundwater recharge is estimated as 30.06 mm, of which 19.51 mm occur in the wet and 9.55 mm in the dry season. Although 77% of annual rainfall is received in the rainy season, only 65% of total recharge occurs in the rainy season. The long-term average annual precipitation (717 mm) is distributed as 90.7% (650.16 mm) evapotranspiration, 6% (44.06 mm) runoff, and 4.2% (30.06 mm) recharge. Model results were verified against river flow observations and showed a reliable agreement, with R2 = 0.98. To fulfill irrigation water deficits, a safe yield groundwater abstraction rate up to 10.7 m3 d−1 ha−1 can be used without affecting the sustainability of groundwater. We conclude that the WetSpass model could be used to simulate water balance components in semi-arid regions provided that the model input parameters are fitted to local conditions. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Kifle M.,Tigray Agricultural Research Institute | Gebremicael T.G.,Tigray Agricultural Research Institute | Gebremicael T.G.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education | Girmay A.,Tigray Agricultural Research Institute | Gebremedihin T.,Tigray Agricultural Research Institute
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2017

The study was conducted in the semi-arid areas of northern Ethiopia with the objective of evaluating the effect of surge flow and alternate irrigation on irrigation performance indicators, water use efficiency and crop yield. The experiment consists of two factors, irrigation systems (alternate furrow (Af) and conventional furrow (CF)) and irrigation flow methods (continuous (C), Surge 1 (S1), Surge 2 (S2), and Surge 3 (S3)). Eight treatment combinations replicated three times were arranged in a factorial randomized complete block design. Onion crop was used as indicator crop for the experiment because of its dominant and cash crop in the region. The result of this experiment indicated that the interaction effect of the irrigation system and irrigation flow methods did not show statistically significant difference on the performance indicators, crop yield and water use efficiency. The irrigation system (Af and CF) as a factor has not significant effect on yield of onion. However, the irrigation flow methods (C, S1, S2 and S3) were significantly affected the irrigation performance indicators (application efficiency, distribution uniformity, deep percolation and tail water runoff losses) and likewise, irrigation water use efficiency and yield of onion were significantly different. Higher crop yield (13208 kg/ha), water use efficiency (1.96–2.55 kg/m3), application efficiency (52.9–58.7%) and distribution uniformity (81.4–86.2%) were obtained from both surge flow and alternate irrigation as compared to continuous flow and conventional furrow irrigation (every furrow water application) which was recorded less 10142 kg/ha, 1.36–1.65 kg/m3, 44–54.7%, 67.1–79.6%, respectively. The result of this study explicitly showed that demonstration of these irrigation methods can enhance the poor water management practices in the semi-arid areas of Ethiopia and elsewhere in the world with limited water resources and similar soil characteristics. The authors of this paper recommend the farmers, irrigation experts, water resources managers and decision makers in the region to apply those techniques for improving water use efficiency. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Markos S.,Tigray Agricultural Research Institute | Belay B.,Jimma University | Astatkie T.,Dalhousie University
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2017

Background and Objective: Understanding egg quality traits of indigenous chicken ecotypes under farmers’ management conditions is very important for designing and implementing environment friendly and community based holistic genetic and performance improvement strategies. This study was conducted to compare three ecotypes (lowland, midland and highland) in Tigray, Ethiopia in terms of their external and internal egg quality traits and to determine relationships among these traits. Materials and Methods: From each ecotype, 50 fresh eggs were used to measure external egg quality traits (egg weight, shell weight, shell ratio, egg length, egg width and egg shape index) and internal egg quality traits (albumen weight, albumen ratio, yolk weight, yolk ratio, albumen height, yolk height, yolk to albumen ratio, Haugh unit and yolk color). One-way ANOVA was used to compare the ecotypes and correlation analysis was used to determine relationships among the traits. Results: Three ecotypes were significantly different on all traits except shell ratio and yolk color. In all other external traits, highland ecotype had higher mean values than midland and lowland had the lowest mean values. Highland also had higher mean values in the internal traits other than albumen ratio whereas lowland had higher mean values than both highland and midland ecotypes. The strength of the significant correlations among the external traits, among internal traits and between external and internal traits varied with ecotype. Conclusion: The differences in the quality of local chicken eggs from the three ecotypes suggest that there is a need for customized genetic and performance improvement strategies. © 2017 S. Markos et al.

Gebremedhn H.,Tigray Agricultural Research Institute | Darcha G.,Tigray Agricultural Research Institute | Mezgebe K.,Tigray Agricultural Research Institute
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2017

Establishment of exclosures to conserve biodiversity and enhance land restoration has been practiced for the past three decades in Tigray.Hypoestes forskaolii (Vahl) locally named as Grbia is the most important honeybee flora growing in these exclosures. However, empirical data and evidence on the capability and constraints of exclosures in growing the most useful honeybee plants in terms of tolerance to grass competition and tree canopy cover are lacking. Thus, the study was designed to assess Hypoestes forskaolii (Vahl) performance, distribution, abundance and its association with other plants in exclosures and adjacent open grazing areas of Gergera and Merer exclosures of Atsby-Wonberta and Ganta Afeshum districts, respectively. Transect method was employed to assess honey bee flora composition in exclosures and its adjacent communal open grazing land at different altitudinal positions (bottom, middle and top) of the exclosures and Agroecology (highland and midland). The collected data were analyzed using general linear model of Genstat software version 14. The result of this assessment indicated that abundance of H.forskaolii was 96700/ha and 88000/ha in Merer and Gergera exclosures, respectively. Agroecology and altitudinal gradient of exclosures however had not significant effect on the abundance and distribution of H.forskaolii. However, the management type (exclosure and open) were significantly affected the density ofH.forskaolii. This study concluded that exclosures with H.forskaolii need silvicultural practices and weeding managements to enhance its density and growth performance. © 2017 Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.

Gebremedhn H.,Tigray Agricultural Research Institute
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2016

Becium grandiflorum is one of the major honeybee plants to Ethiopia. Honeybees highly visiting the plant for collecting pollen or/and nectar. Even stem cutting was recommended to propagate the plantas bee fodder with cutting height of 20 cm, its optimum cutting diameter was not yet determined. This affects the regeneration and performance of newly raised seedlings of the plant through cutting. Hence, this study was designed to identify the optimum cutting thickens or diameter of B. grandiflorum for bee forage development. The study was carried out at the farm of Mekelle Agricultural Research Center, Mekelle. The experiment was laid in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three treatments and three replications. The treatments were cutting thickness of 10mm to13 mm, >13 mm to16 mm and >16 mm to 19 mm. Treatments means were compared using least significant difference (LSD) test at 5% level of probability using Genstat software version 14. Cutting diameter had significant effect on the number of branches and head flower per plant. Cutting diameter of 10 mm to 13 mm had the highest number of branches (22.96) and head flowers (448),while cutting diameter of >16 mm to 19 mm had the smallest number of branches (18.22) and head flowers (369) per plant. Therefore, for the successful propagation of B. grandiflorum, it is recommended to use 10 mm to13 mm stem cuttings diameter. © 2016, Fundacion CIPAV. All right reserved.

Belay T.,Tigray Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development | Year: 2015

Carmine cochineal, Dactylopius coccus Costa, was introduced to northern Ethiopia to add considerable value to existing cactus pear vegetation that in places like the southern Tigray was becoming an invasive plant. It became an investment opportunity where Foodsafe, a Chilean company was involved. Company was granted 300 ha at the cactus pear infested plains of southern Tigray. Foodsafe was also expected to expand cochineal production through an outgrower scheme. It created employment opportunity for the locals and started exporting dried cochineal to Mexico and Germany bringing in foreign currency. As cactus pear grows in communal lands, conflict of interest arose and it polarised the community. The company was forcibly closed and it was a tragedy that a one time commercial insect became a full-fledged invasive insect pest. Attempts to contain the insect with mechanical and chemical control were not successful. So far more than 16,000 ha of cactus pear land was infested with carmine cochineal. 13,000 ton of dried cochineal could have been harvested in a single year, generated USD $52 million, and part of that money could have been used for its management. © 2015, Professional Association for Cactus Development. All rights reserved.

Chernet S.,Tigray Agricultural Research Institute | Belew D.,Jimma University | Abay F.,Mekelle University
International Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2013

The aim of the study was to estimate the extent of genetic variability and association among characters. Thirty six tomato genotypes were evaluated at Humera Agricultural Research Center, Northern Ethiopia, during 2010/11 in 6x6 simple lattice design with two replications. Variance component method was used to estimate genetic variance, heritability and genetic advance. Highly significant difference (p<0.01) was observed among the tested genotypes for all the characters studied. Highest phenotypic (79.13 and 74.66) and genotypic coefficient of correlation (78.47 and 73.27) were observed for number of matured fruits per plant and fruit set percentage. The highest heritability estimate was recorded for number of matured fruits per plant (98.34) and the least for number of primary branches (47.36%). Yield per hectare had highest positive and highly significant phenotypic correlation with weight of fruits per plant (rp = 0.89), fruits per plant (rp = 0.85) and fruit set percentage (rp = 0.78). While it showed negative and highly significant phenotypic correlation with days to 50% fruiting (rp = -0.78) and days to maturity (rp = -0.68). The study generally, revealed the presence of adequate variability which can be exploited through direct selection or hybridization. © 2013 Academic Journals Inc.

Kifle M.,International Water Management Institute | Kifle M.,Tigray Agricultural Research Institute | Gebretsadikan T.G.,Tigray Agricultural Research Institute | Gebretsadikan T.G.,UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2016

The pressure on availability of water in Tigray regional state is likely to increase as the requirement for food production in couple with rapidly growing of the population is at increasing rate. Hence, improving water productivity using regulated deficit irrigation is important to reduce the water consumption while minimizing adverse effects on the crop yield. This study was conducted in the eastern zone of Tigray regional state, Atsibi Womberta district. The aim of this study was to determine the yield and water use efficiency of potato under deficit irrigation practice in the 2012 growing period. The effect of water deficit or water stress on crop yield and water use efficiencies were evaluated. Guasa variety potato was grown under eight (T1-T8) irrigation treatments. The treatments were replicated three times under completely randomized blocks experimental design. Water was applied to every furrow using watering can with fixed interval and variable depth irrigation scheduling technique was selected. Yield of potato was significantly (p <0.05) affected by water stress (deficit irrigation). The highest yield was found in T1 (18770kg/ha) which was not subjected to water stress (full water requirement) whereas minimum yield of potato was obtained under the fully stressed treatment T8 (7037kg/ha). There was no significant different between the yield of T1 (18770kg/ha) and T6 (14440kg/ha) which was 25% deficit throughout the growing season. According to the result obtained, stressed at the middle stage was affected more the yield of potato as compared to other treatments. This showed that stressing the crop at flowering/middle stage is sensitive to deficit irrigation. Giving 65% of crop water requirement throughout the growing season is better than stressing the crop only at the middle stage. The second sensitive period for water stress is the late crop stage. Crop water use efficiency was not statistically significant. Though it was not significantly different, T6 (2.86kg/m3) and T4 (1.60kg/m3) had the highest and the lowest water use efficiency respectively. This elaborated that applying 75% of crop water requirement has better water use efficiency than optimal or "no stress" irrigation. It can be conclude that using deficit irrigation is a good water management technique to save irrigation water without reducing the yield of potato. For dry land areas like The Tigray regional state of Ethiopia and other similar agro-ecology elsewhere in the world with scarce water and agricultural water management is very poor. The authors of this study would like to recommend farmers, water managers, water use associations and decision makers to use water efficiently using deficit irrigation and increase their agricultural production by expanding irrigable land with the same amount of water in a given irrigation scheme. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Weldemariam B.,Tigray Agricultural Research Institute | Gebremichael D.,Tigray Agricultural Research Institute
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2015

The study took place in five selected districts from central and north-western zones of Tigray, Ethiopia, in order to identify the major browse trees, analysing their chemical composition and developing the base line information for future use. A list of 18 browse trees was described from the whole study location of which 12 browses were selected based on their abundance, livestock preference, growth rate, coppicing, biomass production, ease to use and propagate, length of foliage production, suitability to agro-forestry and acceptance by the community. Foliage samples were collected during the end of rainy season and these samples were dried and milled for chemical analysis. Most of the identified browses were distributed in almost all districts, while some of them were specific to certain localities. The abundance of browse at Laelay-Maichew was found to be least compared to other districts followed by Ahforem. The CP contents of the browse species ranged fom 10.9% to 23.0% whilst NDF and ADF values ranged from 31.5% to 66.5% and 16.3% to 45.3% respectively. In general, the nutritional value of most browse species was high and they could be use as a source of protein. Therefore, they need special attention on their potential use as a livestock feed, agro-forestry and natural resource conservation. © 2015, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.

Bezabih G.,Tigray Agricultural Research Institute | Gebretsadikan K.,Tigray Agricultural Research Institute
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014

Nearly 75% of the world's flowering plants are dependent on insects for pollination, with honeybees being well known for their importance for several crops. The effect of managed honeybee pollination on onion seed yield and quality was investigated through pollinator exclusion and pollinator surveys on onion field plots at Mekelle Agricultural Research Center experimental farm. The treatments were: plots accessible to all flower visitors (CTL); plots not accessible to any insects - the plots were covered with an insect proof mesh cage before the ray florets started opening (NI); plots accessible only to honeybees - the plots were covered with an insect proof mesh cage and a honeybee colony with four frames was placed inside the cage during the flowering peak (HB). Insect proof mesh cages (5m x 3m and 2.5m high) were made of wood covered with 20% shade cloth. All insects were removed from all the cages before blooming, to exclude unwanted pollinators. Honeybee colonies used in this experiment received supplementary feeding (dissolved sugar) and water before and after they were placed in the cages. Open pollination treatments especially with honeybees increased onion seed quantity and quality.

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