Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover TiHo

Hannover, Germany

Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover TiHo

Hannover, Germany
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Genome-based selection may contribute to increasing potential breeding progress and further specialization of farms. In addition to a previous contribution to genome-based selection in dairy cattle, rapid changes in artificial insemination breeding programs and possible consequences from the viewpoint of their use at individual farm level are described. The consistent implementation of genome-based selection leads to a further rapid increase in the scope of the use of young bulls in comparison to the use of progenies tested-(old) bulls. At the same time, the price of one insemination dose (price of one semen dose) will be further reduced. Genotyping of female calves promotes individual farm specialization (e. g. expansion of milk production) and may continue to reduce the rearing-risks of calves and heifers. Existing farm breeding programs especially in Holstein cattle are exposed to new competitors, since the entry of private investors in the Al business is now easier. © Schlotersche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG.


Brade W.,Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover TiHo | Brade E.,Rinderspezialberater
Berichte uber Landwirtschaft | Year: 2017

A targeted selective manipulation of behavioural traits can be explained by the fact that breeders regularly prefer animals which are easier to handle. In selected functional cycles, behavioural changes can be supported by an increased milk yield in dairy cows. When all other variables are constant, the increased energy needs and nutritional requirements of the high-yield cow lead to the high-yield animal taking comparatively longer to 'feed' than the loweryield animal. Thus, the high-yield cow has less time to rest/lie down, as the different behaviours are interrelated. The farmer must take due account of this circumstance through appropriate nutritional and stock management if unfavourable developments in terms of the total time available and, therefore, stress are to be avoided. It is also more difficult to identify oestrus for high-yield cows, as an increasing milk yield means a decreasing amount of time spent 'standing') (= recorded using a radiotelemetry system as an experiment). A change in the occurrence of oestrus of high-yield cows requires a more intensive herd care/observation as the yield increases or the use of additional technical aids (e.g. pedometers) in larger herds.


Brade W.,Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover TiHo | Brade E.,Rinderspezialberater
Berichte uber Landwirtschaft | Year: 2017

A selection for behavioural traits has been practised since man tamed the aurochs. Compared with other areas of breeding (evaluation and selection with regard to milk yield traits, conformation traits etc.), however, only relatively little work is done on behavioural genetics in cattle. The reason for this is: behavioural traits are often difficult to measure accurately and the associated observed values often do not follow a normal distribution. In addition, cattle are kept in herds which are structured by the owner of the livestock, and thus learning from members of the herd regularly has an effect on the genetic components. The present study aims to provide an overview of more recent findings on the behavioural genetics of cattle. The focus is primarily on genetic aspects of feeding, reproductive and social behaviour, and on temperament. In selected functional cycles, behavioural changes can be supported by a further increase in the yield of highly productive cows. When all other variables are constant, the increased energy needs and nutritional requirements of the high-yield cows lead to the high-yield animals taking comparatively longer to feed than lower-yield animals. Thus, the high-yield cow has less time to rest. This conflict situation is likely to be exacerbated by a further intensive selection for a higher milk yield. Thus, the daily amount of time available for particular behaviours at a stock level (highyield dairy cows) could be a valuable management tool in the future for detecting the risk of a 'fatigue syndrome' and thus for assessing the well-being of high-yield dairy cows in practice. Livestock management systems always represent a compromise between different requirements. Animal welfare, and thus the well-being of the animals, is becoming increasingly important for the acceptance of livestock farming in society. The consumer must recognise that animal-friendly livestock management methods cannot be had at "zero cost". The creation of transparency and thus the verifiability of the livestock management act as a guide for the consumer. The establishment of a consensus between the farmer, the vet and the consumer about the livestock management method to be applied demonstrably leads to a stabilisation of the market share and the standing of the farmers who use animal-friendly livestock management systems. sur la génétiqe du comportement chez le bœuf. Comme justification, il reste à mentionner les facteurs suivants: il est souvent difficile d'effectuer des mesures exactes des caractères du comportement et les valeurs corrrespondantes observées ne suivent souvent pas la répartition normale. De plus, les bovins sont gardés en troupeaux que l'éleveur structure et, partant, l'apprentissage des membres du troupeau, ce qui influe régulièrement sur la composante génétique. Avec la présente étude, on souhaite donner un aperçu sur les nouvelles connaissances recueillies en matière de génétique s'agissant du comportement du bœuf. L'accent est mis sur les aspects génétiques du comportement dans le cas de la prise d'aliments, de la reproduction et du comportement social, de même que du tempérament présentés ici. Avec l'accroissement supplémentaire des performances des vaches laitières hautement productives, il est possible d'apporter la preuve des changements de comportement dans les cercles de fonction choisis. Les besoins accrus en énergie, voire en nutriments, de la vache à haute performance -en maintenant les autres facteurs d'influence - conduisent à ce que l'animal à haute performance nécessite davantage de temps pour s'alimenter par comparaison avec un animal moins performant. De ce fait, il reste moins de temps à la vache à haute performance pour le repos. Cette situation conflictuelle devrait se renforcer avec une sélection encore plus intensive visant une production laitière supérieure. Cette situation conflictuelle devrait se renforcer avec une sélection encore plus intense visant l'augmentation de la production de lait. Ainsi le budget-temps quotidien pour certains comportements au niveau du troupeau (vaches à haute performance) pourrait devenir à l'avenir un instrument de gestion précieux afin de déceler précocément le risque d'un syndrome de fatigue et d'apprécier le bien-être des vaches à haute performance dans la pratique. Les systèmes d'élevage constituent toujours un compromis entre les diverses exigences. Pour l'acceptation de la détention des animaux utiles par la société, le respect des besoins des animaux, et donc leur bien-être, prennent une signification croissante. Le consommateur doit reconnaître que le procédé de garde des animaux en conformité avec leurs besoins ne s'obtient pas au coût zéro. L'établissement de la transparence et donc de la contrôlabilité lors de la détention aident le consommateur à s'orienter. La réalisation d'un consensus entre l'agriculteur, le vétérinaire et le consommateur au sujet du procédé de détention à appliquer conduit manifestement à une stabilisation de la part de marché et de la réputation des agriculteurs qui produisent dans des systèmes de détention conformes aux besoins des animaux.


Brade W.,Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover TiHo | Brade W.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Brade E.,Rinderspezialberater
Praktische Tierarzt | Year: 2015

In Germany, performance of dairy cows has grown rapidly particularly in recent years due to successful selection for higher milk yield with improved feeding, husbandry and veterinary care. Mean performance of more than 11,000 kg of milk/cow/year are no longer a rarity on herd basis. Correct evaluation of feed intake (FA) requires a differentiated evaluation of this trait in lactation. FA is genetically determined differently in different periods of lactation and also genetic relations to milk yield are variable. FA reacts indirectly to one-sided selection for higher milk yield. Model calculations on the basis of the modern theory of artificial selection, however, show that with one-sided selection for high milk production, especially during first lactation, energy balance (EB) of dairy cows continue to deteriorate. Avodiance of further adverse development of negative energy balance (NEB), both in terms of extent and duration during first lactation, requires a positive evaluation of feed intake in the selection process while taking into account other traits (e. g. body mass) within the first third of lactation. During the second and third trimester of lactation, during which cows are commonly found in a balanced energy status, evaluation of FA is significantly differentcompared to the first trimester of lactation. Because in future animal health and animal welfare as well as bioethics of production of foods of animal origin are becoming increasingly important with regard to the acceptance of modern animal husbandry in public, inclusion of feed intake in the breeding process of dairy cows are now increasingliy considered in order to avoid a further increase in NEB.


Brade W.,Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover TiHo | Brade W.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Brade E.,Rinderspezialberater
Berichte uber Landwirtschaft | Year: 2013

More than 150 years ago the marsh and lowland areas in the North Sea area provided the cradle of "old" German Black and White cattle (= DSN). Also, the breeding of North American Holstein-Friesian (HF) goes back to Black and White cattle of mainly Dutch-Friesian origin. From the mid-1960s, the significantly higher milk yield of HF cattle in conjunction with the option of using improved biotechnologies (e.g. long-term storage of bovine semen or embryo transfer, etc.) led to displacement crossing with HF cattle in the western federal states (= German Holstein cattle, DH), a crossing that was also largely practiced in eastern Germany after reunification. From the once widespread "old" German Black and White cattle (DSN) only small numbers of cattle still exist. Since the early 1970s this endangered breed worth protecting is kept alive today in the form of genetic reserves. Preservation of the breed is supported by state subsidies. DSN breeding targets have seen a number of changes and have thus undergone specific adjustments to economic developments and consumer requirements. Currently, the additional, consistent inclusion of health criteria is of great interest. Fixing objectives for the breeding of Deutsche Holstein will most likely become more complex given the fact that environmental aspects and the protection of resources will need to be taken into account more fully. DH breeding will certainly remain an exciting business.


Brade W.,Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover TiHo | Jaitner J.,Vereinigte Informationssysteme Tierhaltung W.v. VIT | Reinhardt F.,Vereinigte Informationssysteme Tierhaltung W.v. VIT
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2010

A comprehensive crossbreeding experiment with North American Jersey bulls and Holstein cows was initiated in Saxony and information of these animals is meanwhile available. Data of crossbred offspring of twelve North American Jersey bulls and their respective herd mates were used for analysing fertility, calving and production traits. With increasing production level of the herds (average milk yield of purebred Holsteins) the inferiority of the F1 animals increased in milk yield. An interaction between herd milk production level and breed could be observed. F1 cows were considerably better than the purebred Holsteins with respect to maternal calving traits. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.


Brade W.,Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover TiHo | Brade W.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology
Berichte uber Landwirtschaft | Year: 2015

About 90 years ago, a first set of experiments was started at the University of Halle/Saale, crossing German Black Pied cattle (Sbt) with Jersey cattle (J). 75 years ago, they became an essential research subject in the new Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute at Dummerstorf (near Rostock). Both in West and East Germany Corresponding experimental work was continued sys-tematically after World War II. In East Germany, these diverse activities led to an attempt to produce a specific breeding of Black-Pied Dairy cattle (= SMR) using genes from Jersey Cattle. Detailed evaluation demonstrates that trait-specific heterosis effects occur. Various activities prove the occurrence of significant recombination effects at later stages of cross-breeding (R1, F2 generation) or at the 2nd stage of breeding of the SMR (= SMR x SMR). Given the recommendations on applying crossbreeding to dairy cattle, it is thus not adequate to only assess one F1 generation by comparison with their purebred parents. In addition, it should be noted that at the same time recent experiments with Jersey cross-breds also point to genotype-environment interactions in milk traits, depending on the level of production. All in all, the large number of studies on the crossing of German Black-Pied cattle or Holsteins and Jerseys in Germany has certainly contributed to enabling and verifying new methodological approaches in breeding also for cattle.


Dammgen U.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute | Brade W.,Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover TIHo | Brade W.,Lelbniz Institute Fbn For Nutztierbiologie Dummerstorf | Haenel H.-D.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute | And 2 more authors.
Zuchtungskunde | Year: 2014

Beef production with suckler cow herds is linked with considerable emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. In order to identify reduction potentials under Germanmarginal conditions, the entire production process including suckler cows and their offspring has to be reflected in a model. The work at hand describes the calculation procedures involved. It excludes feed production. A first step compares two suckler cow herds with equal populations but different genotypes (German Angus and German Beef Simmentals) with their typical different weights and weight gains; all other variables (feed quality, housing and manure management) were kept constant. Our calculations confirm the comparatively high emissions per unit of product. However, the difference caused by genotypes is negligible, if one chooses identical fattening periods (here 300 days). The lesser emissions per animal found for the Angus herd were counterbalanced by increased amounts of usable products from the Simmental herd. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.


Brade W.,Tierarztliche Hochschule Hanover TiHo | Brade W.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology
Berichte uber Landwirtschaft | Year: 2013

Over the last three or four decades, equestrian sports and breeding have developed into an important economic factor. A market analysis by the Deutsche Reiterliche Vereinigung (FN; Fédération Equestre Nationale) has shown that horses contribute approx. 5 billion euros to the gross national product of the Federal Republic of Germany. Today, about one million horses live again on the territory of the Federal Republic. For every 3 to 4 horses a workplace is created; thus, currently some 300 000 people are permanently employed in horse breeding and equestrian sports. Statistical evaluations also show that Germany occupies a leading position in Europe - both in the number of riders and in the number of horses. The achievements of German bred horses enjoy high international esteem. Horse boarding has evolved into a special source of alternative income for numerous farms - especially in the vicinity of large cities. As compared to conventional agricultural production, the main difference consists in the service character of this type of work. From mere livestock, the horse has evolved into a recreational companion; this has also brought about a change in the conditions in which horses are kept. Modern, bright and well air-conditioned stables are now much more animal friendly than earlier stables (chiefly the older tying stalls). In addition, they offer the people working in them more comfortable working conditions than in the past. In spite of sector-specific problems as they tend to occur in each line of business, horse breeding and keeping do not figure among the 'problem children' in the current agricultural policy discussion and in the associated animal welfare debate. It is obvious that the breeding and keeping of horses has been successfully adapted and integrated to their only remaining important purpose, which is for their leisure and recreational use.

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