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Morris K.A.,University of Georgia | Langston D.B.,University of Georgia | Langston D.B.,Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center | Dickson D.W.,University of Florida | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nematology | Year: 2015

Vegetable crops in the southeastern United States are commonly grown on plastic mulch with two crop cycles produced on a single mulch application. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in two locations to evaluate the efficacy of fluensulfone for controlling Meloidogyne spp. when applied through drip irrigation to cucumber in a tomato-cucumber double-cropping system. In the spring tomato crop, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), fluensulfone, and a resistant cultivar significantly decreased root galling by 91%, 73%, and 97%, respectively, compared to the untreated control. Tomato plots from the spring were divided into split plots for the fall where themain plots were the spring treatment and the subplots were cucumber either treated with fluensulfone (3.0 kg a.i./ha. via drip irrigation) or left untreated. The fall application of fluensulfone improved cucumber vigor and reduced gall ratings compared to untreated subplots. Fluensulfone reduced damage from root-knot nematodes when applied to the first crop as well as provided additional protection to the second crop when it was applied through a drip system. © The Society of Nematologists 2015. Source


Morris K.A.,University of Georgia | Langston D.B.,University of Georgia | Langston D.B.,Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center | Davis R.F.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nematology | Year: 2016

Fluensulfone is a new nematicide in the flouroalkenyl chemical group. A field experiment was conducted in 2012 and 2013 to evaluate the efficacy of various application methods of fluensulfone for control of Meloidogyne spp. in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Treatments of fluensulfone (3.0 kg a.i./ha) were applied either as preplant incorporation (PPI) or via different drip irrigation methods: drip without pulse irrigation (Drip NP), pulse irrigation 1 hr after treatment (Drip +1P), and treatment at the same time as pulse irrigation (Drip =P). The experiment had eight replications per treatment and also included a PPI treatment of oxamyl (22.5 kg a.i./ha) and a nontreated control. Compared to the control, neither the oxamyl nor the fluensulfone PPI treatments reduced root galling by Meloidogyne spp. in cucumber. Among the drip treatments, Drip NP and Drip +1P reduced root galling compared to the control. Cucumber yield was greater in all fluensulfone treatments than in the control. In a growth-chamber experiment, the systemic activity and phytotoxicity of fluensulfone were also evaluated on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), cucumber, and squash (Curcurbita pepo). At the seedling stage, foliage of each crop was sprayed with fluensulfone at 3, 6, and 12 g a.i./liter, oxamyl at 4.8 g a.i./liter, or water (nontreated control). Each plant was inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita juveniles 2 d after treatment. There were six replications per treatment and the experiment was conducted twice. Foliar applications of fluensulfone reduced plant vigor and dry weight of eggplant and tomato, but not cucumber or squash; application of oxamyl had no effect on the vigor or weight of any of the crops. Typically, only the highest rate of fluensulfone was phytotoxic to eggplant and tomato. Tomato was the only crop tested in which there was a reduction in the number of nematodes or galls when fluensulfone or oxamyl was applied to the foliage compared to the nontreated control. This study demonstrates that control of Meloidogyne spp. may be obtained by drip and foliar applications of fluensulfone; however, the systemic activity of fluensulfone is crop specific and there is a risk of phytotoxicity with foliar applications. © The Society of Nematologists 2016. Source


Singh D.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Collakova E.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Isleib T.G.,North Carolina State University | Welbaum G.E.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | And 3 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2014

The Virginia-Carolina region is the most important peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production region for the large-seeded, virginia-type peanut in the United States, but 85% of the production is rainfed and predisposed to water deficit stress. The mechanisms virginia-type peanut uses in response to drought stress are poorly understood. We evaluated several physiological and metabolic characteristics and their relationship with pod yield in eight virginia-type cultivars and advanced breeding lines in rainfed and irrigated field trials in 2011 and 2012. Each year, evaluations were performed at three sampling dates in conjunction with growth stages beginning flower, pod, and seed. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) genotypic variation in membrane injury, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm ratio), and relative levels of metabolites and lipid-derived fatty acids was observed in response to water regime and sampling time. In general, in both years, the Fv/Fm ratio, organic acids, and fatty acids decreased in rainfed vs. irrigated plants, while the relative levels of sugar and cyclic polyols increased. Because higher levels of organic acids and lower levels of sugars were associated (p ≤ 0.05) with higher pod yield, we conclude that natural stress responses rather than adaptive mechanisms to drought prevailed for the genotypes used in this study. Based on its minimal changes in the Fv/Fm ratio and metabolite levels of the rainfed vs. irrigated plants, line SPT 06-07 showed improved tolerance to water deficit stress; this line can be an important source for drought tolerance improvement of the virginia-type peanut. © Crop Science Society of America. Source


Isleib T.G.,North Carolina State University | Milla-Lewis S.R.,North Carolina State University | Pattee H.E.,North Carolina State University | Copeland S.C.,North Carolina State University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Plant Registrations | Year: 2015

‘Sugg’ (Reg. No. CV-125, PI 666112) is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) cultivar with partial resistance to four diseases that occur commonly in the Virginia–Carolina production area: early leafspot caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, Cylindrocladium black rot caused byCylindrocladium parasiticum Crous, Wingfield & Alfenas, Sclerotinia blight caused bySclerotinia minor Jagger, and tomato spotted wilt caused by the Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus. Sugg was developed as part of a program of selection for multiple disease resistance funded by growers, seed dealers, shellers, and processors. Sugg was tested under the experimental designation N03091T and released by the North Carolina Agricultural Research Service (NCARS) in 2009. Sugg was tested by the NCARS, the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, and five other state agricultural experiment stations and the USDA–ARS units participating in the Uniform Peanut Performance Tests. Sugg has alternate branching pattern, intermediate runner growth habit, medium green foliage, and high contents of fancy pods and medium virginia-type seeds. It has seeds with pink testa averaging 957 mg seed−1, approximately 40% jumbo and 46% fancy pods, and extra-large kernel content of ∼47%. Sugg is named in honor of Norfleet “Fleet” Sugg and the late Joseph “Joe” Sugg, cousins who served consecutively as executive directors of the North Carolina Peanut Growers Association from 1966 through 1993. © Crop Science Society of America. All rights reserved. Source


Holland K.W.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Balota M.,Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center | Eigel Iii W.N.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Mallikarjunan P.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2011

A large number of compounds have been reported in peanut plants. Many of these compounds are phytoalexins, which are produced by plants experiencing environmental stress and often exhibit antioxidant activity. It is difficult to determine which of the many compounds has the greatest impact on total antioxidant capacity in a mixture. The objectives of this research were to examine the oxygen-radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) value and total phenolic contents of peanut root extracts and peanut root extract fractions collected via HPLC. Peanut roots were extracted from four different cultivars (Brantley, NC-12, Phillips, and Wilson) with 70% aqueous ethanol with ultrasonic assistance. Each cultivar was sampled in duplicate. The extracts were fractionated into 18 3-min fractions by HPLC using a C-18 column. Fractions and crude extracts were freeze dried. ORAC values and total phenolic content were then determined for all fractions and crude extracts. Fractions had a significant effect on the μM TE/mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE). ORAC values ranged from -46.89 μM TE to 185 μM TE in HPLC fractions. ORAChromatography can be used to focus on antioxidants in complex samples. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®. Source

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