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Ni L.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Zhao Z.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Dorje G.D.,Tibetan Traditional Medical College | Ma M.,Tibetan Traditional Medical College
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Scrophularia dentata is an important Tibetan medicinal plant and traditionally used for the treatment of exanthema and fever in Traditional Tibetan Medicine (TTM). However, there is little sequence and genomic information available for S. dentata. In this paper, we report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of S. dentata and it is the first sequenced member of the Sect. Tomiophyllum within Scrophularia (Scrophulariaceae). The gene order and organization of the chloroplast genome of S. dentata are similar to other Lamiales chloroplast genomes. The plastome is 152,553 bp in length and includes a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,523 bp that separate a large single copy (LSC) region of 84,058 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 17,449 bp. It has 38.0% GC content and includes 114 unique genes, of which 80 are protein-coding, 30 are transfer RNA, and 4 are ribosomal RNA. Also, it contains 21 forward repeats, 19 palindrome repeats and 41 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The repeats and SSRs within S. dentata were compared with those of S. takesimensis and present certain discrepancies. The chloroplast genome of S. dentata was compared with other five publicly available Lamiales genomes from different families. All the coding regions and non-coding regions (introns and intergenic spacers) within the six chloroplast genomes have been extracted and analysed. Furthermore, the genome divergent hotspot regions were identified. Our studies could provide basic data for the alpine medicinal species conservation and molecular phylogenetic researches of Scrophulariaceae and Lamiales. © 2016 Ni et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Mingji C.,Tibetan Traditional Medical College | Mingji C.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | Onakpoya I.J.,University of Oxford | Perera R.,University of Oxford | And 2 more authors.
Heart | Year: 2015

Introduction: Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease, which is the cause of one-third of global deaths and is a primary and rising contributor to the global disease burden. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the prevalence and awareness of hypertension among the inhabitants of Tibet and its association with altitude, using the data from published observational studies. Methods: We conducted electronic searches in Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Science and Global Health. No gender or language restrictions were imposed. We assessed the methodological characteristics of included studies using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Two reviewers independently determined the eligibility of studies, assessed the methodology of included studies and extracted the data. We used meta-regression to estimate the degree of change in hypertension prevalence with increasing altitude. Results: We identified 22 eligible articles of which eight cross-sectional studies with a total of 16 913 participants were included. The prevalence of hypertension ranged between 23% and 56%. A scatter plot of altitude against overall prevalence revealed a statistically significant correlation (r=0.68; p=0.04). Meta-regression analysis revealed a 2% increase in the prevalence of hypertension with every 100 m increase in altitude (p=0.06). The locations and socioeconomic status of subjects affected the awareness and subsequent treatment and control of hypertension. Conclusions: The results from cross-sectional studies suggest that there is a significant correlation between altitude and the prevalence of hypertension among inhabitants of Tibet. The socioeconomic status of the inhabitants can influence awareness and management of hypertension. Very little research into hypertension has been conducted in other prefectures of Tibet where the altitude is much higher. Further research examining the impact of altitude on blood pressure is warranted. © 2015, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

Ni L.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Zhao Z.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Xu H.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Chen S.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | Dorje G.,Tibetan Traditional Medical College
Gene | Year: 2016

Endemic to the Sino-Himalayan subregion, the medicinal alpine plant Gentiana straminea is a threatened species. The genetic and molecular data about it is deficient. Here we report the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of G. straminea, as the first sequenced member of the family Gentianaceae. The cp genome is 148,991. bp in length, including a large single copy (LSC) region of 81,240. bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 17,085. bp and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,333. bp. It contains 112 unique genes, including 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNAs and 4 rRNAs. The rps16 gene lacks exon2 between trnK-UUU and trnQ-UUG, which is the first rps16 pseudogene found in the nonparasitic plants of Asterids clade. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 13 forward repeats, 13 palindrome repeats and 39 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). An entire cp genome comparison study of G. straminea and four other species in Gentianales was carried out. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) were performed based on 69 protein-coding genes from 36 species of Asterids. The results strongly supported the position of Gentianaceae as one member of the order Gentianales. The complete chloroplast genome sequence will provide intragenic information for its conservation and contribute to research on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses of Gentianales and Asterids. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Dun Z.C.,Tibetan Traditional Medical College
Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi / Zhongguo bing li sheng li xue hui = Journal of experimental hematology / Chinese Association of Pathophysiology | Year: 2014

This study was aimed to investigate various factors influencing the proceduction of Cu(II) crossing human erythrocyte membrane, including concentration of Cu²⁺, pH value of the medium, temperature and time of incubation, and to derive kinetic equation of Cu(II) crossing human erythrocyte membrane. Suspension red blood cells were incubated by Cu²⁺, then content of Cu²⁺ crossed human erythrocyte membrane was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry under various conditions after digestion. The results showed that content of Cu²⁺ crossed human erythrocyte membrane increased with the increase of extracellular Cu²⁺ and enhancement of incubation temperature, and the content of Cu²⁺ crossed human erythrocyte membrane showed a increasing tendency when pH reached to 6.2-7.4, and to maximum at pH 7.4, then gradually decreased at range of pH 7.4-9.2. It is concluded that the Cu²⁺ crossing human erythrocyte has been confirmed to be the first order kinetics characteristics within 120 min, and the linear equation is 10³ × Y = 0.0497t +6.5992.

Zhang L.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Zhu T.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Qian F.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Xu J.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Fitoterapia | Year: 2014

Scrodentosides A-E (1-5), five new acylated iridoid glycosides, together with 19 known ones, were isolated from the whole plant of Scrophularia dentata Royle ex Benth. The structures of these isolated glycosides were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Bioassay showed that compounds 7 and 11 had significant inhibitory effect against NF-κB activation with IC50 value of 43.7 μM and 1.02 μM respectively. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chinese Institute of Materia Medica and Tibetan Traditional Medical College
Type: | Journal: Current genetics | Year: 2016

The genus Gentiana is the largest in the Gentianaceae family with ca. 400 species. However, with most species growing on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, the processes of adaptive evolution and speciation within the genus is not clear. Also, the genomic analyses could provide important information. So far, the complete chloroplast (cp) genome data of the genus are still deficient. As the second and third sequenced members within Gentianaceae, we report the construction of complete cp sequences of Gentiana robusta King ex Hook. f. and Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk., and describe a comparative study of three Gentiana cp genomes, including the cp genome of Gentiana straminea Maxim. published previously. These cp genomes are highly conserved in gene size, gene content, and gene order and the rps16 pseudogene with exon2 missing was found common. Three repeat types and five SSR types were investigated, and the number and distribution are similar among the three genomes. Sixteen genome divergent hotspot regions were identified across these cp genomes that could provide potential molecular markers for further phylogenetic studies in Gentiana. The IR/SC boundary organizations in Gentianales cp genomes were compared and three different types of boundaries were observed. Six data partitions of cp genomes in Gentianales were used for phylogenetic analyses and different data partitions were largely congruent with each other. The ML phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the fragments in cp genomes commonly available in 33 species from Lamiids, including 12 species in Gentianales, 1 in Boraginaceae, 10 in Solanales, and 10 in Lamiales. The result strongly supports the position of Boraginaceae (Ehretia acuminata) as the sister of Solanales, with the bootstrap values of 97%. This study provides a platform for further research into the molecular phylogenetics of species in the order Gentianales (family Gentianaceae) notably in respect of speciation and species identification.

PubMed | Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Tibetan Traditional Medical College
Type: | Journal: Fitoterapia | Year: 2015

Five 19(43)-abeo-abietane diterpenoids, scrodentoids A-E (1-5), were isolated from the whole plant of Scrophularia dentata. Planar structures of scrodentoids A-E were elucidated mainly by using 1D, 2D NMR and MS data. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 2 were established using X-ray crystallographic analysis. The absolute configurations of other compounds were confirmed using HPLC-UV/CD detection. The immunosuppressive effects of compounds 1-5 were studied using a ConA-induced splenocyte proliferation model. These compounds significantly inhibited ConA-induced splenocyte proliferation, with IC50 values in the range of 3.49-133.86 M. Compounds 1-5 (IC50>10 M) showed no discernible cytotoxic activity against B16 or MCF-7 cells.

PubMed | Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing Massage Hospital, Tibetan Traditional Medical College and Tibet Academy of Tibetan Medicine
Type: | Journal: Chinese journal of integrative medicine | Year: 2016

To explore the protective effects of Tibetan medicine Zuo-Mu-A Decoction (, ZMAD) on the blood parameters and myocardium of high altitude polycythemia (HAPC) model rats.Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups by a random number table, including the normal, model, Rhodiola rosea L. (RRL) and ZMAD groups (10 in each group). Every group was raised in Lhasa to create a HAPC model except the normal group. After modeling, rats in the RRL and the ZMAD groups were administered intragastrically with RRL (20 mL/kg) and ZMAD (7.5 mL/kg) once a day for 2 months, respectively; for the normal and the model groups, 5 mL of distilled water was administered intragastrically instead of decoction. Then routine blood and hematologic rheology parameters were taken, levels of erythropoietin and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were tested, and ultrastructural change in the left ventricular myocardium was observed using transmission electron microscopy.Compared with the model group, ZMAD signifificantly reduced the red blood cell count, hemoglobin levels, whole blood viscosity at low/middle shear rates, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte electrophoretic time, erythropoietin and 8-OHdG levels, and also increased the erythrocyte deformation index (P<0.05). There was no difference in all results between the RRL and the ZMAD groups. The cardiac muscle fibers were well-protected, mitochondrial matrix swelled mildly and ultrastructure changes were less prominent in the ZMAD group compared with the model group.ZMAD has significant protective effects on the blood parameters against HAPC, and also has the beneficial effect in protecting against myocardial injury.

PubMed | Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Yanbian University, Qingdao University and Tibetan Traditional Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of Chinese medicine | Year: 2016

Rhamnella gilgitica Mansf. et Melch, which belongs to the rhamnus family (Rhamnaceae), is traditionally used to treat rheumatism, swelling and pain in China. However, little is known about the pharmacological activities of this plant. The anti-inflammatory activities of the 70% ethanol extract of R. gilgitica (RG) in RAW264.7 macrophages and complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritic rats are investigated in this study for the first time. The effects of RG on cell viability were determined by a MTT assay, and the effects of RG on pro-inflammatory mediators were analyzed by ELISA and Western blot. The effects of RG on paw thickness, thymus and spleen index were also examined in CFA-induced arthritic rats. RG suppressed the induction of proinflammatory mediators, including iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase), NO (nitric oxide), COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) and PG (prostaglandin) E2 in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. RG also inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of I[Formula: see text]B-[Formula: see text], as well as the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-[Formula: see text]B) p65. In addition, RG treatment significantly reduced the paw thickness in CFA-induced arthritic rats. Oral administration of RG led to a significant decrease of both the thymus and spleen index at a concentration of 100[Formula: see text]mg/mL. Taken together, these findings suggest that RG might be an agent for further development in the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases.

PubMed | Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Tibetan Traditional Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica | Year: 2014

To identify the common Tibetan herb Chuan-Bu.Local herbalists were visited to observe which plants were being used as Chuan-Bu. Samples of the indigenous plants were collected at the same time. Leaf materials were collected from field surveys. Total genomic DNA was extracted from silica gel-dried leaf samples. The PCR products were purified and directly sequenced.As the origin of Chuan-Bu in Tibet autonomous region was authenticated, two species were determined, i. e. Euphorbia stracheyiand E. wallichii. Also, based on our earlier research, the origin of Chuan-Bu in Gansu province, is from E. kansuensis. The sequences of ITS1 for E. stracheyi and E. wallichii were 261 bp in size, and 221 bp in ITS2, respectively. The size of the 5.8S coding region was 164 bp for all species examined in the genus. Especially, there was a heterozygous locus in ITS1 (C/G; position 72) for E. stracheyi. The nucleotide divergence between sequences of the 6 species in pairwise comparisons was calculated and the result showed that the variable site could be detected in each pairwise comparison of sequences. Also, there were 8 point mutations in the 5.8S coding region.nrDNA ITS sequences can be used as the molecular markers to identify the Tibetan herb Chuan-Bu and such Traditional Chinese Medicines from the same genus Euphorbia as E. lathyris, E. humifusa and E. pekinensis.

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