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Zhang Q.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Han X.,Harbin Normal University | Kraus R.H.S.,University of Konstanz | Kraus R.H.S.,Max Planck Institute for Ornithology (Radolfzell) | And 4 more authors.
Asian Herpetological Research | Year: 2016

For species that have a broad geographic distribution, adaptive variation may be attributable to gene expression plasticity. Nanorana parkeri is an anuran endemic to the southern Tibetan Plateau where it has an extensive altitudinal range (2850 to 5100 m asl). Low oxygen concentration is one of the main environmental characteristics of the Tibetan Plateau. Hypoxia-inducible factor α subunits (HIF-1α and HIF-2α, encoded by Endothelial PAS domain protein 1 (EPAS1)) and associated genes (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Erythropoietin (EPO)) play crucial roles in maintaining oxygen homeostasis. In this study, we compared the expression of HIF-1A, VEGF, EPAS1 and EPO mRNA between two populations of N. parkeri: one population inhabiting the native high altitudes, and the second living in, and being acclimated to, the lower plains (70 m asl). The expression of HIF-1A, VEGF and EPAS1 mRNA in the high altitude population were significantly higher than in the acclimated population, whereas there was no significant difference for EPO between two groups. Our results indicated that gene expression plasticity may make significant contributions to local adaptation of species that have broad altitudinal distributions. In addition, we deepen our understanding of the adaptive potential of this species by evaluating the experiments in the scope of its evolutionary history. © 2016, Asiatic Herpetological Research Society. All rights reserved. Source


Pan Y.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Yu C.Q.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Tu Y.L.,Tibet Plateau Institute of Biology | Sun W.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | And 2 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2015

We studied the relationships among plant functional traits and multiple ecosystem services. Nine indicators of plant functional traits of plant heights and palatability were established, which were Rao index of plant heights, the community weighted mean value (CWM) of plant heights of all species, the CWM of plant heights of dominant species, the CWM of plant heights of dominant and subdominant species, the richness of palatable plants, the richness ratio of palatable species to all species, the ratio of palatable biomass to total biomass, the CWM of plant heights of palatable species, and the CWM of the ratio of heights of palatable plants to all plant species. The ecosystem services we analyzed included forage supply, soil carbon stocks, soil fertilization supply, water regulation, and soil retention. Further, we attempted to test four candidate mechanisms by which plant functional traits influence ecosystem services. These were:1) mass ratio, 2) selection, 3) niche complementarity, and 4) insurance. In 2012, we collected soil and vegetation samples from Xincang village, Lhasa, Tibet. Ecosystem services and plant functional traits were quantified based on these samplings. Pearson correlations were calculated among the nine functional traits, as well as between the functional traits and ecosystem services. The results showed that among the functional traits, the Rao index of plant heights was significant negatively correlated with soil organic carbon, soil total nitrogen, and soil water content. The ratio of the CWM of the heights of palatable plants to all plant species was significant positively correlated with soil organic carbon, soil total nitrogen, and soil water content. However, the CWM of the plant heights of all species, palatable species, dominant species, dominant and subdominant species, as well as the richness of palatable species, the ratio of the palatable specie richness to all species, and the ratio of palatable biomass to all species, were not significantly correlated with any of the ecosystem services. Our results demonstrated that the niche complementarity of the light captures of the plant community has negative impacts on ecosystem soil carbon stock, fertilization provisioning, and water regulating services. However, the relative niche competitiveness of light captures of palatable plants in the community has positive impacts on ecosystem soil carbon stock, fertilization provisioning, and water regulating services. The results imply, from the perspective of resource competitiveness, the concepts of niche complementarity and insurance best characterize the mechanisms by which plant functional traits determine ecosystem services in grassland. However, from the perspective of palatability, the concepts of mass ratio and selection are more reasonable. © 2015 Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved. Source


Wang L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang L.,Xian University of Architecture and Technology | Wang Z.-F.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang Y.-L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Research of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2013

Influence of fire on alpine wet meadow surface soil in Lhasa area was studied by analyzing the surface soil pH, organic matter, total and available nutrients of the burned and control plots. The results showed that the pH of samples varied from 6.06 to 6.85 which increased after fire burning; and the organic matter (from 53.97 to 144.57 g/kg), total nitrogen (from 2.35 to 5.34 g/kg) and potassium (from 23.33 to 28.72 g/kg) content decreased after fire while the total phosphorus content showed no obvious response to burning. Available nutrients content was different between seasons. The available nitrogen content of soil reduced after burning in the early growing season and increased at vigorous stage, and the ratio of available nitrogen and total nitrogen showed the same trend during the growing season. Available phosphorus content and the ratio of available phosphorus and total phosphorus increased, and this trend was more obvious in the flat plots. The available potassium and the ratio of available potassium and total potassium increased at the early growing season and decreased later at the vigorous stage. Source


Fan H.-F.,Hunan University | Fan H.-F.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Huang S.-Z.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Huang S.-Z.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Gaodeng Xuexiao Huaxue Xuebao/Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities | Year: 2011

Pulicaria insignis Drumm. ex Dunn(commonly named Ming·chen·serpo) is a medicinal herb used to treat common diseases such as fever, pain and cough by Tibetan in China. Despite of the widespread medicinal use in Tibetan area, there were no phytochemical researches of diterpene glycoside on it yet, thus we investigated the chemical consitituents variety of it for the sustainable utilization. In our investigation, two diterpene glycosides were obtained with chromatography techniques. Their structures were identified as 2-O-(2-O-isovaleryl-β-D-glucopyranosyl) atractyligenin(1) and 2-O-[2-O-isovaleryl-3-β-D-apiosyl-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl] atractyligenin(2) by means of 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT, 2D NMR, ESI-MS and HR-ESI-MS, respectively. Among them, compound 2 was a new compound, compound 1 was firstly isolated from this plant. Source


Zhang Q.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Han X.,Harbin Normal University | Ye Y.,Hangzhou Normal University | Kraus R.H.S.,University of Konstanz | And 4 more authors.
Asian Herpetological Research | Year: 2016

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) and its target genes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transferrins (TF) play an important role in native endothermic animals’ adaptation to the high altitude environments. For ectothermic animals - especially frogs - it remains undetermined whether HIF-1α and its target genes (VEGF and TF) play an important role in high altitude adaptation, too. In this study, we compared the gene sequences and expression of HIF-1α and its target genes (VEGF and TF) between three Nanorana parkeri populations from different altitudes (3008 m a.s.l., 3440 m a.s.l. and 4312 m a.s.l.). We observed that the cDNA sequences of HIF-1A exhibited high sequence similarity (99.38%) among the three altitudinally separated populations; but with increasing altitude, the expression of HIF-1A and its target genes (VEGF and TF) increased significantly. These results indicate that HIF-1α plays an important role in N. parkeri adaptation to the high altitude, similar to its role in endothermic animals. © 2016, Asiatic Herpetological Research Society. All rights reserved. Source

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