Tibet Plateau Institute of Biology

Tibet, China

Tibet Plateau Institute of Biology

Tibet, China
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Pan Y.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Wu J.-X.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Luo L.-M.,Tibet Academy of Agricultural and Animal science | Tu Y.-L.,Tibet Plateau Institute of Biology | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Mountain Science | Year: 2017

Ecosystem multifunctionality (EMF), the simultaneous provision of multiple ecosystem functions, is often affected by biodiversity and environmental factors. We know little about how the interactions between biodiversity and environmental factors affect EMF. In this case study, a structural equation model was used to clarify climatic and geographic pathways that affect EMF by varying biodiversity in the Tibetan alpine grasslands. In addition to services related to carbon, nitrogen, and water cycling, forage supply, which is related to plant productivity and palatability, was included in the EMF index. The results showed that 72% of the variation in EMF could be explained by biodiversity and other environmental factors. The ratio of palatable richness to all species richness explained 8.3% of the EMF variation. We found that air temperature, elevation, and latitude all affected EMF, but in different ways. Air temperature and elevation impacted the aboveground parts of the ecosystem, which included plant height, aboveground biomass, richness of palatable species, and ratio of palatable richness to all species richness. Latitude affected EMF by varying both aboveground and belowground parts of the ecosystem, which included palatable species richness and belowground biomass. Our results indicated that there are still uncertainties in the biodiversity–EMF relationships related to the variable components of EMF, and climatic and geographic factors. Clarification of pathways that affect EMF using structural equation modeling techniques could elucidate the mechanisms by which environmental changes affect EMF. © 2017, Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany.


Pan Y.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Yu C.Q.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Tu Y.L.,Tibet Plateau Institute of Biology | Sun W.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | And 2 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2015

We studied the relationships among plant functional traits and multiple ecosystem services. Nine indicators of plant functional traits of plant heights and palatability were established, which were Rao index of plant heights, the community weighted mean value (CWM) of plant heights of all species, the CWM of plant heights of dominant species, the CWM of plant heights of dominant and subdominant species, the richness of palatable plants, the richness ratio of palatable species to all species, the ratio of palatable biomass to total biomass, the CWM of plant heights of palatable species, and the CWM of the ratio of heights of palatable plants to all plant species. The ecosystem services we analyzed included forage supply, soil carbon stocks, soil fertilization supply, water regulation, and soil retention. Further, we attempted to test four candidate mechanisms by which plant functional traits influence ecosystem services. These were:1) mass ratio, 2) selection, 3) niche complementarity, and 4) insurance. In 2012, we collected soil and vegetation samples from Xincang village, Lhasa, Tibet. Ecosystem services and plant functional traits were quantified based on these samplings. Pearson correlations were calculated among the nine functional traits, as well as between the functional traits and ecosystem services. The results showed that among the functional traits, the Rao index of plant heights was significant negatively correlated with soil organic carbon, soil total nitrogen, and soil water content. The ratio of the CWM of the heights of palatable plants to all plant species was significant positively correlated with soil organic carbon, soil total nitrogen, and soil water content. However, the CWM of the plant heights of all species, palatable species, dominant species, dominant and subdominant species, as well as the richness of palatable species, the ratio of the palatable specie richness to all species, and the ratio of palatable biomass to all species, were not significantly correlated with any of the ecosystem services. Our results demonstrated that the niche complementarity of the light captures of the plant community has negative impacts on ecosystem soil carbon stock, fertilization provisioning, and water regulating services. However, the relative niche competitiveness of light captures of palatable plants in the community has positive impacts on ecosystem soil carbon stock, fertilization provisioning, and water regulating services. The results imply, from the perspective of resource competitiveness, the concepts of niche complementarity and insurance best characterize the mechanisms by which plant functional traits determine ecosystem services in grassland. However, from the perspective of palatability, the concepts of mass ratio and selection are more reasonable. © 2015 Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.


Pan W.-G.,Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical University | Jiang S.-P.,Tibet Plateau Institute of Biology | Luo P.,Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical University | Gao P.,Sichuan University | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines | Year: 2012

Aim: To investigate antioxidant activities and life span prolonging effects of the extracts from the roots of Incarvillea younghusbandii Sprague, and to study the correlations between these activities and the polar intensity of the extracts. Method: Five extracts (IYS1, IYS2, IYS3, IYS4 and YS5) with different polar intensity were prepared. Antioxidant activities in vitro were determined by LPO inhibitory and free radicals scavenging experiments. Life span prolonging effects in vivo were evaluated by feeding Drosophila melanogaster. Result: Total phenolic content in extracts were solvent-dependent and decreased in the order of IYS4 > IYS1 >> IYS3 > IYS5 > IYS2. Organic extracts (IYS1 and IYS4) showed excellent LPO inhibitory activity, O2 · - and ·OH scavenging activity compared to ascorbic acid (or benzoic acid, or BHT), while aqueous extracts (IYS2, IYS3 and IYS5) did not. The antioxidant activities (in vitro) were solvent dependent and decreased in the order of IYS4 > IYS1 > IYS3 > IYS5 ≥ IYS2. Drosophila melanogaster was fed with organic extracts (IYS1 or IYS4) at 5.0 mg mL-1. The mean life span were increased by 24.4% (IYS1) or 23.0% (IYS4) in female and 15.3% (IYS1) or 16.9% (IYS4) in male; the maximum life span were increased by 8.4% (IYS1) or 11.2% (IYS4) in female and 9.7% (IYS1) or 15.8% (IYS4) in male, and the survival curves were significantly shifted to the right after fifteen days in both sexes survival period. Feeding aqueous extracts (IYS2, IYS3 or IYS5) at 5.0 mg·mL-1, the significant life span prolonging effects were not achieved. The life span prolonging effects of the extracts were solvent-dependent and decreased in the order of IYS4 ≥ IYS1 >> IYS3 > IYS2 > IYS5. Conclusion: Extracts from the roots of Incarvillea younghusbandii Sprague showed excellent antioxidant activities and significant life span prolonging effects in Drosophila melanogaster. Positive correlations existed between the antioxidant activities and total phenolic content. Life span prolonging effect was positively correlated with the total phenolic content or antioxidant activities. The extracts possess better life span prolonging effect in females than in males. © 2012 China Pharmaceutical University.


Zhang Q.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Han X.,Harbin Normal University | Kraus R.H.S.,University of Konstanz | Kraus R.H.S.,Max Planck Institute for Ornithology (Radolfzell) | And 4 more authors.
Asian Herpetological Research | Year: 2016

For species that have a broad geographic distribution, adaptive variation may be attributable to gene expression plasticity. Nanorana parkeri is an anuran endemic to the southern Tibetan Plateau where it has an extensive altitudinal range (2850 to 5100 m asl). Low oxygen concentration is one of the main environmental characteristics of the Tibetan Plateau. Hypoxia-inducible factor α subunits (HIF-1α and HIF-2α, encoded by Endothelial PAS domain protein 1 (EPAS1)) and associated genes (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Erythropoietin (EPO)) play crucial roles in maintaining oxygen homeostasis. In this study, we compared the expression of HIF-1A, VEGF, EPAS1 and EPO mRNA between two populations of N. parkeri: one population inhabiting the native high altitudes, and the second living in, and being acclimated to, the lower plains (70 m asl). The expression of HIF-1A, VEGF and EPAS1 mRNA in the high altitude population were significantly higher than in the acclimated population, whereas there was no significant difference for EPO between two groups. Our results indicated that gene expression plasticity may make significant contributions to local adaptation of species that have broad altitudinal distributions. In addition, we deepen our understanding of the adaptive potential of this species by evaluating the experiments in the scope of its evolutionary history. © 2016, Asiatic Herpetological Research Society. All rights reserved.


Zhang Q.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Han X.,Harbin Normal University | Ye Y.,Hangzhou Normal University | Kraus R.H.S.,University of Konstanz | And 4 more authors.
Asian Herpetological Research | Year: 2016

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) and its target genes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transferrins (TF) play an important role in native endothermic animals’ adaptation to the high altitude environments. For ectothermic animals - especially frogs - it remains undetermined whether HIF-1α and its target genes (VEGF and TF) play an important role in high altitude adaptation, too. In this study, we compared the gene sequences and expression of HIF-1α and its target genes (VEGF and TF) between three Nanorana parkeri populations from different altitudes (3008 m a.s.l., 3440 m a.s.l. and 4312 m a.s.l.). We observed that the cDNA sequences of HIF-1A exhibited high sequence similarity (99.38%) among the three altitudinally separated populations; but with increasing altitude, the expression of HIF-1A and its target genes (VEGF and TF) increased significantly. These results indicate that HIF-1α plays an important role in N. parkeri adaptation to the high altitude, similar to its role in endothermic animals. © 2016, Asiatic Herpetological Research Society. All rights reserved.


Xie Y.,Sichuan University | Jiang S.,Tibet Plateau Institute of Biology | Su D.,Sichuan University | Pi N.,Sichuan University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2010

Crude water-soluble polysaccharides (BRP) were extracted from the root of Brassica rapa L. using boiling-water. The polysaccharides were successively purified by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column, giving three major polysaccharide fractions termed BRP1-1, BRP2-1, BRP3-1. The gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis showed that the average molecular weight (Mw) of polysaccharides (BRP1-1, BRP2-1, BRP3-1) were approximately 5.53×103Da, 3.35×104Da and 3.37×104Da, respectively. Monosaccharide components analysis indicated that BRP1-1 was composed of arabinose and glucose in a molar ratio of 1.66:98.34. BRP2-1 was composed of arabinose, galactose and glucose in a molar ratio of 9.3:14.63:76.07. BRP3-1 was composed of arabinose, rhamnose, galactose and glucose in a molar ratio of 24.98:24.10:44.09:6.83. The evaluation of anti-hypoxia activity in vivo revealed that BRP is a novel potential anti-hypoxia agent. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Pan W.-G.,Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical University | Jiang S.-P.,Tibet Plateau Institute of Biology | Luo P.,Guangxi Traditional Chinese Medical University | Gao P.,Sichuan University | And 2 more authors.
Yaoxue Xuebao | Year: 2011

Using a bioassay-guided fractionation technique, two compounds were isolated from the roots of Incarvillea younghusbandii Sprague through silica gel, reverse-phase C18 column chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. Their structures were identified as acteoside (1) and isoacteoside (2) by ESI-MS, GC-MS, 1D-and 2D-NMR. 1 and 2 showed .OH scavenging capacity similar with benzoic acid, higher O. 2 - (or .OH) scavenging capacity than ascorbic acid, far higher hepatic LPO inhibitory activities than 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) or ascorbic acid, and more powerful effect on protecting erythrocytes from oxidative damage than ascorbic acid. The .OH scavenging capacity was positively proportional to the concentrations of 1 and 2 ranging from 0.015 6 to 0.500 0 mg·mL-1. The hepatic LPO inhibitory activities increased with the increasing concentrations of 1 and 2 from 0.001 9 to 0.250 0 mg·mL-1, but decreased slightly with the increasing concentration from 0.250 0 to 1.000 0 mg·mL-1.


Chen B.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chen B.,Tibet Plateau Institute of Biology | Liu L.,Sun Yat Sen University | Zhu X.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 5 more authors.
Natural Product Research | Year: 2015

Two new macrosporin dimers (1-2) along with four known compounds (3-6) were isolated from the extracts of the fungal strain Alternaria sp. XZSBG-1 from the sediment of the salt lake in the Bange, Tibetan, China. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, mainly by 2D NMR spectra. Compounds 1 and 2 are new macrosporin dimers with symmetric chemical structures. In the cytotoxicity assay and inhibited alpha-glucosidase activity assay, all these compounds showed no notable inhibitory activity. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Fan H.-F.,Hunan University | Fan H.-F.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Huang S.-Z.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Huang S.-Z.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Gaodeng Xuexiao Huaxue Xuebao/Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities | Year: 2011

Pulicaria insignis Drumm. ex Dunn(commonly named Ming·chen·serpo) is a medicinal herb used to treat common diseases such as fever, pain and cough by Tibetan in China. Despite of the widespread medicinal use in Tibetan area, there were no phytochemical researches of diterpene glycoside on it yet, thus we investigated the chemical consitituents variety of it for the sustainable utilization. In our investigation, two diterpene glycosides were obtained with chromatography techniques. Their structures were identified as 2-O-(2-O-isovaleryl-β-D-glucopyranosyl) atractyligenin(1) and 2-O-[2-O-isovaleryl-3-β-D-apiosyl-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl] atractyligenin(2) by means of 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT, 2D NMR, ESI-MS and HR-ESI-MS, respectively. Among them, compound 2 was a new compound, compound 1 was firstly isolated from this plant.


Yang L.,Tibet Plateau Institute of Biology | Zhuom C.J.,Tibet Plateau Institute of Biology | Li Z.,Nanjing University
Waterbirds | Year: 2016

Vigilance is a behavior in birds that is used to detect predators and monitor rivals, and it can be affected by several environmental and social factors, including group size. Here, Black-necked Cranes (Grus nigricollis) were observed in winter in the Yarlung Zangbo Nature Reserve, Tibet, China, to examine the effect of group size on vigilance behavior at both the individual and group levels. At the individual level, individual Black-necked Cranes in large social groups spent less time in vigilant behavior than when in small family groups. At the social group level, the proportion of vigilant individuals decreased, while the proportion of intervals that at least one individual was vigilant increased, with increasing group size. There was a significant group size effect on vigilance behavior in wintering Black-necked Cranes at both of these levels.

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